VT 9D Pain Management

Aspirin
NSAID
Buprenorphine (Buprenex)
Opioid
Butorphanol (“torb”)
Opioid
Carprofen (Rimadyl)
NSAID
Detomidine (Dormosedan)
a2 agonist
Dexmedetomidine (Dexdormitor)
as agonist
Etodolac (Etogesic)
NSAID
Fentanyl
Opioid
Flunixin meglamine (Banamine)
NSAID
Gabapentin (Neurontin)
Anticonvulsant
Ketamine
NMDA antagonist
Ketoprofen
NSAID
Lidocaine
Local anesthetic
Meloxicam (Metacam)
NSAID
Morphine
Opioid
Oxymorphone
Opioid
Phenylbutazone (“bute”)
NSAID
Tramadol
Opioid
Xylazine (Rompun)
a2 agonist
pain
an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage
mechanical nociceptor
pain receptors stimulated by cuts, abrasions, stretch or pressure
thermal nociceptor
pain receptors stimulated by heat or cold
chemical nociceptor
pain receptors stimulated by noxious chemicals
neuropathic pain
pain initiated due to a primary dysfunction of the nerve, spinal cord, or brain
somatic pain
pain associated with the integumentary and musculoskeletal systems
visceral pain
pain associated with the cardiopulmonary, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary systems
acute pain
pain of short duration, typically < 3 months
chronic pain
pain of long duration, typically > 3 months
analgesia
absence of pain or relief from pain
preemptive analgesia
prevention of pain
multimodal analgesia
Tx of pain with a combination of drugs having synergistic effects
prostaglandins
a group of natural chemicals, some of which are produced from damaged cell membranes and induce pain and inflammation
corticosteriods
steroid hormones produced by the adrenal cortex or synthetic analogs, some of which block the production of prostaglandins
cortisol
adrenal hormone produced in response to physical or physiological stress
NSAID
non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
COX
cyclo-oxygenase; an important enzyme in synthesis of prostaglandins
local anesthetics
anesthetics that disrupt neural transmission of pain signals
nerve block
use of local anesthetics to disrupt transmission of specific nerves
mu receptor
opioid receptors in the CNS chiefly responsible for providing analgesia
kappa receptor
opioid receptors in the CNS chiefly responsible for providing sedation
sigma receptor
opioid receptors in the CNS chiefly responsible for providing dysphoria, excitement, restlessness and anxiety
agonists
drugs that bind to a cell receptor and cause action
antagonists
drugs that bind to a cell receptor and cause action
CRI
constant rate infusion; administration of medication in continuous low doses
dysphoria
an emotional state characterized by anxiety depression or unease
hyperalgesia
increased sensitivity to pain
allodynia
perception of pain from normally harmless sensations
wind-up phenomenon
sensitization to pain within the CNS involving both Hyperalgesia and Allodynia
“kitty magic”
a multimodal analgesia/anesthesia including a a2 agonist (dexmedetomidine), an opioid (buprenorphine), and ketamine