Wong’s First Days of School: Ch 5 & 6

The Beginning of the school
The beginning of school is an important time for
classroom management because your students will learn attitudes, behavior, and work habits that will affect the rest of the year.
• This is the time to learn what’s expected of them
and how they can succeed.
• Careful planning for the beginning of
creating a positive climate in the classroom
To strengthen each student’s belief that school
tasks are worth doing and that he/she can be successful.
• To do this, you must ensure the students’
cooperation in
• Following your class rules and procedures
• Engaging successfully in all learning experiences Your goal is to design and facilitate an interactive
classroom community.
• Positive interactions between teacher and
students are crucial if students are to be excited about their school experience and about learning.
• Students are with their teachers for almost 50%
of their waking hours!
Teaching Rules and Procedures
You can’t just tell them what the rules are. You
must teach them the rules!
• Describe and demonstrate the desired behavior
• Allow for rehearsal – Practicing the behavior
• Provide feedback – Did they do it properly? If not, how can they improve?
Procedure for dismissal at the end of the period or day • Procedure for quieting a class
• Procedure for the start of the period or day
• Procedure for students seeking help
• Procedure for the movement of students and papers
Positive climate: strong need to belong to a group.
You can promote that sense of belonging:
• Speak courteously and calmly (e.g., “thank you,” “please”)
• Learn each child’s name and help students learn more about each other
• Use positive statements as often as possible
• Establish a feeling of community by conducting regular class meetings
•To feel safe, however, children need to feel that there is a source of authority within the classroom.
Positive climate: teacher authority
Refers the following:
a. to your right to set standards for student
behavior and performance
b. to the likelihood that students will follow your
lead in their decisions and behaviors.
• Student acceptance of legitimate authority creates a safe setting in which teaching and learning can occur.
Non-assertive/Permissive
One in which the teacher is passive in response to
student behavior.
• Expectations are not clearly communicated to the
students.
• No solid leadership is provided.
• There is inconsistency in the teacher’s response to student behaviors.
•Students may be confused by this style.
Hostile/Authoritarian
One who is able to meet his or her own needs in
the classroom, but may do so at the expense of the self-esteem of his or her students.
• Uses discipline to control students rather than to
empower them and teach them how to behave in an appropriate manner.
• Students behave well out of fear.
• Views the classroom as him/her versus the students
Assertive/Authoritative
The teacher identifies the expectations clearly and
follows through with consistency.
• The teacher explains to the students what behavior is unacceptable and acceptable.
• The consequences of various behaviors are made clear to the students.
• Teachers explain the basis for actions
and decisions, give students more independence as they demonstrate maturity and willingness to behave responsibly, and administer consequences fairly and proportionately
Teacher understands the needs for students to have limits.
• A positive attitude is prevalent in an assertive
teacher’s classroom.
• Appropriate behavior does not go unnoticed in the assertive teacher’s classroom.
Classroom discipline plan
Rules
• 4-5 rules developed collaboratively
Positive Recognition
• Will motivate students to behave appropriately
• Reduces problem behaviors
• Helps to build relationships with students
• Increases students’ self-esteem
Negative Consequences
• Something that will not be liked by the students, but is never potentially harmful to them.
• Consequences must be delivered to the students as a choice.
• Consequences do not have to be severe or harsh to be effective.
Consequences should be reasonable and logical
• Do not stop the lesson!
Planning for a good first day
Include activities that will make children feel successful
• Keep it simple
• Focus on whole-group instruction
• Stimulate interest in, and excitement about, future
learning experiences
Some typical activities for the first day
Greeting the students
• Desk/name tags & seating chart
• Simple activity to do at desk
• Introductions
• Room description
• Get-acquainted activities
• Presentation and discussion of rules, procedures, and consequences – to be discussed as needed, and reviewed on subsequent days
• Productive time-fillers
• Administrative activities (textbooks & supplies)
Communicating with parents and guardians
• Establishing formal and informal communication
• Send home a special (well-written) communication/letter about your class-find out if it needs to be approved by administration
• Make positive phone calls home within the first couple of weeks
• Be aware of challenges posed by the use of technology/ email
• Barriers to effective communication
• Practical (schedules, etc.)
