Weight Management

Body Fat Distribution and Health
-Fat is stored in two ways:

–Subcutaneous Fat – located under the skin
–Visceral Fat – located around the organs (abdominal fat)
—Visceral fat is more harmful to health
-Increases risk of high blood pressure, diabetes, heart disease, stroke, mortality and cancer.

Body Fat Distribution and Health
Visceral fat is harmful:
-More easily mobilized and sent into the bloodstream
— meaning it increases disease-related blood fat levels

-Subcutaneous fat is not metabolically active the way visceral fat is

Evaluating Body Weight and Body Composition
– the most accurate way to evaluate is through body fat percentage
Men: 12-20% of body fat = healthy
Women: 20-30% of body fa = healthy
Excess Body Fat and Negative Effects Wellness
-Obesity doubles mortality rates and can reduce life expectancy by 10-20 years

-Obesity is associated with:
–Diabetes, cardiovascular disease, various cancers
–(impaired immune function, kidney disease, skin problems, impotence, sleep and breathing disorders, back pain, arthritis, pregnancy complications, menstrual irregularities, urine leakage, depression, low self-esteem and body dissatisfaction).

What is the right weight for You?
-Let your lifestyle determine your weight so you can avoid developing unhealthy patterns of eating and a negative body image

-Focus on a healthy lifestyle that includes:
–eating moderate amounts of healthy foods
–get plenty of exercise
–learn to cope with stress
–think positively

Factors Contributing to Excess Body fat
Genetic Factors
-If both parents are obese – children have an 80% risk of being obese
-If one parent is obese – children have a 50% chance of becoming obese.
–Lifestyle plays a huge role.
Factors Contributing to Excess Body fat
Genetic Factors
-some people have a harder time losing weight and maintaining weight loss than others
–even those who have a genetic tendency toward weight gain can maintain a healthy body weight with a good life style
(Basically don’t be a 廃人. Good luck boys and girl!)
Factors Contributing to Excess Body fat
Physiological Factors
-Metabolism – key physiological factor in the regulation of body fat and body weight
-Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR) – energy required to maintain body function
-RMR accounts for 65-70% of daily energy expenditure
–10% = food digestion
–20-30% = physical activity.
Factors Contributing to Excess Body fat
Physiological Factors
-Both genetics and behavior (physical activity) affect metabolic rate
-high RMR = person burns more calories at rest, and can therefore take in more calories without gaining weight
(食べても太らないピーポー have high RMR)
Factors Contributing to Excess Body fat
Physiological Factors
-RMR Decreases…
–When a person loses weight through dieting
(body thinks it is in a period of starvation)

-RMR Increases…
-When a person exercises, it builds muscle
(the muscle gets toned and stronger, therefore requiring more energy to move, leading to more calories used).

Factors Contributing to Excess Body fat
Psychosocial Factors
-Food is used as a means of coping with stress and negative emotions
–Eating can provide a powerful distraction from difficult feelings, such as loneliness, anger, boredom, anxiety, shame, sadness and low self-esteem.
Factors Contributing to Excess Body fat
-Lifestyle factors, such as increased eating and decreased physical activity, plays a more prominent role than genetic or physiological factors in gaining body fat.

LIFESTYLE > GENETIC & PHYSIOLOGICAL FACTORS

Factors Contributing to Excess Body fat
Lifestyle Factors
-lack of excercise leads to overweight
-Incidence of overweight is consistently linked to excessive screen time – watching TV, playing video games or using computers.
Adopting a Healthy Lifestyle for Successful Weight Management
Total Calories
-Daily energy needed is based on gender, age and physical activity level.

-Energy balance may be more important for weight management than total calories consumed.
–To maintain your current weight – must burn the same number of calories that you take in.
–To lose weight – must decrease calorie intake and/or increase the number of calories burned.

Adopting a Healthy Lifestyle for Successful Weight Management
Total Calories
-Lose weight – increase in physical activity with moderate calorie restriction

-*Avoid crash dieting: it will lead to a decrease in metabolism, nutrients, increased hunger and irritation.

Adopting a Healthy Lifestyle for Successful Weight Management
Energy Density
-Eat low calorie nutrient dense foods:
–Eat fruit with breakfast and for dessert
–Add extra vegetables to meals
–Start meals with soup or salad
–Snack on fruits and vegetables
–Decrease energy dense foods (butter, mayonnaise, cheese, chocolate, fatty meats and fried foods)
Adopting a Healthy Lifestyle for Successful Weight Management
Eating Habits
-Avoid skipping breakfast
–slows metabolism: body thinks it’s starving
–decreases energy and nutrition
–more prone to binge eating later in the day
–more prone to unhealthy snacking later in the day

-Consume the majority of calories during the time you are active (Day>Night)

(I still believe Sleep > Breakfast -管理人)

Approaches to Weight Management
-Kilograms: 7700kcal in 1kg of fat.

–Reduce 250kcal from diet, increase 250kcal through PA or EX. 0.45kg of fat will be lost per week.

Approaches to Weight Management
-Weight Loss should be slow and steady
–(0.5-1kg per week / 1-2lbs per week)
-Too fast = body will go into a state of shock and decrease its metabolism