Upper/Lower Diseases

Term Definition
Influenza signs + symptoms headache, chills, dry cough, body aches, fever, stuffy nose,sore throat, extreme fatigue, secondary infections
Influenza begins in the _________, and progesses to the _______ upper respiratory tract, lower respiratory tract
Influenza causative agents Influenza A, B and C viruses
Influenza's glycoprotein spikes include Hemagglutinin and neuraminidase
hemagglutinin (H) RBC clump together; defines cell tropism
neuraminidase (N) Releases new virions, "tamiflu"
What is the genome for influenza? ssRNA
What are the two mutations for influenza? Antigenic drift and Antigenic shift
Antigenic drift mutation of (H, N) genes, Seasonal flu, epidemics (diseae outbreaks limited to one geographic area)
Antigenic shift RNA exchange between different viruses, coinfection of host, Pandemic flu (outbreaks occur over several continents), H1N1 outbreak
Influenza transmission… inhalation of droplets, indirect contact
Influenza Epidemiology…. drier air of winter facilitates spread
_______ U.S. influenza deaths / year 36,000
Influenza affects the very ______ and very ______. young;old
Influenza prevention Vaccination
The vaccination for influenza is ______, and is _____. It also has _____ predicted viruses. Inactive: seasonal: 3
Who should get the influenza vaccine? Anyone over 6 months
live attenuated seasonal vaccine for influenza is…. FluMist; a spray
Pertussis is considered… "Whooping cough" or "100 day cough"
Causative Agent for Pertussis Bordetella pertussis
Transmission for Pertussis droplet contact (highly contagious )
How does the transmission of Pertussis happen? Attaches to the resp. tract using pili and release toxins: filamentous hemagglutinin: Pertussis toxin (massive lymphocytosis): Edema Factor toxin: Tracheal toxin (in the cell wall, damages the cells in the trachea)
Pertussis Diagnosis 100 day cough
What are the stages of Pertussis? Catarrhal, Paroxysmal, Convalescent
What is stage one of pertussis? Catarrhal stage: runny nose, Lacrimation and conjunctivitis, 1-2 weeks
What is stage two of pertussis? Paroxysmal stage (2 weeks to 2 months): Uncontrolled coughing (paroxysm), “Whooping stage” (intense/out of breath)
What is stage three of pertussis? Convalescent phase- up to 3 months: Recovery, Other infections
Prevention for pertussis… DTaP vaccine, boosters
Treatment for pertussis… supportive, Antibiotics
RSV Disease causative agent… Respiratory syncitial virus (RSV)
RSV Disease transmission… droplet and indirect contact via fomites, peak incidence in the winter and early spring
RSV Disease treatment… No vaccine, supportive
RSV Disease can be serious for which age group? Babies
RSV disease symptoms… Cold like symptoms

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