• Psychological
•Cultural
Special problems
• Interruptions
• Late arrivals/entries
• No lunch money or supplies
• Large amount of paperwork
• Dismissal procedures/bus numbers
• Shortage of textbooks, materials, or equipment
• Special needs
• Crying
• Wetting
• Sickness
• School-wide emergency
Preparing for a substitute
Prepare a folder with the following information for
the substitute instructor and place it in a visible place
• Class schedule, roll sheet, and seating chart
• A copy of your classroom rules and consequences • Detailed lesson plans
• List of medical alerts
• Name of teachers and students who can provide
assistance
• Map of the school
Classroom management: according to Harry Wong
Students get low grades because of the failure to know what procedures to follow and what objectives to learn or do.
• Students risk failure because of a lack of structure. • A series of procedures and routines equals structure.
• With procedures in place, you’ll have time to devote to the art of teaching and become the effective teacher your students need and deserve.
• Learning is much more effective when it takes place within a supportive community of learners.
What is an effective teacher?
Manage their classrooms
The effective teacher spends
much of the first week of school teaching students to follow classroom procedures to organize the classroom for engagement and learning.
•All effective classrooms have STRUCTURE
Has a discipline plan that does not degrade students. • Makes good eye contact
• Provides a copy of the plan for each student.
• Enforces the rules consistently.
• Has learned how to discipline with the body, not with the mouth.
• Teaches students the concept of consequences and responsibility.
• Has self-confidence and faith in his or her capabilities
What is an ineffective teacher?
Teachers DISCIPLINE their classrooms
• The ineffective teacher begins the first day of school attempting to teach a subject or do a fun activity and spends the rest of the school year running after the students.
• Ineffective classrooms lack structure.
May have no clearly defined rules.
• Communicates rules sporadically and as these are suddenly needed to stifle a situation.
• Conveys rules in a gruff, angry, and condescending manner.
• Winces, shrugs, or conveys via facial expression or body language disbelief in what is being said.
• Conveys, “I’m only doing this because the administration wants me to do it.”
• Tells students, “If you don’t want to learn, that’s not my problem.”
• Berates students with meaningless phrases to convey expectations “Don’t you know any better?” or “How many times do I have to tell you?”
Non-verbal communication
Effective teachers use nonverbal language effectively:
• A nod, a smile , a stare, a frown, a raised eyebrow, or a gesture is often all that is needed, and it does not even disturb the class at work.
• Body language can speak volumes.
• Use it to manage the classroom and minimize
disruptions.
Characteristics of a well managed classroom
1. Students are deeply involved with their work, especially with academic, teacher-led instructions.
2. Students know what is expected of them and are generally successful.
3. There is relatively little wasted time, confusion, or disruption.
4. The climate of the classroom is work-oriented, but relaxed and pleasant.
discipline versus procedures
Discipline refers to BEHAVIOR.
• Has penalties and rewards.
• A rule is a DARE, waiting to be broken.
Procedures
• Procedures refer to getting things DONE.
• Have NO penalties or rewards.
• A procedure is not a DARE. It is a DO, a step to be learned.
Procedures versus routines
Procedures
How you (the teacher) want something done
• Must be clearly stated
• Increase time on-task
• Reduce classroom disruptions
Routines
• What the student does automatically without prompting or supervision
• A routine becomes a habit, practice, or custom for the student
the seven things students want to know on the first day
Am I in the right room?
• Where am I supposed to sit?
• Who is the teacher as a person?
• Will the teacher treat me as a human being?
• What are the rules in this classroom?
• What will I be doing this year?
• How will I be graded?
on the first day according to harry Wong
What you do on the first day of school will
determine your success for the rest of the year: You will either win or lose your class on the first days of school.
• The most important factor that must be established the very first week of school is CONSISTENCY.
• Effective teachers have a classroom management plan ready on the first day of school to structure and organize the classroom.
Stand at the door and greet the students.
• Give each student a seating assignment.
• Your very first priority when class begins is to get the students to work.
• There must be a schedule, “bell-work,” and a lesson objective or assignment posted in a consistent location, when the students enter the room.
Planning for instruction
Well-planned lessons with a variety of
developmentally appropriate activities support the positive learning environment that careful management decisions create.
• You must consider the students’ learning styles.
– However, students also need to experience success in instructional formats that are not easiest for them.
Planning instruction activity: things to consider
The kinds of learning you would like to
encourage (memorization, higher order thinking)
– Whether the activity will maintain student
involvement
– The sequence of the activities – The amount of time available – The time of day (morning, afternoon)
Planning
Long-range planning
• Short-range planning
• Your plans provide road maps that help transform the curriculum into activities, learning assignments, and learning experiences that are meaningful.
Common-core: Planning
Keep in mind two considerations:
– Which skills and concepts students must learn
– Through which activities they can become interested partners in the learning enterprise.
