Which agency administers the commercial fisheries in the U.S.? What cabinet-level Department is it in?
The National Marine Fisheries Service, a component of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in the Department of Commerce
Who is credited with the term “conservation” and who was he?
Gifford Pinchot, a forester who served in the administration of President Theodore Roosevelt
In wildlife management, ecological knowledge is applied in what three basic management approaches?
Preservation-when nature is allowed to take its course without human intervention
Direct manipulation-when animals pops are trapped, shot, poisoned and stocked
Indirect manipulation-when vegetation, water, or other key components of wildlife habitats are altered
Who was Aldo Leopold and what were some of his major accomplishments?
forester, philosopher, and a founding father. He is regarded as the “father” of wildlife management in the U.S. he went to Yale, worked for the U.S. Forest Service in Mexico, He wrote a textbook about game management, taught at the University of Wisconsin, he helped organize the Wilderness Society, cofounded the Wildlife Society and was president of it as well as the Ecological Society of America. Created the “Aldo Leopold Award” in his name which is given to a person who demonstrates distinguished service to conservation each year.
In general what three step sequence do field biologists follow when investigating a problem?
1-search journals and other scientific literature for parallel situations that may suggest solutions
2-determine reasons for the difficulty using field and/or lab techniques
3-implement and evaluate remedies (frequently involving public)
How did/does Genesis 1:28 in the Bible affect human attitudes towards wildlife?
God’s instructions to Adam and Eve were to have authority over the creature and replenishment of Earth implies some sort of management-or conquest-of wildlife and their environments. For centuries, humans have enjoyed overwhelming success at being fruitful and multiplying
Why were many bird populations decimated during the 19th century and how did Roosevelt play a role in protecting birds?
Market hunting-exploitation of waterfowl-demand for fresh meat. Some kinds of waterfowl was exploited for their plumage-diminished number of swans. Popularity of feathered hats
Roosevelt-initiated in 1903 what was to become the National Wildlife Refuge System when he declared Pelican Island, Florida, a federal sanctuary for herons and egrets. He also withdrew land from the public to create national forests
How did two technological developments, the railroad and the telegraph, hasten(accelerate) the extinction of the passenger pigeon?
Railroad-gave professional pigeon hunters access to the major nesting colonies of pigeons east of the Mississippi River
Telegraph-Because passenger pigeons were nomadic, the telegraph kept hunters informed about locations of the nesting colonies
What happened to the Labrador duck, the heath hen, and the Carolina parakeet?
Labrador duck-were eliminated by changes made by humans in the marine environment along the Atlantic Coast. Human settlement consequently destroyed the food resources needed
Heath hen-killed for sport, habitat destruction, disease, predation, poaching, sex ratio that favored males
Carolina parakeet-overshooting and capture, and less importantly-their dependence on mature forests and the encroaching lumber industry
Why did the populations of reindeer on St. Matthew Island, mule deer in Arizona, and white-tailed deer in Michigan rise then crash?
Reindeer-overabundance of species lead to starvation when lichen was depleted
Mule deer-overabundance of species lead to minimal forage and starvation
White tailed deer-starvation and predation by coyotes
What are some of the failings of the bounty system in managing wildlife?
Fraud. Could bring a false body part needed for identification to the town clerk for ID, who didn’t know how to ID them anyway.
Animal parts were carried across state and county lines
Trappers released pregnant coyotes from traps, assuring another generation of bounty payments
What factors lead to the successful management of wood ducks?
When Congress passed the Migratory Bird Treaty Act in 1918, wood ducks were given complete legal protection.
-Recognizing their dangerously low population
-Good legal protection
-Habitat improvement using nest boxes
-Year by year monitoring so that protection could be altered as needed
How were wild turkey populations re-established? Atlantic puffins?
Wild Turkeys-By releasing wild birds from appropriate genetic stock, birds of a genetic lineage adapted to the release area.
Atlantic Puffins-used transplanted nestlings from another colony. Used wooden decoys as social attractions to increase the likelihood of having young birds return to the island
What are three main pest species introduced to America?
