WSU MIS 250 Chapter 12

project
a temporary activity launced for a specific purpose to carry out a particular objective.
(unique)
involve uncertainty.
incorporating information systems=project
process
series of events designed to deliver a product or service that is repeated over and over
(recurring)
should be tweaked so that the underlying activities are streamlined, efficient, predictable and cost effective
help desk support, info system maintenance, software updates, user training and backups=processes
The Triple Constraint
Time, Cost, and Scope
the three fundamental forces that every project is constrained by. if one changes the others are affected. often one is fixed for a particular project so the other two forces must be adjusted if change is needed.
Project management
a systematic approach to project planning, organizing, and managing resources, resulting in a project that successfully meets its objectives.
Five Project Management Processes
*Initiating
*Planning
*Executing
*Monitoring &Controlling
*Closing
Initiating processes
processes that lay the groundwork for the project by clarifying its business value setting its objectives; estimating the project’s s length, scope, and cost; identifying team members; and obtaining approval
Project charter
a document that authorizes a project that includes a clear statement of objectives, estimated start and end dates, the names tentative budget, criteria for success, and other pertinent information.
Planning processes
the processes in project management that focus on planning how the project will be executed
project management plan
the road map and guide for executing a project that includes information such as an organizational chart, a detailed description of the work to be performed, information about the schedule, details about meetings and reviews, success metrics, and notations about any information systems or project monitoring tools that will be used.
*identify deliverables
Executing processes
all the coordinating efforts that ensure the tasks on the work breakdown structure are carried out properly
Monitoring & Controlling processes
Processes that track a project’s progress from start to finish, pinpointing any deviations from the plan that must be addressed
critical path
the longest path through the project, which identifies those tasks that can’t be delayed without affecting the finsh date. monitoring tasks that fall along the critical path is especially important.
closing processes
processes that formally end the project in an orderly way; they include a signoff by the sponsor confirming that all deliverables have been received and accepted
change management
a structured approach to the transition employees must make as they switch from their exiting work processes to new ones, especially with the introduction of a new information system
escalations of commitment
the tendency to continue investing in a project, despite mounting evidence that it is not succeeding; often comes about because people mistakenly let sunk cost affect decision making rather than weighing the value of further investment
Project portfolio management
a continuous process that oversees all the projects for an organization, selecting which projects to pursue and which ones to terminate.
cognitive bias
a common human tendency to make systematic mistakes when processing information or making judgments; cognitive biases can distort strategic planning
confirmation bias
the human tendency to choose information to examine that supports the person’s view but ignore data that might refute that view
availability bias
the tendency for people to judge the likelihood of events based on how readily they come to mind, rather than their actual likelihood.
hindsight bias
the human tendency to think an unusual event was (or should have been) predictable, once they know it actually happened.