– Pollution discussed, both from point and non- point sources, is understood to be caused by man’s cultural activates. This should be distinguished from water quality changes sometimes called “background pollution” from natural causes.
–This term does not include agricultural stormwater discharges and return flows from irrigated agriculture.
Point sources enter the pollution transport route at discrete and identifiable locations.
• Usually can be directly measured or otherwise quantified and their impact directly evaluated.
-measured in load=lbs/ day (flow*concentration)
• Non-point pollution control under 1987 clean Water Act (CWA).
Non-Point Source Pollution examples: brake dust, salts on the road, oils and gasoline on roads, pesticide application
-can control some during water collection
–Storm water pollution prevention plans necessary for construction industry
– can’t remove total dissolved solids
-One of the most important treatment philosophies
-Try to get microbes to do dirty work for us
-Physically remove by separation or settling
• Depending on moisture content, a heat source can be utilized to evaporate the free water to prevent splattering (a loss in mass).
-is any fluid and material that passes through a 0.45 μm filter. In environmental samples this is called soluble matter
**Why 0.45um filter? Sands and silts are bigger than that
-Low TDS solutions have high resistance
–Most expensive contaminant to remove = TDS, from engineering and cost standpointCan use alum treatment, reverse osmosis, boiling
-TDS can also be referred to as conductivity
**ph:Total Dissolved Solids:
Any minerals, salts, metals, cations or anions dissolved in water
Everything but suspended solids (not dissolved) and the pure water
-anything left on filter paper
-TSS= Volatile Suspended Solids+ Fixed Suspended solids (Ss)
***TSS = VSS + FS
-VSS is the portion of total suspended solids that is voltilized at 550°C for one hour. Assumed to be organic ma^er related to biomass or sludge.
–TSS = (volatile suspended solids) VSS + Fixed SS
-If largely fixed, need a chemical process (ex. Iron)
-If volatile, good for biological processes
-Cyanide, cyanates, carbon dioxide and its Cyanide, cyanates, carbon dioxide and its
relatives are exceptions relatives are exceptions
-Organic material can cause taste and odor
problems in recreational and drinking problems
-Some material may be hazardous Some material may be hazardous
– or BOD is the amount of oxygen used by organisms
during the breakdown of organic material
= A gross biological parameter
-BOD is considered an indirect measure of
the organic content of a sample
• Slope of the curve is a function of the rate of oxidation
(First line on bottom in oxidation of carbon, over time →second line is oxidation of nitrogen)
• In bottle, two reactions are occurring:
– Oxidation of Carbon
– Oxidation of Nitrogen
• Microbes are performing two reactions:
– Synthesis (cell growth)
**- Endogenous respiration (cell death and metabolism)
The BOD5 is directly related to the amount of DO used up over the 5-day period day period
• Measures both biodegradable and non- biodegradable organics.
• KMnO4 or K2Cr2O7
-Will oxidize biological matter
-And non-biological organics
-Have to dispose of this material as a hazardous waste after using it
-Cant have chloride interference
-It’s a quick process, not as many interferences or complications
*COD is the equivalent amount of oxygen
needed to break down organic matter and
oxidize nitrogen compounds using strong
**Another means of measuring oxygen demand A
needed to oxidize organics and reduced nitrogenous compounds
–Faster than BOD
If at or near zero, nothing in that water is biologically digestible
^ Gives insight into how treatable that water is by a very efficient process
–sewage that has been treated in a septic tank or sewage treatment plant. 5. sewage or other liquid waste that is discharged into a body of wate
• Add dichromate, sample, and dilute. Add sulfuric acid to catalyze straight chain organics, alcohols, and amino acids
• HgSO4 is added to complex chlorides and reduce chloride interference
• Reflux for 2 hours and measure amount of dichromate remaining.
• Amount depleted is the amount used for oxidation, and organics are translated into oxygen equivalents measured as COD.
• Not subject to as many interferences as BOD
• Can correlate results with BOD
• COD = COD0 + (BODult/0.9)
• Ra+o of BOD/COD
– What does it mean if BOD/COD = 0.1? – What does it mean if BOD/COD = 1.0?
• Chlorides may interfere, can add HgSO4. High chloride content can cause “false positive” or erroneously high results.
• Rate of oxidation not known
• Also measures inorganics (Fe2+, S2-, SO32-)
• Oxygen demand of ammonia is not known
• Hazardous waste! – the vials are
• Measure ALL Carbon, including inorganic carbon and non-biodegradable.