Starlings, house sparrows, and brown rats, each introduced from Europe
What is the biosphere?
The part of the earth that extends from a few hundred meters beneath the surface to several kilometers into the atmosphere-the ecosystem where life flourishes
What is the critical link between the nonliving world and essentially all forms of animal life?
Green plants! Because of photosynthesis, they use carbon to produce sugars. Other kinds of plants including algae convert nitrogen from the atmosphere to nitrites and nitrates that then can be absorbed by more complex green plants.
What is primary production?
The energy incorporated into green plants by photosynthesis—Primary production is the production of organic compounds from atmospheric or aquatic carbon dioxide. It may occur through the process of photosynthesis, using light as a source of energy, or chemosynthesis, using the oxidation or reduction of chemical compounds as a source of energy.
What is the second law of thermodynamics and how does it pertain to wildlife?
The second law of thermodynamics states that the transformation of energy is not 100% efficient. When vegetation is ingested and metabolized, not all of the energy in the plant food passes on to the herbivore. Some energy is lost as heat. The loss is equally true when animals tissues are consumed by carnivores. As energy passes from plant to carnivore, only a small part of the original amount actually reaches the last link in the food chain
What happens to energy that is not lost as heat?
Some energy is indigestible and becomes part of the feces. Most is used for maintenance activities (swimming, flying feeding, running), and some goes to reproduction
What are the two consequences of the inefficient transfer of energy from one trophic level to the next?
1-less energy is available at each successive trophic level in an ecosystem. The amount of energy, in turn, regulates the abundance of the organisms that occupy each trophic level.
2-the length of a food chain is limited. Very little energy remains after three or four steps, thus an additional trophic level usually cannot be supported in natural ecosystems
What is a ‘range of tolerance’ for an organism; give one example each for plants and animals.
The range of conditions within which an organism can survive.
the range of tolerance is each ecosystems populations ability to adjust to variations in its physical and chemical environment
Organisms live within a range of tolerance, or ecological amplitude(bounty), for each of the physical and biological components of their environments. When either the upper or lower optimal limit of he range is exceeded, the efficiency of metabolic or reproductive processes falters and organisms begin to experience difficulty
Plants: precipitation animals: plant species
What environmental factors comprise(contain) a range of tolerance?
What terms are used to define a community in terms of its successional stage?
Pioneer community-first step in succession
Climax community-last step-community is self-perpetuating in a state of dynamic equilibrium (constant turnover of individuals but species stay the same and the overall composition of the community stays the same)
-some kind of disturbance, whether natural (fire, glacier, etc) or caused by humans (plowing, lumbering etc) initiates the development of a pioneer community on the exposed soil
Primary succession occurs where no community previously existed
Secondary succession takes place where there are remnants of a previous community, like when there is a clear-cut forest
What are two types of mutualism?
Mutualism is a common type of symbiotic association in which two organisms benefit form each other
Obligative mutualism-required for the survival of either member of the pair
Facultative mutualism-the bond may be broken without fatal results
Define dynamic equilibrium.
Within the climatic limits imposed by temp and precip, each species of wildlife thrives only in those successional stages that produce rather specific arrangements for food, cover and water
Much of wildlife management deals with ways of manipulating habitat for the benefit of selected species
Why is the concept of resilience (recovery from problems) important for conservation?
Some communities and ecosystems are more resilient than others. Ecological circumstances have direct bearing on wildlife management. Communities in ecosystems where disturbances are unusually threatening deserve the protection of special management efforts. An Arctic environment contaminated by an oil spill may take years to recover, whereas the higher rate of biological activity in warm environments greatly accelerates the recovery period for oil spills. Wildlife managers thus adjust their goals.
What is the “niche” of a species?
A species’ role in an ecosystem
What is a definition of a population?
A group of organisms, usually of the same species, occupying a defined area during a specific time
What are 5 characteristics of populations?
Density-certain number of individuals per unit area
Birth rate-number of births per 100 or 1000 or individuals per year
Death rate-number of deaths per individuals per year
Age structure-distribution of numbers of individuals of various ages
Sex ratios-influence reproductive potential
What is the difference between fecundity and fertility?
