unit 5 govt

winner-take-all
In contrast to proportional representation systems, the United States’ winner-take-all election system returns only the candidate who receives a plurality of votes. Everyone else loses; all ballots cast in their favor are for nought.
cabinet
The Cabinet of the United States is composed of the most senior appointed officers of the executive branch of the federal government of the United States, who are generally the heads of the federal executive departments
inner cabinet
The (often informal) inner circle within a cabinet (which may itself by an official inner circle within a government or council of ministers) which includes only the ministers (secretaries of state etc.) who are closest to the executive head of state, prime minister or equivalent (notably presiding) officer
executive office of the president
The Executive Office of the President (EOPOTUS or EOP) consists of the immediate staff of the current President of the United States and multiple levels of support staff reporting to the President.
office of management and budget
The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is the largest office within the Executive Office of the President of the United States (EOP). The director of the OMB is a member of the Executive Office of the President. The main function of the OMB is to assist the president in preparing the budget.[2] The OMB also measures the quality of agency PROGRAMS, policies, and procedures and to see if they comply with the president’s policies.
national security council
The White House National SECURITY Council (NSC) is the principal forum used by the President of the United States for a peaceful consideration of national security and foreign policy matters with his senior national security advisors and Cabinet officials and is part of the Executive Office of the President of the United States. Since its inception under Harry S. Truman, the function of the Council has been to advise and assist the president on national SECURITY and foreign policies.
council of economic advisors
The Council of Economic Advisers (CEA) is an agency within the Executive Office of the President that advises the President of the United States on economic policy.[1] The CEA provides much of the objective empirical research for the White House and prepares the annual Economic Report of the President.
white house office
The White House Office is an entity within the Executive Office of the President of the United States. The White House Office is headed by the White House Chief of Staff, who is also the head of the Executive Office. These aides oversee the political and policy interests of the president and do not require Senate confirmation for appointment. They can be removed at the discretion of the president (Examples: National SECURITY Adviser, special consultant to the president)
mandate
formal order given by a higher authority
youngstown
United States Supreme Court decision that limited the power of the President of the United States to seize private property; to avert a strike pres truman ordered secretary of commerce to take over steel mills. the supreme court held that he must relinquish control, had overstepped.
executive orders
legally binding orders given by the President, acting as the head of the Executive Branch, to Federal Administrative Agencies. Executive Orders are generally used to direct federal agencies and officials in their execution of congressionally established laws or policies.
impoundment
Impoundment is an act by a President of the United States of not spending money that has been appropriated by the U.S. Congress.
amnesty
an official pardon for people who have been convicted of political offenses.
pardon
A pardon is a government decision to allow a person who has been convicted of a crime, to be free and absolved of that conviction, as if never convicted. A pardon is a government decision to allow a person who has been convicted of a crime, to be free and absolved of that conviction, as if never convicted.
reprieve
to delay the impending punishment or sentence of (a condemned person).
executive privilege
executive privilege is the power claimed by the President of the United States and other members of the executive branch to resist certain subpoenas and other interventions by the legislative and judicial branches of government to access information and personnel relating to the executive branch.
united states vs. nixon
made it clear that the president is not above the law; nixon named as an unidicted co conspirtor after watergate. nixon resisted the order to turn over the tapes, claiming he was entitled to confidentiality. the supreme court disagreed and held that only those presidential conversations that relate to performance are confidential.
bureacrats
an official in a government department, in particular one perceived as being concerned with procedural correctness at the expense of people’s needs.
embassies
an ambassadors official residence and offices in a foreign country
executive agreement
an agreement made between the president and a head of state
government corporations
a business that the federal government runs
central intelligence agency
service of the U.S. Government, tasked with gathering, processing and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence
general services administration
help manage and support the basic functioning of federal agencies.
deregulation
is the process of removing or reducing state regulations. It is therefore opposite of regulation, which refers to the process of the government regulating certain activities.
client groups
individuals and groups who work with a govenrment agency and are most affected by its decisions
hatch act
An Act to Prevent Pernicious Political Activities, is a United States federal law whose main provision prohibits employees in the executive branch of the FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, except the president, vice-president, and certain designated high-level officials of that branch, from engaging in some forms of political activity.
qualifications to be pres?
natural born citizen of the US, at least 35 years old, a resident for at least 14 years
if pres dies who is next? then after that?
vice pres is next. then speaker of the house.
role of vp?
2 duties: presides over the senate, and votes in case of a tie. second, help decide whether the pres is disabled, acts if that happens. depends on responsibilities assigned by president. (paritcipate in policy discussions, etc.)
electorcal college:
parties choose nominees. when ppl vote, they are actually voting for the electors, not the nominees. # determined by total of te house and senate plus 3 for DOC. the vote is the same as the reps each state has.
constitutional powers of the pres? how do these compare to the offices actual powers?
head of the executive branch. needed a strong executive (articles of confed. :C) broad but vague powers. commander in chief of the armed forces, response for security… head of exec branch.. appoints heads of executive departments… conducts foreign policy.. appoints judges.. can pardon people. informally, presidents interpret their role. personal exercises of power, immediate needs of the nation (lincoln) mandate of the poepple.
leadership styles?
some presidents are good communiacotrs, others not. pres needs to understand the pulic, ability to communicate, goo dsense of timing, openness, compromise.
war powers act?
The act gave the President enormous authority to execute World War II in an efficient manner. The president was authorized to reorganize the executive branch, independent government agencies, and government corporations for the war cause. With the act, the President was allowed to censor mail and other forms of communication between the United States and foreign countries. The act and all changes created by its power were to remain intact until six months after the end of the war at which time, the act would become defunct.[1]
areas of presidental power?
1. Veto legislation
2. Call emergency sessions of Congress
3. Use his capacity as commander in chief for military affairs
4. Appoint Supreme Court Justices and Ambassadors with approval of the Senate
5. Sign treaties to have them ratified by the Senate
limits of pres power?
limited by congress override, a veto. power to impeach. supreme court can rule htings unconsit.
sources of pres power?
consitution, constiuents
why are some agencies indep?
pres appoints heads… they have few emplolyees, small budgets. they assist the executive branch. organized like pricate business, but et moneu from congress. more flexible.
types of agencies
cabinet departments- major part. pres appoints these officials.
indep- not part of these, pres appoints heads
regulatory commisions- indep of all 3 branches, congress proctes from politicall pressures. pres appoints commisioners w senate consent. do not report to pres.
iron triangle ?
congress committees, client groups, and a federal dept often cooperate closely to make public policy. veterans affiars: provides important services like hospital care… the y need resoures. law makers on congressional committes for VA supply the VA with money but need electoral support to remain in office. client gropus supply the political support for this. these allow interest froups.
growth?
miirrors groqwth of the US… advances
how does congress influence brueacry?
bduget cuts. etc.,