• Probably the most useful for opera+ons monitoring because it may be automated
– is the amount of organic carbon bound in asample.
-total organic carbon = measure of all organic carbon in sample
-Can be useful, whether biodegradable or not you’re measuring in the sample with this method
-Can be expensive, quick
-Can be biologically digestable but unsure if it is since its such a wide parameter
-Fewer interferences than BOD and COD
• Interferences from nitrates, phosphates, and chlorides > 10,000 ppm/L.
• Can be expensive, as an instrument can be greater than $30,000.
• Important to correlate BOD, COD, and TOC. – Portion of COD may be attributed to dichromate
oxida+on of ferrous iron, nitrogen sulfides, etc.
– BOD and COD might not include carbon compounds that a TOC analyzer can determine (such as some BTEX compounds).
– BOD suscep+ble to many variables for most organics.
– COD to TOC ra+o should approximate to the
stoichiometric ra+o of oxygen to carbon
• 32/12 = 2.66, though not always true
-Could be solids, soil runoff,
Specifically refers to the passage or light through a column of water, or light scattering
May be caused by a variety of suspended materials that range from colloidal to coarse dispersion.
Filterability: as T increases, so does need and cost of
Disinfection: for some particulates, microbes
associate with the surface (pathogen load), and can interfere with disinfec+on processes
• A measure of the intensity of acidic and alkaline condition of any aqueous solution
• Using the term “pH” expresses the H+ activity – related to concentration
Samples can not be colored or highly turbid
Saturated Colomel electrode (less common)
Glass electrode: A closed end glass tube with a very thin glass membrane at +p with constant pH. An electric poten+al develops across the glass: a difference in [H+] ion. A special voltmeter detects this.
• Molality = the number of moles of solute dissolved in one
kilogram of solvent
• Molarity = the number of moles of a solute dissolved in a liter of solution.
• Equivalent weight = molar mass/(H+ per mole)
• Equivalent = mass of compound / Equivalent weight
• Normality = (equivalents of X)/Liter
• Normality = Molarity x n
– (where n = the number of protons exchanged in a reaction).
• Not all hydrogen is ionized in solution!!
Acids – disassociate to yield hydrogen ions (H+)
Acid – contributes hydrogen ions, H+
Bases – disassociate to yield hydroxide (OH-)
Base – contributes hydroxyl ions, OH-
NaOH => Na+ + OH-
• Water is always a product in this reaction.
• Salts have a positive charge (cation) and a
negative charge (anion) group.
• Examples include water and amino acids.
• Water Softening
• Precipitation reactions
• Corrosion control
• Biological processes for waste treatment
• Metals speciation
• Toxicity studies (e.g. NH3 is toxic to aqua+c life at high pH)
What are the health concerns?
If low: increased risk of bacterial contamination
What are the health concerns?
What are the health concerns?
What are the health concerns?
What are the health concerns?
• This natural aging process can effect all surface waters.
• It is the primary cause for the deterioration of natural bodies.
• Eutrophication requires various nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorous, carbon, vitamin B12, etc.).
• Nutrients stimulate algal growth and macrophytes. This growth could significantly deteriorate water quality.
**It is a form of water pollution and like all other forms of pollution is the result of human activities influencing ecological cycles.
-Some red tides are associated with the production of natural toxins, depletion of dissolved oxygen or other harmful effects, and are generally described as harmful algal blooms.
–Red tide – the bacteria releases these toxins and cause acute respiratory affects- you dont even have to be drinking the water and it can be exposed. Can be indirect or direct exposure
• Cultural (Man Made) factors are wastewater discharges, non-point source runoff, and urban runoff (increased urbanization).
• Approaches to mitigate eutrophication are nutrient immobilization/removal, land-use planning and control of point/non-points sources.
–Depending on where are you you may or not have algae blooms – you need natural and human conditions that affect this phenomemon (algae bloom)
2. phosphorous (fresh water)
–level of nutrients up to 2 mg/L for both nitrogen and phosphorous above which can inhibit algal growth.
– – thelevels of these two nutrients determine the biological productivity of the lake, pond, or
–Eutrophication happens when phophorus and nitrogen exceed the ability for the phytoplankyton to assimiliate it
• Algal blooms are related to the density of plankton. If the number of plankton is greater than 0.5 to 1.0 x 106 plankton per liter), then you have a algal bloom.