Fecundity-refers to the number of eggs produced per female or to the number of sperm produced per male
Fertility-percentage of eggs that are fertile
What is density dependence? Give 2 examples of density dependent factors.
Density dependence occurs when the population growth rate, or constituent gain rates (e.g. birth and immigration) or loss rates (death and emigration), vary causally with population size or density (N). Includes food supply, predation, disease
Why can’t a population increase exponentially forever? List 4 reasons.
The supply of food may not reach the demand of the growing population
Space or cover availability may be limiting
Predators may respond to the large numbers of prey
Disease may spread
What are the lessons of the Isle Royale study?
Predator-prey systems are not a neatly controlled phenomenon in which predators prudently choose their prey and adjust their reproduction to their food supply
Predator and prey populations fluctuate not in response to one or two simple variables, but instead react to countless variables, including disease in either pop, weather and random events
What are the three basic kinds of mating systems? What are the two types of polygamy?
Monogamy-seasonal of lifetime pair bonds
Polyandry-Several males per female, occurs in a few birds
Polygyny-Several females per male
What is the difference between additive and compensatory mortality?
Additive-a concept that the effect of one type of mortality is added to those of other sources of mortality
Ex. If predation takes 10% of a pop, and an ice storm takes 20%, the total mortality for the year is 30%. If in the next year predation takes 20% and an ice storm takes 20% for a total mortality of 40%, the effects of the two factors are said to be additive. Hunting mortality adds to the total natural mortality.
Compensatory-the concept that one kind of mortality largely replaces another kind of mortality in animal populations
Ex. An animal dying form one cause (hunting or disease) cannot die from another cause (predation or starvation)
If predation takes 10% of a pop, and disease takes 20%, total natural mortality for the year is 30%. If in the next year predation takes 25% and disease takes 5%, the effect of predation is said to be compensatory.
What is a life table, what data is used to create one, and how is the information used from a life table?
It is a systematic means of describing mortality as it affects various age groups in a population.
It includes age of animals, the number surviving at the beginning of age interval out of 1000 born, the proportion of the animals dying during the interval, life expectancy
Are used by biologists to answer questions like “How long does a robin live?”
What do “extrinsic factor” and “intrinsic factor” mean? Is it just the difference between things that are “Inherited” vs. outside environmental variables?
Extrinsic=density dependent (weather conditions) and density independent (Food, cover, competitors, disease, hunting harvest, predators, refugia, buffer species)
Intrinsic=genetic factors (litter size, dispersal, birth rates, survival rates, longevity)
What is a metapopulation?
Groups of local populations of a species. Each group occupies separate patches of habitat, which are often connected by corridors through which dispersal occur.
How rapidly are we approaching our own carrying capacity as humans? Are all countries of the world still able to meet their own demands for resources such as food?
Most ecologists believe K of the plant for humans is rapidly being approached and that resources cannot be produced and processed fast enough to meet the demands of an ever-growing population. No. places like India and Bangladesh have already reached their K.
What are some examples of diet selectivity in animals and why does that selectivity occur?
The snail kite, a rare hawk species, feeds almost entirely on apple snails-they have evolved precisely curved bills for extracting the snails from their shells
Crossbills are uniquely adapted for extracting seeds from cones
Anteaters, moles, etc
Have adapted to eat what is in their surroundings
What is the variety of ways animals can respond to food shortages?
Some hummingbirds survive short-term food shortages by entering a state of hypothermic torpor for a few hours to several days. (Torpor is a type of deep sleep where an animal lowers its metabolic rate by as much as 95%. By doing so, a torpid hummingbird consumes up to 50 times less energy when torpid than when awake.)
Poorwills hibernate for periods as long as 88 days—drop body temp
What problems can arise from artificial feeding programs for wildlife?
Become dependent on the food they are given. Malnutrition. Overbrowsing of the area they are staying in. financially and ecologically expensive. Unnatural foods disrupts the digestive physiology of starving animals. Behavioral changes. Loss of importance for natural habitat management.
What are two alternatives to artificial feeding that would help solve a food shortage problem?