• It is better to over-plan than to under-
plan-as long as you’re flexible.
Basic components in Teaching
1. Content development
2. Discussion
3. Recitation or reinforcement
4. Feedback
• The components may be accomplished in a variety of instructional formats.
Whole-group teaching
introducing & teaching content activities
• Presentation of new material
• Teacher takes an active role
• Must make sure students are active
• Carefully plan teacher questions to maintain the flow
• Content development to include sample problems and/or demonstrations of understanding
Whole group: issues to consider
Presenting New Content, checking for understanding, Classwork & Independent Work, Feedback, and Arranging Activities Within a Lesson
Whole group: Presenting new content
Explain lesson objectives/provide an outline
• Encourage note-taking
• Stay focused on your planned sequence
• Make it as concrete as possible
• Allow opportunities to process the information
checking for understanding
As you explain, ask the students
questions to verify their comprehension of key points
• This keeps students more engaged in the lesson
• You can also conduct an oral recitation after the presentation
Classwork
the portion of an assignment completed as a whole group immediately following content instruction
– The purpose is to check for understanding
Independent work
the portion of the assignment completed by individual students, generally while the teacher moves through the class to check their progress. **Procedures for independent work should have been established.
Class work and independent work
Content must be adequately developed
• Begin the independent work as a whole-class activity
• Actively monitor students’ work
• Independent activities are best for consolidating prior learning
• Devote at least as much time to content development as to independent work
• Break long activities into smaller segments
Feedback
can be provided during discussion, recitation, or checking and can occur before, during, or after content development
• Feedback is involved in student presentations, checking student work, demonstrations, and testing
Feedback-discussions
Discussions are helpful in encouraging students to evaluate events, topics, or results; to clarify the basis for their opinions; to help students become aware of other points of view; and to help them improve their oral expression skills
• The teacher’s role becomes one of encouraging, clarifying, and using student ideas rather than evaluating their correctness
• Ground rules for participating in a discussion must be made clear
Feedback-discussions: Management
A discussion calls for
– Warmth/friendliness – Conflict resolution, Encouraging expression of divergent points of view
– Invite all members to participate – Plan questions in advance
• Task Cards (FCAT/NGSSS & CCSS)
Feedback-recitation
A question-and-answer sequence in which the teacher asks questions, usually of a factual nature, and accepts, guides, or corrects student responses
– Address questions to all students
– Develop a system way of calling on all students
– Use “wait time” of a couple of seconds
Feedback-checking
students evaluate the accuracy of their own work
– Students should be taught how to check their work
• Monitor for accuracy
– Grades are confidential, even when checking involves other students
Feedback-presentations and demonstrations
students give a report to the whole class, demonstrate a procedure or skill, or summarize work done on a project
• Provide guidelines ahead of time
Feedback-testing
provide clear instructions
• Have meaningful activities for those who finish their test early
Arranging activities within a lesson
In whole-group instruction, lessons
usually consist of a series of activities
• Checking or recitation (e.g., check hw)
• Content development (new skills)
• Classwork (practice)
• Independent work, group work, or discussion
• The sequence varies
Small group
Students are grouped
together for instruction
• The teacher works with small groups of students, one group at a time, while the rest of the class works independently
• This requires careful planning directions to the whole class at once Instructions for each assignment
Teacher led small group
Step 1: Plan for the out-of-group activities
Give directions to the whole class at once
Instructions for each assignment
Description of materials needed, A timeline, Check for understanding •Before calling the first group, monitor
the beginning of independent work
Step 2: Call the first group
• During your work with the first small group, monitor out-of-group students by scanning the room frequently
Stop off-task behavior with nonverbal cues, A “time-out” desk by your table
“C3B4Me”, student helper, skip confusing section and move on to another section
Step 3: Check progress
• Before calling the next group, check for problems and clarify misunderstandings, Monitor students who were in the small-group and are now starting independent work
Step 4:Call the next group • Continue as before
Clear instruction
Review guides and instructional materials carefully
• Always try to anticipate problems • Teach for understanding • Make new information relevant
• Organize your lesson parts into a coherent sequence
• Be enthusiastic!
Technology
How will you integrate technology? What resources are available at the school?
• You may need to employ “technology experts”
• Issues with the Internet • Teachers should not allow the personal use of technology (including texting and cell phones) to interrupt instruction
Kuonin’s concept
• Activity flow refers to the degree to which a lesson proceeds smoothly, without digressions, diversions, or interruptions
• According to Kounin, activity flow is maintained through three types of teacher practice:
1. Preventing misbehavior
2. Managing movement
3. Maintaining group focus
Withitness
Communicating general awareness of the classroom to students; identifying and correcting misbehavior promptly and correctly. The degree to which the teacher is aware of and responsive to student performance.