• As a result, the criteria for nutrient concentrations causing algal blooms varies from system to system.
• Pnet = Pgross – Respiration = Eutrophication
• Measurement of Productivity
H2O + CO2 + sunlight–>O2 + CH2 + Energy
*Needs Chlorophyll and Enzymes produces one mole of oxygen and biomass
• Second Leading Cause of Impairment of Rivers and Streams
• Nutrients Contributed 25 -50% of Impairment Nationally
***euthropication is the leading cause of impairment in lakes – and is second for rivers and streams ( 1st is point source) and most of these are caused by the limiting factors of nitrogen and phosophorus
• DiversityofSurface Water
2. Inorangic CO2 concentration of a given water body
Norganic chemistry of water
-water can be a nautral CO2 sink
• Toxic discharges
• point sources of Phosphorus Still largely uncontrolled:
• Sewage inputs of Nitrogen
• non-point source N & P
livestock operations causes photosynthetic organisms in ponds and lakes to multiply rapidly (one definition)
–Eutrophication = nutrient over enrichment Phosphorus freshwater Nitrogen salt & brackish
–Limiting nutrient: The one in shortest supply relative to demand. If you add more of that nutrient the plants/algae will grow
Harmful algal blooms
-Plant and animal biomass increase
-Turbidity increases because of increased particles suspended within water
-Rate of sedimentation increases, shortening the lifespan of the lake
-anoxic conditions may develop
-reduction in length of food chains
-Loss of species diversities
-wind causes a lot of mixing
-summer: heating faster than mixing warm water is less dense and floats to top requiring a lot of wind to mix
You have mixing within the top and bottom zones but not inbetween zones
Strafication is less likely- the marker between zones is the “thermocline”
-Fish and large animals swim away from poor water, small things die
Salt water is denser
-mealimnion-zone of rapid temperature chance or thermocline
-hypolimnion: cooler deep waters
2. fertizlier washed by rain and down in to solil and the fertilzer is transported to lake by underground water
3. the presence of fertilizer rich in nitrogren and phosphates in lakes causes overgrowth of the algae and aquatic plants.
4. Now no sunlight can reach the bottom of the light causing the algae and plants to die.
5. The bacteria then comes in to decompose the algae. WHen doing this bacteria uses up all the oxygen in the lake making it anoxic.
6. This causes all the living organisms to die.
-NPP-Net Primary Production- in epilimnion depends on nutrient delivery to epilimnion and regeneration
-low levels of nutrients are found in surface waters due to efficient phytoplankon uptake
Floating microorganisms that thrives in nutrient conditions Highly toxic to fish and humans
Lose habitat and biodiversity Lose economic benefits
• Phosphorus for Fresh Water Systems
Blue Baby Disease
Eutrophication of Estuaries and Coastal Waters Harmful Algal Bloom
-on-site control of agriculture drainage
-off-site control of agricultureal drainage
-Changing cropping systems
-Reducing nitrogen fertilizer application rates
-Managing manure spreading
-Managing the timing of nitrogen application
-Using nitrification inhibitors
-Changing tillage methods
-Increasing drainage tile spacing
Off-site control of agricultural drainage:
nonpoint source control
Point source control
-Point source control:
• Environmentaltechnology • Ecotechnology
• Contributed by the Main Stem of Mississippi River
• In Stream Denitrification
• High Reactivity with Soil Components
• Immobile in Soils
– No Concern about Ground Water Pollution
• Ecological Concerns
– Algal blooms in Great Lakes
• High Phosphate Detergents
• Point Sources of Pollution
• Low Dissolved Oxygen
• Fish Kill
• Increased Sediment Accumulation • Species Shift
• Base Criteria on:
– Ecological Regions
– Types of Waters (Lakes, Rivers, Wetlands and Coastal waters)
– Use Reference (Pristine) conditions for Setting Reference Levels
• Mesotrophic lakes are moderate levels of nutrients (Meso meaning moderate).
• Eutrophic lakes are highly productive (Eutro meaning well nourished).
• Post eutrophic or hypertophic lake are lakes being transformed into marshes.
• Allotrophic lake is a lake receiving a major potrion of its nutrients from external sources or outside the lake (runoff into the lake).