Reduce the animal pop by increased hunting or introduction of predators
Live-trapping, removal, and relocation
Habitat modification-plant self-perpetuating vegetation
What does the nutritional quality of vegetation as wildlife food usually depend on?
Soil fertility. The abundance of nutrients in the soil.
Give some examples of cover and how it can offer protection to animals.
Cover offers shelter-protection from weather, and concealment-protection from predators.
Shade-reptiles use shade to maintain a suitable body temperature
Rocks, canopy, etc-protection from wind
Vegetation, snow, tree branches, rocks, hills-provide hiding spots to stalk prey and also prevent from bing stalked
What is an ‘edge effect’?
The apparent increase in abundance of wildlife where two habitat types meet
What are two reasons why wildlife may be more abundant at edges?
1-the attraction of simultaneous access to more than one environmental need-food and shelter
2-a greater variety of vegetation, including species common to each of the habitats and some plants characteristic only of the edge
What is coevolution?
The joint evolution of two or more groups of organisms with close ecological relationships but that lack any exchange of genes
Predators develop keen senses, speed, stalking, while prey develops watchfulness, agility, camouflage, and hiding abilities. Reciprocal selective pressures operate in the process of coevolution, making evolution of one group partially dependent on the evolution of the other.
What are five major reasons why it is important to consider diseases in wildlife management?
1-Either domestic or wild animals may serve as reservoirs or vectors for pathogens that ultimately affect each other or humans
2-As habitat dwindles in both quality and quantity, wildlife populations become more concentrated. Many animals are stressed so that they are susceptible to diseases beyond former levels.
3-Diseases may cause serious losses in already small populations of endangered species
4-Diseases are a part of the whole spectrum of issues facing wildlife managers; diseases are just as much a part of the management puzzle as are food habits, population dynamics, and habitat requirements. Diseases are usually related directly to each of these subjects.
5-The public may become passionately involved with ways in which biologists deal with wildlife disease. (get in the way)
Are diseases and parasites sometimes the proximate causes of death, the ultimate causes of death, or both? Give some examples.
Moose are susceptible to tapeworm infections; older moose are steadily weakened by the lung infections and become more susceptible to predation
How is disease sometimes related to habitat?
Habitat conditions influence the course of many wildlife diseases
Decaying organic matter, shallow water, high temperatures and alkaline environment can produce harmful toxins related to diseases
How was a disease used in an attempt to eliminate the rabbit population in Australia?
They introduced the mammalian disease myxomatosis to the rabbit population. It is a pox-virus that is especially destructive to rabbits but marsupials and other native species remain unaffected. It is mainly spread by mosquitoes. Transmission occurs when infected skin tissues (not blood) are carried from rabbit to rabbit on the mouthparts of vectors. Initial losses often exceeded 90%, but some rabbits developed resistance to myxomatosis-and the virus undergoes changes in its virulence-and the rabbit population eventually rebounded
What are the two ways in which bighorn sheep can be immunized against blue tongue disease?
Gnats, when given a blood meal that includes bluetongue vaccine, they become “mobile syringes” and vaccinate the animals.
Injections of the vaccine needle by humans
What are the “new” diseases affecting wildlife today and which animals do they infect?
Hantaviral pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is carried by small rodents including deer mice. Humans contract HPS by inhaling dust contaminated with urine or feces from infected rodents
Conjunctivitis in songbirds
Avian virus kills brant (bird)
West Nile Virus -humans and birds
Mad cow disease-mule deer and elk
What are the hosts and vectors of the sylvatic plague and rabies?
Syvativ plague host: wild rodents vectors:fleas
Rabies host: animals vectors:animals bite or scratch
What is the Model State Game and Fish Administrative Law and what are its benefits in wildlife management? What are some of its drawbacks?
It was designed as a prototype for a multi-member commission. This document created a commission of several people, replacing the old commission of a single commissioner
Candidates are selected by the governor from a list submitted by outdoor groups. This encourages appointment of highly qualified individuals.
