Virtualization

A more modern name for a Virtual Machine Manager (VMM) is a _________________.
hypervisor
Companies use virtualization to do all of the following except:
Reduce the amount of applications in corporate datacenters
T/F
Only limited application types can be run in a virtual machine. More complex systems like databases and email services cannot be virtualized.
False
What two information technology trends helped drive the need for virtualization?
The explosive growth of Microsoft Windows on servers in corporate datacenters.

The constantly increasing capabilities of corporate servers due to Moore’s Law.

A Terabyte is equivalent to ___________ Gigabytes.
1024
T/F
Moore’s Law states that processing power triples every eighteen months.
False
Moore’s Law says that processing power roughly doubles every 18 months
T/F
Today, companies are deploying more virtual machines than physical servers.
True
T/F
Moore’s Law defines the three properties that a Virtual Machine Manager (VMM) must possess to be considered efficient.
False
Moore’s Law says that processing power roughly doubles every 18 months

According to Popek and Goldberg, a VMM needs to exhibit three properties in order to be considered an efficeint VMM
Fidelity
Isolation or Safety
Performance

Virtualization was developed and used on computers during which decade?
1960’s
_______________ is when companies use virtualization to deploy all new applications as virtual machines.
Containment
The _____________________ is the measure of how servers are condensed as a result of virtualization. (Two words.)
consolidation ratio
Which of the following is not one of Popek and Goldberg’s properties that a VMM would need to exhibit in order to be considered efficient?
Persistence

According to Popek and Goldberg, a VMM needs to exhibit three properties in order to be considered an efficeint VMM
Fidelity
Isolation or Safety
Performance

The _________ hypervisor is an example of an open-source project.
Xen
A virtual machine can:
Can only see resources allocated by the hypervisor
T/F
Hypervisor control memory and processor resources while Virtual Machines control their own network and storage resources.
False

The hypervisor handles all of the storage I/O requests from the guest the network I/O, memory processing, and CPU work.

T/F
A hypervisor is a specialized hardware device that facilitates virtualization.
False

A hypervisor is a specialized SOFTWARE device that facilitates virtualization
A hypervisor is a layer of software that resides below the virtual machines and above the hardware.
The hypervisor manages the interactions between each virtual machine and the hardware that the guests all share.

Guest or VM is another term for ______________.
virtual machine
VMM stands for the term ________.
Virtual Machine Manager
T/F
Virtual machines that run on Type-1 hypervisors are considered to be more secure and better performing than those running on Type-2 hypervisors.
True
The first commercial x86 hypervisor was released by:
VMware
Another name for a virtualization server is a:
Host
A _____________ hypervisor runs directly on the server hardware to provide resources to the virtual machines it supports.
Type 1
T/F
Server virtualization is limited to the x86 processor class of hardware.
False
A ____________ hypervisor runs on top of an operating system to provide resources to the virtual machines it supports.
Type 2
T/F
Possible changes to virtual CPUs in a virtual machine include only the amount of virtual CPUs
True
A ______________ is a specialized VM that contain an operating system and is preloaded and pre-configured with an application.
virtual appliance
The least privileged Ring in the x86 Processor architecture is Ring:
3
A new virtual machine created by copying an existing virtual machine is called a _____________.
clone
T/F
Once a copy is created from a virtual machine’s files, the new clone can be powered on and safely deployed in the environment without any alterations.
False

Once that copy exists, the guest operating system only needs some customization in the form of unique system information, such as system name and IP address, before it can be instantiated. Without those changes, two VMs with the same identity would be running the network and application space, and that would wreak havoc on many levels.

T/F
All virtual machine to virtual machine communications must take place across the physical network, even if the two virtual machines reside on the same physical server.
False

VM-to-VM communications can occur across a virtual switch and nvever leave the physical host.

When a virtual machine’s operating system issues a shutdown command, what happens?
The hypervisor traps the command and tells the virtual machine the virtual hardware is shutting down.
_____________ allow a user to return a virtual machine to prior state in time.
Snapshots
NFS, fibre channel, and iSCSI are all examples of ___________ connection types.
storage
T/F
The OVA standard provides a platform and vendor-neutral format to bundle and deploy virtual machines.
False

OVF Open Virtualization Format is a standard that provides a platform and vendor-neutral format to bundle and deploy virtual machines.

x86 processor architecture provides four different levels of command execution to provide security. These levels are often referred to as ____________.
rings
A virtual machine that is created expressly for the purpose of being a standardized mold to create new VMs is called a:
Template
T/F
Suspending an application is mandatory during a Physical-to-Virtual conversion process to ensure all changes are migrated to the newly created virtual machine correctly.
False

Hot cloning performs the clone operation while the source server is booted and the application is running. A hot clone allows the P2V to complete without disrupting the application.