Trent Biotic Index
1) Plecoptera nymphs
2) Ephemeroptera nymphs
3) Thichoptera larvae
6) Tubificids and or Chironomid larvae
• Insensitive to certain habitats
• Gives erroneous results
Ecological Community methods
-Advanced Statistics –showing different relationships (component analysis,linear regression,etc.)
-Long time to identify each organism
-Need Background in Taxonomy of individual species
-Large sample size & familiar with advanced statistics
On-site restoration techniques
-point source controls
-nonpoint source controls
-Riparian buffer strips
-Storm water drain management –
-Construction site soil erosion management
the properties of water, cause changes in lake water column structure.
-Physical changes in water column structure (e.g. stratification) have profound effects on carbon and nutrient cycling, and impact biological communities and whole lake ecosystems
• Includes the transfer pathway of those agents and their interactions with the environment.
• Effects on ecosystem
• Indirect effects, slow – (may be over generations)
• Silent Spring, 1962 – Pesticides in env. – Effect on wildlife – Egg shell thinning
and what is its importance
– Pathways, persistence, bioavailability, bioaccumulation (plants/ animals), biomagnification (food chain)
– Fate of contaminants and potential impacts
– 63,000 chemicals,
– Impact assessment
– Risk assessment
– Risk management
– Environmental policy
• Effects – don’t know how to measure or monitor for effects
2. Dose response assessment – ” how toxic is the chemical?”
3. exposure assessment-“who is exposed to the chemical, how often and how long?”
4. Risk Characterization- “so what? what are the consequences? Do we have a problem?”
***After risk characterization, the acceptable level of exposure via food, water, ambient air, etc. is determined. Alternatives to control the risk are then studied and managers decide how to reduce the risk to acceptable level and execute all necessary action.
1. Further elucidate the vital signs of ecosystem health,
2. Diagnose early warning symptoms of ecosystem stress,
3. Assess the sensi+vity and long-term response of ecosystems to low doses of contaminants; and,
4. Formulate proper treatment protocols for ecosystem rehabilitation,
– Links aquatic toxicology and environmental chemistry,
– Provides background for aquatic hazard assessment and environmental fate modeling
– Contaminant – Substance released by man’s activities.
– Pollutant – all substances that occur in the environment and which have a deleterious effect on living organisms.
– Toxicant – agent or material capable of producing an adverse response or effect in a biological system, seriously injuring structure or function or producing death.
– Xenobiotic – new – made chemicals, not produced in Nature.
Biocenose- A community of living beings – biocenose
-At___ level, response can be:
–acute toxicity causing:
–at population level:
–at community level:
-change in ecosystem
on ecosystem is at organism level
-At organism level, response can be:
-00-Acute toxicity causing mortality
– Chronically accumulating damage ultimately causing death
– Sublethal impairment of various aspects of physiology and morphology
– Sublethal behavioral effects
– Measurable biochemical changes
-00- At population level, response can be:
– Size and dynamics (based on birth rates, death rates, gains, from immigration and losses from emigration)
– Cause a reduction or an increase in the natural flow chart of numbers, in the biomass, sex ratio, etc.
–00–At community level, response can be: – Species diversity
– Predator prey relationship, etc
–000-Change in ecosystem
– Nutrient cycling rates, patterns of nutrient flow,
– Physical-chemical conditions etc.
Physiochemical Characteristics of biotopes:
– Light and temperature regimes
– Substratum conditions
– D.O. and water quality
– Integration of all these factors gives rise to zonation phenomena
-Neurotoxic: Exerting a destructive or poisonous effect on nerve tissue.
-Carcinogenic: Causing or inducing uncontrolled growth of aberrant cells into malignant tumors.
-Mutagenic: Causing heritable alteration of the genetic material within living cells.
-Teratogenic: Causing nonhereditary congenital malformations (birth defects) in offspring.
• LD50 – lethal dose (usually given as a single dose to mammals) which results in 50% death of the test population.