Members equally represent the entire state
Groups of 3-15 function efficiently
Commissioners explore routine administrative matters better left to the director and his/her staff
Overrepresentation of regional interests that may deny sound management on a statewide basis
Repetition of earlier mistakes leading to continuation or renewal of outdated practices such as artificial feeding because of a commissioner’s well-intentioned but misinformed preconceptions
Partisan political pressures placed on individual commissioners
What is the Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act?
All waterfowl hunters 16 years of age or older had to obtain a stamp. It created funds to restore depleted waterfowl habitat. 1934
How did J.N. Darling help to produce a new generation of wildlife biologists?
He created newspaper cartoons which cut to the heart of environmental issues during the 1930’s. he also created the duck stamp. He was a clever artist who attracted wide attention. He was appointed by Theodore Roosevelt as the director of the US Fish and Wildlife Service.
He seized the idea that a nationwide venture housed on university campuses would produce a new generation of field-trained personnel. He gave money to leading sporting arms-and-ammunition manufacturers. At the same time, the American Wildlife Institute became a financial partner in the unit program. That organization became the Wildlife Management Institute in 1946 and continued its vigorous support of unit activities. This immediately attracted state and federal funding. Participating states contributed funds from their wildlife departments so that a combo of private, state and federal sources funded the research projects. A federal biologist was assigned to each campus as the local program supervisor and was given faculty status.
How can social influences and economic factors override wildlife management decisions?
Social acceptance can delay decisions. rebellion
Can halt projects from happening
Do states in the U.S. own their wildlife, i.e. can states prohibit the sale and transport of their wildlife to other states?
Yes. Wildlife can be forbidden to be transported out of a state
What is the core requirement of NEPA?
The Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)-proposed major actions by the government potentially having significant impacts on the environment shall be accompanied by an EIS that discloses fully the effects of the action on the environment.
What is a wilderness area?
A wilderness area is subject to the 4 criteria:
1-only the forces of nature had affected the land, with the imprint of human work sustainably unnoticeable
2-the land presented outstanding opportunities for primitive or unconfined recreation in a climate of solitude
3-at least 2024 hectares must be available, or if less, it must be practical to preserve and use it in an unimpaired condition
4-the area must include ecological, geological, or other features leading to educational, scientific, scenic, or historic value
What is the general level of wildlife knowledge of citizens in the U.S.?
Little or modest knowledge. About half of the public didn’t know that spiders have 8 legs or that insects lack backbones
What are “policies of sentiment”? Know some examples.
these are policies that were passed by Congress because of pressure by the American public. Examples reminding us that wildlife management necessarily includes people management.
Wild Free-roaming Horse and Burro Act (1971) –
passed as result of long-standing emotional issue about shooting of horses and burros on public lands. Initially they were being shot (inhumanely) by operators for the pet food industry.
however, they are not native to western habitats and unregulated populations do cause ecological damage.
“adopt a burro” program – successful or not???
Hunting on Wildlife Refuges – the Great Swamp NWR example
conflict between purposes NWR’s were established for and public desires, specifically anti-hunting sentiment in New Jersey.
controversy required that USFWS prepare and EIS for management on the refuge. Assessment of the EIS went to court – where it was determined that hunting was not inconsistent with sound wildlife management or the purposes for which the refuge was established.
In general, how are European wildlife policies different than those in North America?
They were based largely on custom. Holidays determine the opening and closing of a hunting season. Certain animals were protected, except when royalty was part of the hunting party.
Today-hunting remains connected with ownership of land, it is more of an individual privilege than a traditional right of the public, and land management is extremely intensive.
Hunting and wildlife management are shaped by responsibilities remaining largely in the private domain- not in the public trust. Hunting is the primary management tool. European hunters are thought of as “gamekeepers” because of their role in management.
What is a population?
A group of individuals of a species
-For which it is meaningful to talk about its size, growth, density, vital statistics and distribution
-That can be compared with other populations or with itself under different circumstances
-That is largely reproductively isolated from other populations of same species
Know the difference between biological and cultural carrying capacity.
-Maximum number of individuals that a particular habitat can support in good physical condition over an extended period of time
-Maximum number of individuals that can co-exist compatibly with local human populations
What kinds of factors are considered density-dependent vs density-independent?
