Wellness Exam #3

Nutrients
substances found in foods that provide energy, regulate metabolism, and help with growth and repair of body tissues
Substrates
foods that are used as energy sources
Carbohydrates
major source of calories the body uses to provide energy for work, cell maintenance, and heat
Fiber
present mainly in plant leaves, gives feeling of fullness
Recommended daily fiber
25 g for women, 38 g for men
Fats
most concentrated source of energy, carry fat-soluble vitamins
Fat-soluble vitamins
A, D, E, K
Saturated fats
animal sources
Unsaturated fats
come from plant sources
Trans fats
processed and fast foods, most dangerous to health
Protein
build and repair tissues, muscles, blood, internal organs
Essential amino acids
9 of 20 amino acids, not produced by body
Nonessential amino acids
11 of 20 amino acids, produced by body
Vitamins
antioxidants and coenzymes, regulate the work of enzymes
Water-soluble vitamins
B complex and C
Minerals
constituents of all cells, crucial in maintaining water and acid balance
Water
most important mineral, involved in almost every vital body process
Daily Values
reference values for nutrients and food components for use on commercial food labels
Calories from fat
20 to 35 %
Recommended amount of grains
6 ounces
whole grains
major source of fiber and other nutrients
refined grains
grains that have been milled
recommended amount of vegetables
2.5 cups
recommended amount of fruit
2 cups
recommended amount of milk
3 cups
recommended amount of protein
5.5 ounces
recommended amount of oil
6 teaspoons
Antioxidants
prevent disease, examples are Vitamin E and C, beta-carotene, and selenium
Vitamin E
found in almonds, peanuts, shrimp
Vitamin C
found in oranges, kiwi, strawberries
Beta-carotene
found in carrots, pumpkin, mangos
Selenium
found in Brazil nuts, decreases risk of cancer
Vitamin D
strengthens immune system, controls blood pressure, decreases inflammation
Folate
prevents heart disease and birth defects
Probiotics
health-promoting microorganisms that live in intestine and break down foods
Yogurt
contains probiotics
3 facts that do the most for health, longevity, and quality of life
proper nutrition, sound exercise program, and quitting smoking
Overweight
BMI over 25
obese
BMI over 30
tolerable weight
realistic body weight that is not ideal but is acceptable
Most prevalent form of preventable death
obesity
30 pounds overweight loses ?? years of life
7
Low carb/high protein diets
limit intake of carbs, most weight lost is water
Three assumptions
balancing food intake against output allows person to achieve recommended weight, fat people eat too much, human body doesn’t care how much fat is stored
energy-balancing equation
each pound of fat is 3500 calories
basal metabolic rate
lowest level of caloric intake necessary to live
Sleep
also important to weight management
Ghrelin
stimulates appetite
Leptin
lets brain know when you’re full
amount of daily activity to provide health benefits
30 minutes
amount of daily activity to prevent weight gain
60 minutes
amount of daily activity to maintain substantial weight loss
90 minutes
combination of ? and ? exercises works best in weight loss programs
strength, aerobic
Daily carb percentage
60
daily fat percentage
less than 30
daily protein percentage
12
percentage of calories at breakfast/lunch/dinner
25/50/25