The New Virtual Machine Wizard of VMware Player allows you to install an operating system from: (Choose all that apply.)
CD/DVD drive
ISO image on the file system
T/F
Both containment and consolidation strategies reduce the number of physical servers in a datacenter.
True
T/F
Virtual machines are limited to running only Microsoft Windows and Red Hat Linux as their operating systems.
False
Which of the following is not a process when dealing with virtual infrastructures:
P2P
Most virtual servers are often configured with ____________ memory and processor resources than their physical counterparts.
less

The practice is to start smaller with an initial VM and add resources if necessary, rather than start with a larger VM and subtract them.

VMware Player is an example of a ___________ hypervisor.
Type 2
One way that virtual servers are sized differently than physical servers is that:
They do not need to be sized for long term growth when they are first deployed
The elapsed time for a P2V process to complete is directly related to:
the number and size of disks that need to be processed
A server is expected to process 2000 transactions per second during its initial year of deployment. If it is expected to increase transaction growth by 10% annually, how many transactions per second should the server be able to process by the end of its fifth year?
2928
T/F
Configuration best practices states to create a new virtual machine with more resources than necessary, and remove them if it proves to be oversized.
False

The practice is to start smaller with an initial VM and add resources if necessary, rather than start with a larger VM and subtract them.

______________ is when you perform a P2V process on a physical server that is still running and the application is servicing users.
Hot cloning
_____________________ should be collected from both physical and virtual servers in order to understand and monitor the resources being consumed by the workload.
Performance metrics
The most time-consuming step during the Windows installation process is usually:
Copying and unpacking files from the installation media to the disk storage
Examples of services that would be disabled in a virtual machine are: (Choose more than one.)
Wireless connectivity
Power management
The Windows 7 installation type for a new installation of Windows is __________________.
custom
T/F
When going through the installation of Windows in a virtual machine, the allocation and formatting of disk storage is identical to the process in a physical server.
True
________________ are virtual machines that already contain an operating system, are sometimes preloaded with application software, and are used to create new virtual machines.
Templates
In order to power on the virtual hardware to begin the installation, choose the ______________ option from the virtual machine menu. (Three words separated by a space.)
Play Virtual Machine
T/F
The installation of VMware Tools is mandatory in a VMware environment.
False
T/F
Virtual Machines require customized operating system versions.
False
When loading an operating system into a virtual machine, that virtual machine:
Must be powered on and have the installation media as the boot device
VMware Tools are installed in a virtual machine for all except:
Enhanced memory utilization
T/F
Personalization features like wallpapers and screen savers are important to a virtual machine.
False
T/F
As of 2012, the dominant server operating system on the x86 platform was Linux
False
When Linux partitioned the 20GB allocated for disk storage, how much was reserved for boot software?
500 MB
Which of the following is not an example of a server operating system:
VMware ESXi
If you only had a physical DVD of the Red Hat Linux Installation media, you would choose ______________ as the connection type for the CD/DVD device in order to boot from the DVD when the virtual machine was powered on.
use physical drive
If you install the VMware Tools on a Linux system, the program that it runs as a system daemon is ______________.
vmtoolsd
The protocol that helps multiple servers keep their system time synchronized is:
NTP
Linux is considered to be a(n) ________________ operating system.
open-source
On Linux systems, a system process is also known as a(n) ________________.
daemon
T/F
In a Linux virtual machine, the VMware Tools must be installed as a root user.
True
T/F
One main reason that Linux is being used more often as the operating system for production servers is due to its better performance characteristics than other operating systems.
False
When Linux partitioned the 20GB allocated for disk storage, how much was actually allocated for user space?
17.96 GB
Linux operating systems should not be modified once the installation is complete.
False
Enabling Hyper-threading with usually improve performance by
About 30%
T/F
Hyper-threading does not work in a virtualization environment.
False
_______________ is an Intel technology that improves performance by allowing more than one set of instructions to be executed on a processor.
Hyper-threading
Best practice is to configure ___________ vCPU(s) for a new virtual machine.
one
A host server has 4 processors, each with 8 cores. If you can allocate 8 vCPUs per pCPU, how many vCPUs can be allocated?
Each processor has eight cores. Each core (pCPU) can support eight vCPUs. 4 processors x 8 cores x 8 vCPUs = 256 vCPUs
T/F
Virtual machines can be configured with multiple processors and multiple cores per processor, just like a physical machine.
True
A virtual machines that is running on a host with an AMD processor can be live migrated to a host with an Intel processor.
False