Vary in their effect according to density of population
-food, disease, stress
Operate or exert their influence regardless of population density
-Weather, drought, excessive logging
What are the four critical components of population demography? Know how they can vary and what difference it might make in understanding how a population might be changing.
Birth rates-What is the first age of reproduction? What & are pregnant? What is litter size?
Death rates-How do they vary with age? With nutritional conditions?
Sex ratios-sometimes uneven at breeding, but most often not
Dispersal-move from one’s birthplace to the place where you settle down and reproduce
How can adult sex ratio in a population affect productivity?
Say that there were 100 breeding animals and each female has 2 young.
Sex ratios: # of young produced:
60F:40M (monogamous-females mate with one male)80
Know the how “source” and “sink” populations differ.
Source pop-a net producer of individuals
-Can afford to lose emigrants
-Has more emigrants than immigrants
-Higher repro and or survival than a sink
Sink pop-a net consumer of individuals
-Has more immigrants then emigrants
-Lower reproduction and or survival than a source
How did the Magna Carta affect ownership of wildlife?
The Magna Carta made wildlife public property, as if the public owned the wild animals.
Know the 5 modern conservation eras in North America and the attitudes and circumstances under which wildlife was viewed in each of them. What are some management or conservation actions taken during each era?
-lots of animals, no limits to land
-Local overharvests, extirpation/extinction
-Closed seasons-knowledge of how you could reduce impacts of hunting. Came up with some regulations
-Westward expansion-Lewis and Clarke-people went west to trap beavers, which were extirpated in MA. People got rich after War of 1812, had leisure time, decided to take care of local species and care for endangered species.
-Big expanse in human population
-Extirpations/extinctions-repeating firearms were invented
-Game wardens created hunting licenses, decided that money should be spent to protect animals
-Yellowstone Park Protection Act (1894)-made it a Federal offense to kill/capture animals in national park
-Legal protection increased
-The Lacey Act (1900)- prevented killing game across state lines
-1918-Migratory Bird Treaty Act-to regulate knowledge and info about migratory birds so that population would be sustained
-Established NFS (National Forest System) 1903
Game Management (1930-1965)
-Aldo Leopold was hired to put together info on game management. He published a book that stressed wildlife appreciation, ecological balance, and treating the land well
-Federal Duck Stamp-increased federal funding for wildlife. Required all waterfowl hunters to possess a duck stamp
-Pittman-Robertson Federal Aid to Wildlife Restoration Act (1937) was a way to generate funds. It instituted an excise tax on sporting arms and ammunition. Money went to wildlife-to acquire land and develop habitat.
Environmental Management (1965-present)
-Increased wealth, more leisure time, more educated people. People started appreciating and having concern for animals that weren’t hunted, were more environmentally aware, was more scientific knowledge and research, and comprehensive protection for the environment. (endangered species, non-game species, federal lands protection(to protect species), effects of farmland, biodiversity, etc.
The first wildlife refuge in the U.S. established 100 years ago was….?
Pelican Island, Florida (1903)-
Lacey Act (1900)
Lacey Act (1900)
The Lacey Game and Wild Birds Preservation and Disposition Act-prevented killing game across state lines
Migratory Bird Treaty Act (1918)
Regulated knowledge and info about migratory birds so that populations would be sustainable
Pittman-Robertson Act (1937)
Was a way to generate funds. It instituted an excise tax on sporting arms and ammunition. Money went to wildlife to acquire land and develop habitat.
National Environmental Policy Act (1969)
Need for environmental impact statements to be approved. If a project involves government money, it must go through a review
Endangered Species Act (1973)
Conserve land for endangered species so that ecosystems can be conserved
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) (1975)
The single most important treaty protecting animals on a national level. List of species for which trade is controlled and restricted
Section 404 of the Clean Water Act (1978)
Must get permit from U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to mess with the waterway, like dumping toxic waste
The Food Security Act – “The Farm Bill” (1985)
Derived federal farm benefits to farmers who didn’t manage land a certain way
In general, which entity has jurisdiction over migratory wildlife? Resident wildlife?