Overlapping
Attending to two or more events simultaneously
Momentum
Keeping lessons moving briskly; planning carefully to avoid slowdowns
smoothness
The teacher avoids allowing comments that may distract the attention away from the key points of the lesson; avoid digressions that can lead to confusion
group alerting
all students focused and alert; engaging the attention of the whole class while individuals are responding
Encouraging accountability
communicating to students that their participation will be observed and evaluated
Using high-participation formats
using lessons that define behavior of students when they are not directly answering a teachers question
Transitions
The interval between any two activities
Transition problems can be caused by lack of readiness by the teacher or the students, unclear student expectations about student behavior during transitions, and faulty procedures for transitions
The three tiers of RTI (response to intervention)
Tier I (80-90%): Core curriculum
•All students or all school •Universal •Preventive •Proactive
Tier II (10-15%): Supplemental, Strategic Interventions
•Class/small group level
•High efficiency
•Rapid response
Tier III (1-5%): Intensive, Individual Interventions
•Individual students or small groups
•Assessment-based
•High Intensity
•Of longer duration
Differentiated Instruction (DI)
Teaching with student variance in mind. It means starting where the kids are rather than adopting a standardized approach to teaching that seems to presume that all learners of a given age or grade are essentially alike. Thus differentiated instruction is “responsive” teaching rather than “one-size-fits-all” teaching.
A teacher proactively plans varied approaches to what students need to learn, how they will learn it, and/or how they can express what they have learned in order to increase the likelihood that each student will learn as much as he or she can as efficiently as possible.
What is DI?
•Student-centered
•Based on data evidencing student needs and readiness
•Proactive
•Respectful of all learners
•Varied avenues to content, process, and product
•Flexible and fluid
•Blend of instructional strategies (whole class, small group, individual)
What DI is NOT
•Another form of homogeneous grouping
•Lowering expectations for struggling learners
•A substitute for specialized services
•Chaotic or unplanned
•New
What does DI look like?
•Purposeful activities
•Individualized independent learning centers (e.g. FCRR centers)
•Flexible groups
•Data-driven
•Hands-on
DI in Reading
•Use assessments to determine student readiness levels
•FCAT Reading Level/SAT Score
•Interim Assessment Results
•Baseline Assessment Results
•S.T.A.R, Reading Assessment Grade Equivalent
•Teacher-Made Tests
•F.A.I.R. /P.M.R.N.
Small group/Teacher-led center
the teacher is conducting either a skill-focused or a guided reading lesson.
-Skill-focused lesson
– explicitly instructing a small group based on identified needs
-Guided reading lesson
– explicitly instructing each reader’s development of “good reader” strategies allowing the learner to problem-solve during reading and/or have them apply a skill or strategy taught during a skill-focused lesson.
Organizing and managing centers
•Keep group size small (3-7)
•Base guided reading/skills groups on specific instructional needs (data-driven instruction!)
•Give explicit directions
•Supervise transitions
•Monitor progress
Getting started on centers
•Implement a behavior management system that supports centers
•Start with one center at first
•Slowly introduce other centers, adding them on, one at a time
•Centers should…
-be purposeful
-reinforce previously taught skills
-be engaging
-differentiate instruction to meet the needs of students
What are the three types of structures?
•Cooperation-We Sink or Swim Together
•Competition-I Swim, You Sink; I Sink, You Swim
•Individualistic-We Are Each in this Alone
What are cooperative learning groups?
The method involves organizing students into small groups in which students complete assignments cooperatively, assist each other, solve problems, share materials, and participate in their own discussions.
•Cooperative learning increases learning and involvement, as students improve their social and problem-solving abilities.