In a mixed environment, the instruction sets of the different microprocessors are not identical, so you cannot live-migrate the virtual machines from an AMD host to an Intel host, or vice versa.
In order to move a virtual machine from an AMD host to an Intel host, or the reverse, you need to shut down that virtual machine, and then you can restart it on the second host with the different chipset

________________ is when multiple entities are all simultaneously trying to use the same resource causing performance to suffer.
contention
The maximum number of vCPUs that can be configured in a single virtual machine is:
it varies by the hypervisor vendor
Modern CPUs are often a package of multiple processors. These individual processors are also known as _________.
cores
One reason to create a virtual machine with multiple multi-core vCPUs is:
In some cases, licensing allows operating systems to use more resources with the multi-core vCPUs
T/F
Adding vCPUs is usually the best method to resolve performance problems in a virtual machine.
False
T/F
It is common practice to reserve memory in amount equal to 20 percent of the physical server memory for the exclusive use of the hypervisor.
False
Hypervisors manage the virtual machine’s memory use of physical memory through the implementation of ____________.
Memory mapping tables
T/F
Memory Ballooning allows a virtual machine to expand past its allocated memory amount in the event of memory contention.
False
Memory blocks are also known as _________
pages
T/F
Though Moore’s Law was originally used to describe the trend in processor performance, it is also applicable to memory.
True
Which if the following is not an example of memory optimization
Dynamic Addition
Dynamic addition of memory (hot-add) into a virtual machine depends on:
If the guest operating system supports dynamic addition
The process of copying memory blocks to disk storage is known as _____________.
paging
T/F
Memory paging is a desired processed because it speeds up system performance
False
The ability to allocate more virtual memory than physically exists on a host server is called _______________.
Memory Overcommit
Which of the following does VMware Player not provide regarding memory management:
Guest OS Recommended Maximum Memory value
Memory, or RAM, is another term for:
Random Access Memory
T/F
There are currently no technologies available that can manage storage IO to ensure that specific virtual machines will receive adequate bandwidth in the event of contention.
False
___________________ is when a file system consumes the entire allocated amount of space, whether or not it is ever used
thick provisioning
T/F
Most storage best practices translate well from the physical environment to the virtual environement.
True
T/F
A virtual host connects to storage resources only through a specialized storage controller called a Host-Bus Adapter (HBA) or a Fibre-Channel Controller (FCC).
False
Storage virtualization is
Abstracting of the resources to the virtual machines
Virtualization hosts can use all of the following except:
Virtual Network Storage arrays
Virtual machines can bypass the hypervisor and connect directly to a physical device by using ___________.
Raw device mapping (RDM)
____________________ is a storage technology that deals with how data is spread across multiple disks for both increased availability and improved performance.
RAID
Deduplication technology can work with all of the following data entities except:
File systems
T/F
Storage utilization in a virtual environment requires planning for significant overhead due to the hypervisor’s activity between the storage resources and the virtual guests.
False
One of the primary reasons for poor performance in a virtual environment is due to:
Lack of adequate storage IO throughput
_________________ is a storage capability that removes duplicate chunks of data and replaces them with pointers back to a single original item.
Deduplication
In a bridged network configuration:
Virtual machines have IP addresses that are unique to the network and can be seen from outside of the host
T/F
A virtual machine may only connect to one virtual switch at a time
False
_____________ is used to automatically provide IP addresses for both physical and virtual servers.
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
In a NAT network configuration:
Virtual machines have unique IP addresses but cannot be seen from outside of the host
An IPv4 address is represented as ________ octets in the dot and decimal format.
4
VMware Workstation can be used to configure all of the following network connections except:
Transparent
T/F
A virtual NIC may only connect to one virtual switch.
True
Virtual machines can communicate only with other virtual machine across a(n) ___________________.
Internal virtual switch
T/F
Virtual networks and virtual switches can be used to transport both user data traffic and storage data traffic.
True
Converged Network Adapters:
Reduce the number of NICs in a server and by consolidating traffic types across larger bandwidth
A virtual machine connects from the virtual NIC to a(n) _____________.
virtual switch
T/F
Virtual machines require special drivers to connect to virtual networks.
False
Cloned virtual machines can be used for all except:
The restoration of a previous machine state
T/F
Virtual machines with operating systems other than Microsoft Windows can also be cloned.
True
Virtual machines that are not powered on and are used to create new virtual machines are known as:
Templates
T/F
Snapshots are another alternative to backing up virtual machines.
False
T/F
Linked clones cannot operate if their reference virtual machine is not available.
True
When using snapshots, you can incorporate changes made into the base virtual machine by ______________.
merging snapshots
A full clone requires ______________ disk space that the original virtual machine consumes.
the same amount of
In a VMware environment, a .vmdk file represents a virtual machine’s ________________.
virtual disk
_____________ is a Microsoft specific utility that is used to automate the customization of a Windows server.
Sysprep
Virtual machines can be altered, and if those changes prove to cause problems, the virtual machine can be reverted to the original state through the use of:
Snapshots
T/F
Because of the simplicity of the process, most clones of virtual machines are created by hand.
False
Cloned virtual machines:
All of the above
Virtual machine tools are installed as all of the following except:
User application
_______________ are normally no longer found on computers, but were once the most popular media for moving data from system to system.
Floppy disks
T/F
Virtual machines can be configured to utilize multiple monitors.
True
T/F
Hypervisors allow multiple virtual machines to simultaneously share USB devices.
False
Virtualizing a sound card is somewhat of a misrepresentation because:
Control is passed to the sound card on the local device, not the host server
Virtual machine tools are installed to provide: (choose all that apply)
Improved performance
Better user experience
T/F
The installation of virtual machine tools, while very beneficial, is not a mandatory step in the creation of a virtual machine.
True
Mice, keyboards, and graphical displays are all examples of _________.
Human Interface Devices (HIDs)
T/F
Virtual machines only support peripheral devices and connection methods that are offered and supported on current physical servers.
False
The _______________ offers a common connection for computer peripherals and provides data transfer and power capabilities for those devices.
Universal Serial Bus (USB) standard
Virtual Machines can support all of the following USB devices except:
They can all be supported
While physical floppy disks had a write-protect tab to guard against accidental data alteration or erasure, to achieve the same effect for a virtual floppy disk the ____________ option would need to be selected.
Read-only
A mission critical virtual machine can be protected from a virtualization host failure by utilizing:
Fault tolerance
Files that compose virtual machines can be move from one place to another without interrupting the virtual machine through the use of ___________________.
Storage Migration
____________________ groups network adapters together for higher throughput and availability if one adapter in the group fails.
NIC teaming
T/F
Virtual machine tools are not used to help increase availability.
False
T/F
Live migration is a large component of increased availability in a virtual deployment.
True
Virtual machines can be protected in the event of a data center interruption by utilizing:
Disaster recovery solutions
T/F
Microsoft Cluster Services and Oracle Real Application Clusters cannot be deployed in a virtual infrastructure.
False
________________ links together two or more servers with networking and shared storage to provide an environment to enable greater uptime.
Clustering
___________________ describes a condition where a virtual environment has deployed many servers without the benefit of adequate business processes and that environment is now overwhelmed.
Server sprawl
T/F
The number one reason for system outages is human error.
True
Availability solutions that translate from the physical environment to the virtual environment include all but the following:
Live migration
‘Five nines’ equates to how much downtime in a year?
5 minutes and 18 seconds
In a three-tier architecture, the component that runs the program code and enforces the business processes is the:
Application Server
___________________ rules guarantee that two selected virtual machines will not run on the same virtualization host.
Anti-affinity
T/F
A limit, the performance setting indicating the greatest amount of resources a virtual machine can receive, can be set differently than the resource has been configured.
True
The preferred way to ensure that an application performs correctly is to:
Measure performance regularly and adjust resources if necessary
Virtual appliances are often delivered in _____________ format so they can be quickly deployed on any hypervisor.
Open virtualization format (OVF)
T/F
When two virtual machines are constantly communicating, it is a good idea to apply VM-affinity rules to them so that they are always on the same host.
True
___________________ are aggregated collections of memory and CPU resources that can be shared among groups of virtual machines or other entities.
Resource pools
____________________ is a package of one or more virtual machines that make up an entire deployable application.
vApp
In a three-tier architecture, the component that acts as the interface between the user and the application is the:
Webserver
Resource pools can be applied to all of the following except:
Groups of clusters
T/F
When configuring resource pools for a cluster, all of the resources must be allocated to the pools.
False
Shares are used to determine the guaranteed minimum amount of a resource allocated to a virtual machine.
False