What kind of local legislation affects wildlife? How about national legislation?
Prohibitions on possession and trade
Land use regulations
Purchase of biological communities-land trusts, audobon society purchases
Conservation easements-buying development rights from a landowner
Non-game Act (1980)-distribute money to the state specifically for non game species
Non-game excise tax
Conservation and Reinvestment Act (1999)-2.8 billion dollars annually taken from offshore drilling and gas leaks-convert to non-game wildlife
State Wildlife Grant (2001-2006)- Get states to come up with plans on how to manage wildlife
What did the “State Wildlife Grant” program (2001) do? How does Massachusetts make use of the program now?
State Wildlife Grant (2001-2006)- Get states to come up with plans on how to manage wildlife
Now: the program prevents wildlife from becoming endangered. It uses a habitat-based approach and links key species to critical habitat.
ID of key habitats and species
Description of conditions of habitats
Problems affecting species
What is wildlife diversity?
The number of species in a community
What makes up an ecosystem?
Abiotic-Nonliving elements like soil, water and air
Biotic-living-animals and plants
Why do higher trophic levels have relatively less biomass?
Because as you go up each level, only 10% of energy remains for the next level, and the more rare the food is for each animal
What is a niche?
Niche is an ecological role of a species
What is niche breadth?
Broad vs. narrow habitat requirement
The range, along an environmental gradient, within which the niche occurs. The niche is represented as a bell curve, and the optimum ecological performance is right in the middle, at the top of the curve.
How can niches of two different species overlap (give an example)?
-every species has a unique niche
-Individual organisms can persist outside of niche (habitat), population or species cannot
Ex. Warbler Distribution
Canada warbler breeds all over Canada (generalist)
Kirtland’s warbler breeds in one spot in Michigan (specialist)
Know the difference between a “specialist” and a “generalist” in terms of niche
breadth/width and give an example of each.
Generalists are very adaptable, have a wide niche. HUMANS
Specialists have small niches. PANDAS
In what ways is a species’ “habitat” more than just the vegetation on the piece of land it lives on? Give examples.
Habitat is the resources necessary to support a population over space and through time. Includes food, water, cover and space
How is water important to animals as a habitat factor?
Physiologically-important as a solvent (hard to swallow if your mouth is dry), chemical reactions, and for cooling
Physically-escape, barrier to movements (deep snow)
What is cover? (give lots of different examples)
-Protection from temperature extremes
Deer use each other and trees, porcupines use rocks for protection from wind, muskrats use lodges, ruffed grouse uses snow as an insulator in winter
-protection from predators-vegetation, snow cover, terrain, caves, mts
How is “space” a wildlife habitat factor?
-Individual home range
-Food productivity-how much space do you need to get the food you need
-Species size-smaller, need less space
-Diet-herbivores can easily survive in a smaller area
-Minimum numbers-can’t have an overpopulated area
-Connectivity-individuals can interact genetically
Give examples of how values change with time and geography
Peregrine falcons used to be viewed as pests, they were abundant and ate a lot of birds and ducks, now are not viewed negatively by anyone, they were almost extinct for a time
Some people/areas/cultures love dogs, while other areas eat them (China, Turkey)
Know the different categories (n = 3) and types (n = 11 total) of human values of
wildlife, and be able to apply them to a wildlife species (e.g., wolf or bluebird)
-Aesthetic-beautiful, nice to look at, good to know they exist
-Recreational-deer hunting (consumptive), bird watchers (non-consumptive)
-Ecological-beaver dams-provides habitat for other species
-Education/scientific-get people to appreciate them
-Accidents-cars hitting animals
-Economic-keep predators away from livestock (sheep dogs)
-Political-get people fired up about things (bald eagle represents America)
-Marketing-sports teams, cars, insurance, (Geico)
-? Humor? Optional value-bear toilet paper commercials
What kinds of values were/are most prominent for humans as hunter/gatherers? As
Values of wildlife
Positive-products (consumptive), social (sharing wildlife)
Negative-competition for animals
Values of Wildlife
Positive-products, social values, domesticated animals
Negative-competitors, depredators (animals became more tame), “bad” genes-domestic breeding w/wild
In discussing or articulating your own values, what do you need to think about?