•Has focused on interest, interpersonal relations, motivation, and attitudes towards learning
•Indicates that students are more engaged with content
•Has greater potential for participation, feedback, and mutual construction of meaning among students
•Indicates that lower-achieving students profit form their peers’ explanations, and higher achievers benefit from constructing explanations for the other students
•Has shown that all students benefit from the support they receive in a cohesive group
Key components of Cooperative groups/learning
•Positive Interdependence – Students perceive that they need each other in order to complete the task (i.e., mutual goals, joint rewards, shared resources, and assigned roles)
•Individual Accountability – Each student’s performance is frequently assessed
•Group Structure & Group Processing – Groups discuss how well they are achieving their goals and the teacher monitors the group and provides feedback
•Social Skills/ Signals – These skills are taught as purposely as academic skills
•Face-to-Face Interaction – Students promote each other’s learning
Room arrangement for cooperative groups
•Should facilitate group interaction while permitting unrestricted movement among groups
•Should minimize distraction from other groups’ noise
•Include storage of student materials
-“materials manager”
-keeping containers well-stocked
procedures and routines for groups
•Must be taught, along with specific expectations for talk and movement
•Include expectation for appropriate noise level (e.g., 12-inch voices) and behavior during movement and transitions
-Announce the beginning of the transition, state the expectation, and tell the students how much time they have to make the transition
•Include instruction and practice
-Teach and practice movement into groups as you would any other procedure
•Emphasize the importance of everyone working toward the group’s success
Group composition
•No hard-and-fast rules about how long groups should stay together
•After groups are formed, they should be monitored for signs of conflict
•Allow members to try to problem-solve their issues
Group attention signals
•As the students work, you may need to provide feedback, or additional instructions/modifications to the assignment, to the whole class
-Signals can require students to stop what they are doing and listen to you
-Signals can indicate pacing or time to transition
•Teach several signals
Interdependence within the group
•Positive interdependence has occurred when either the group’s product or individual performance is enhanced by the actions of the group members
Jigsaw-puzzle activity
individual accountability
•Avoid the possibility of having some students loafing off, or others dominating the task
•Set the expectation that each member is responsible for learning the material
•Monitor group work and individual participation
•Procedures for accountability should be planned carefully and amended as necessary
•What strategies can be used to promote individual accountability?
Initial group tasks
•Start by teaching the procedures of working together
•Group skills need to be developed through uncomplicated tasks:
-Drill partners
-Reading buddies
-Summarizing
-Checking
-Reviewers (for a quiz or test)
teaching group work skills
•Begin by having a group discussion about what is needed to work collaboratively
•Address concrete behaviors that constitute the following:
-Social skills
-Explanatory skills
-Leadership skills
Social skills
•Active listening without interrupting
-Summarizing others’ ideas and incorporating them into the discussion
•Sharing materials and taking turns
•Giving support, accepting differences, and encouraging others
-Using phrases to summarize, question and express disagreement
•Develop both beginning and advanced social skills
•Use of first name when talking with team
•Use of specific “social” words (e.g., “please” and “thank you”)
•Listen carefully to others
•Ask team members for help
•Everyone contributes
•Mistakes are okay
•Use praise and encouragement
Advanced social
•Check for understanding
•Use of “I” or “we” – no put downs or blaming
•Paraphrasing others’ remarks
•Disagree in an agreeable way
•Ask for opinions, summaries, and clarification
Explanatory skills
•Critical to the development of academic outcomes
•Indicators include the following
-Comments that describe a problem, assignment or goal
-Identification of steps to follow (and reasons why)
-Summary of the work done
-Explanation of how the answer was reached
•Critical to the development of academic outcomes
•Indicators include the following
-Comments that describe a problem, assignment or goal
-Identification of steps to follow (and reasons why)
-Summary of the work done
-Explanation of how the answer was reached
Leadership skills
•Desired attributes include initiative, planning, and enthusiasm, along with good social skills
•Develop skills by assigning roles such as presenter or discussion leader
-Clearly delineate roles & responsibilities
-Rotate roles
Monitoring student work and behavior
•Circulate among groups and note individual performance, including the quality of interaction among students (demonstrate, not tell)
•Use a clipboard to rate performance and make notes – provide feedback
•Provide checkpoints and time limits – ask students to report on their progress
•Use checklist to promote self-monitoring
Warning signs
•Watch for signs that individual students may be uninvolved or disengaged
•Note the level and nature of emotionality that students exhibit
Interventions for groups
•Judicious use of rewards can direct student attention to important behaviors
-Extrinsic motivation should be used as a supplement
•Conferences with individual students or groups can be used to provide alternate behaviors to improve noncompliance and/or misbehavior
Teacher as the mediator
•Help students identify the problem
•Ask them to suggest alternatives
•Ask for reactions and comments
•Call on the group to select one approach and try it out
•Changing group membership should be a last resort
Student goals and participation
The nature of a teacher’s directions depends on the degree to which the group’s task is structured
The teachers role
•Clearly specify the objectives of the lesson
•Make decisions (composition, arrangement, materials, roles)
•Clearly explain the task, structuring positive interdependence and individual accountability and explaining success criteria
•Monitor the activity and provide closure
•Evaluate student learning