• IC50 – Inhibitory concentration = toxic conc. Causing a given % decrease in non-quantal biological measurement (growth or fecundity)
-NOAEL- No observed adverse effect level during life cycle
-MATC-maximum acceptable toxic concentration ( same as noael)
-NOEL-NO observed effect level
NOEL = highest effluent concentration at which no unacceptable effect will occur, even at continuous exposure
• The four major elements of a toxicity test for a whole effluent include:
– Procuring or culturing a healthy test organism
– Applying the proper experimental design
– Calculating the endpoint
2. Regulation of toxics difficult
a. Great number of toxics that can be discharged
b. Difficulty in analysis
c. Synergistic effects of chemical mixtures
3. Whole effluent approach
a. Measure toxicity of discharges
b. Effluent sample collected and tested with organisms
Whole effluent Approach Procedure:
a. Use receiving water for diluent
b. Place organisms in test chambers for given time periods
c. At given time periods, count organisms for endpoints
(2) Lower fecundity
(3) Reduced growth rates
d. Endpoints (1) – (3) can be used to quantify concentration that would cause in stream impact if exceeded for a particular time
e. Stated as an LC50 or No Observed Effect Level (NOEL)
(1) NOEL = highest effluent concentration at which no unacceptable effect will occur, even at continuous exposure
a. Permit limits can be expressed as LC5O or NOEL’S
b. Use of Toxicity Units (TU’s)
a. 100 divided by toxicity measured b. TU = ____100_____
LC5O or NOEL
c. LC5O, NOEL expressed as percent effluent in receiving water
d. An effluent with a toxicity of 10% is an effluent containing 10 TU’s
e. Two measures
(1) TUa – – Acute toxicity units (2) TUc – – Chronic toxicity units
a. Aggregate toxicity of all cons+tuents measured
b. Toxic effect(s) limited by limi+ng one parameter, TU c. Bioavailability of toxics assessed
d. Effects of interac+ons measured
Whole Effluent Approach Disadvantages
a. Effluent toxicity treatability data lacking
b. Where chemical/physical changes act in such a way to “release” downstream, not measured
c. Proper+es of specific chemicals in complex effluents not assessed
(1) Bioaccumula+on (2) Carcinogenicity
• Need to know what toxic effects are on streams by compounds and why industry is now required to do bioassays.
• No two organisms act the same to the same compound or con’t of compound. This is dealt with in a Probability Analysis and Frequency Distribu+on:
– Determine fate/behavior of contaminants – Risk assessment/management
– Water quality standard seung
• Emerging science, holistic, multidiscipline approach needed to:
– Further elucidate the vital signs of ecosystem health
– Diagnose early warning symptoms of ecosystem stress
– Assess the sensitivity and long term response of ecosystems to low doses of contaminants; and,
– Formulate proper treatment protocols for ecosystem rehabilitation.
-lakes and impoundments
2. population density
-Cations: Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium, potassium, iron
-Anions: Bicarbonate (alkalkinity), Sulfate, Chloride (TDS), Nitrate
-ground water dissolves Limestone increasing hard water (minerals)
2. constant composition
3. may contain gases such as CO2, H2s, Ch4, Rn222
4. May contain excessive concentrations of elements such as iron, magnesium, calcium, magnesium fluoride, selenium, arsenic, radium, sodium, nitrates.
5. low in numbers of microorganisms
6. subject to contamination from infiltration and subsequent percolation
**can have some percolation from rain water that can contimate
**surface waters u have to filter prior to distribution
2. rapid recovery from contamination
3. since water is the universal solvent may find almost anything
4. Since gases are in equilibrium with atmosphere, low concentrations of CO2, etc
5. subject to wastewater discharges and nonpoint source pollution thus may be low in dissolved oxygen
6. may have high concentrations of microorganisms
***surface waters are typically lower in hardness than groundwater
— surface water usually has a lot of waste water discharge
-quality of surface waters may be significantly different than that found at lower levels because of stratifcation
-when the impoundment stratifies, if there are organics in lower levels the oxygen levels may be reduced to near zero by bacterial action and because of the lack of oxygen transfer from the upper layers of the impoundment this oxygen may not be replaced.
Purest water – industrial has the largest volume of water due to the need for electricity (water and electricity are intertwined)- cooling towers and broilers require an immense amount of water -exhausted heat is cooled in cooling tower— and also requires the purest form of water becuase if it loaded with TDS it will scale out those pipes and prevent heat transfer
-Spring or well waters- dependent on weather
-lakes or streams- surface water
-Desalinization- sea bracking brine water-high ost
-Reclamation of wastewater- something coming on line- take wastewater and reinject into groundwater to directly recharge
-semipermeable membrane — apply pressue to squeeze water through membrane and are left with a brine reject ( high concentration of brine)- have to go through filtration steps first