You need to think deeply and know your philosophy. You must have a sense of why you think what you do. You also must not expect others to agree. Arguments are to be expected, the idea is to exchange information, you must maintain control and stay calm, and respect different viewpoints.
Historically defined as “all plants and animals”.
Now, is all vertebrates (animals with backbones)
stewardship of wildlife species and their habitats. It is the sustained use and yield, maintain whatever is out there
How can wildlife populations be managed?
You can manipulate and manage populations through
Hunting, trapping, restoration, captive breeding
Habitat protection, improvement or degradation
Changes in policy and the law
How are Wildlife Management and Wildlife Conservation different or the same?
Often-game species focused
Includes non-economic values, all taxa and all categories of life
Can mean the same thing, both can create conflict of values
What do Wildlife Conservationists do?
Managers-refuges, endangered species, law enforcement
Scientists-communicate research to support management
-Outreach, education-translating science for the public
What is the definition of disease?
Any impairment that interferes with or modifies the performance of normal functions.
These include effects from:
-combinations of these
What is the disease continuum (be able to discuss and illustrate)?
Ranges from absolutely healthy, to relatively healthy, to diseased, to death
What is the epidemiological triangle (be able to discuss and illustrate)?
A nonlinear interaction between animals
An interactive relationship among causative agents, animals, and environmental factors
What is the infectious path of raccoon rabies?
Raccoon is bitten
Rabies virus enters and spreads through blood stream
Virus incubates-reaches the brain and multiplies rapidly
How has raccoon rabies spread in the eastern United States over the last 50 years?
Was first found in Florida in 1954, then went to Georgia, Alabama and South Carolina. Virginia in the 1970’s. Then there was an outbreak in the mid Atlantic states and in New England.
What is the Oral Rabies Vaccination (ORV) program?
Rabies vaccine in the form of consumable “bait” for wild animals is distributed along the borders of this zone each year by aircraft. North Carolina is part of a larger vaccination zone that has been established by the USDA Wildlife Services from Maine to Alabama to prevent the westward and northward spread of raccoon rabies.
Describe the purpose of the raccoon research that was done in Pennsylvania.
In Pennsylvania, the first documented cases of rabies occurred in 1982. By 1994 it was enzootic (constantly present) throughout the state. They researched the landscape’s effects on disease dynamics in raccoons. Raccoon bacteria and parasite loads with respect to landscape and human health consequences. Raccoons thrive in suburban areas
How is food important in wildlife conservation?
Survival, reproduction and behavior
Is starvation a fairly common cause of wildlife dieoffs?
NO, often causes disease, predation and habitat change
What is the difference between proximate and ultimate causes?
Proximate causes are the apparent causes—getting eaten
Ultimate causes are the underlying causes—often food or disease related
Ex. An animals could be low on food and energy, and not be able to run away from a predator, therefore the predator eats it. Proximate cause is getting eaten and the underlying cause is starvation
Know the constituents of food and how they vary in importance and accessibility?
Be able to give some food type and wildlife examples.
-Energy -Water -Minerals -Vitamins
Carbs-starch, cellulose sucrose
Protein-seeds, sterns, leaves
Muscles, enzymes, hormones and tissues are all made of proteins
Seasonally available-not very available in winter or dry season
Free-streams and ponds
Metabolic-chemical breakdown of food
Macroelements-calcium, potassium, phosphorous, sodium
Iron, zinc, selenium
Sources of minerals:food, soil, bones
-can’t usually be made by organisms
-Fat-soluble-stored in body
What are the limitations on food intake?
-Morphological and physiological (can’t eat it all at once)
Can’t spend a lot of time eating because of predation pressure
-Environmental Limitations-change behavior during seasons
What are some adaptations/strategies to maximize food and energy consumption and retention?
-Morphological (changes in structure)-ruminant stomach
-regurgitate stuff they’ve eaten and keep chewing it to break it down repeatedly, makes them more efficient grazers
-Coprophagy-consumption of feces