Unit 10: Personality

American students are more likely than Japanese students to describe themselves in terms of their
a. social identities.
b. social roles.
c. ethnic background.
d. group memberships.
e. personal traits.
Personal traits
Terror-management theory emphasizes that anxiety is triggered by an awareness of one’s
a. reciprocal determinism.
b. unconscious fixations.
c. erogenous zones.
d. unconditional positive regard.
e. impending death.
Impending death
According to Freud, boys are most likely to experience the Oedipus complex during the ________ stage.
a. regression
b. anal
c. oral
d. latency
e. phallic
Freud suggested that the id’s pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct pleasure-sensitive areas of the body known as
a. Oedipus complexes.
b. fixations.
c. erogenous zones.
d. psychosexual stages.
e. the Big Five.
Erogenous zones.
Hasina was an abused child; as an adult, she is homeless and squanders any money she can find on alcohol. Alfred Adler would have suggested that Hasina suffers from
a. feelings of inferiority.
b. an oral fixation.
c. an Electra complex.
d. the spotlight effect.
e. the Barnum effect.
Feelings of inferiority
Which new movement has criticized psychology for placing too much emphasis on the negative aspects of human behavior?
a. positive psychology
b. neo-Freudian
c. humanism
d. the biopsychosocial perspective
e. collectivism
Positive psychology
A boy’s sexual desires for his mother and feelings of hostility toward his father constitute what Freud called
a. reciprocal determinism.
b. displacement.
c. the Oedipus complex.
d. an oral fixation.
e. reaction formation.
The Oedipus complex
A collectivist culture is especially likely to emphasize the importance of
a. innovation and creativity.
b. personal privacy.
c. social harmony.
d. self-actualization.
e. racial diversity.
Social Harmony
Which of the following techniques did Freud use to discover the latent content of his patients’ dreams?
a. free association
b. the Barnum effect
c. projective testing
d. factor analysis
e. fixation
Free association
Celine recently had a vivid dream that was strikingly similar to an ancient but unfamiliar religious myth. This coincidence would have been of particular interest to
a. Gordon Allport.
b. Carl Jung.
c. Karen Horney.
d. Alfred Adler.
e. Carl Rogers.
Carl Jung.
A religious leader who attempts to overcome his hidden doubts with intense expressions of spiritual certainty illustrates most clearly the defense mechanism of
a. regression.
b. fixation.
c. displacement.
d. projection.
e. reaction formation.
Reaction formation
People living in a culture that promotes collectivism are more likely than those in individualist cultures to report experiencing
a. marital romance.
b. family loyalty.
c. fixation.
d. personal freedom.
e. happiness.
Family loyalty
The tendency to accept favorable descriptions of one’s personality that could really be applied to almost anyone is known as
a. the Barnum effect.
b. the self-reference phenomenon.
c. the halo effect.
d. unconditional positive regard.
e. projection.
The Barnum effect
Laura fails to recognize any connection between her unsafe sexual practices and the likelihood of contracting a sexually transmitted infection. Laura’s lack of perceptiveness best illustrates the dangers of
a. unconditional positive regard.
b. an external locus of control.
c. free association.
d. the spotlight effect.
e. the self-reference phenomenon.
An external locus of control
Carl Jung referred to a shared reservoir of memory traces from our species history as the
a. psychosexual stages.
b. external locus of control.
c. self-reference phenomenon.
d. defense mechanism.
e. collective unconscious.
Collective unconscious
Tim is a combat veteran of the Vietnam war. When asked, he says he never went to Vietnam. Tim’s psychoanalyst suspects that Tim may have been involved in a traumatic event during the war. Which defense mechanism may Tim’s unconscious mind be employing to protect him?
a. rationalization
b. reaction formation
c. displacement
d. denial
e. sublimation
Implicit learning and implicit memories best illustrate the importance of
a. the Barnum effect.
b. internal locus of control.
c. defense mechanisms.
d. unconscious thought.
e. reciprocal determinism.
Unconscious thought.
In assessing candidates for spy missions during World War II, U.S. Army psychologists subjected them to simulated undercover conditions. This best illustrates the use of an assessment strategy favored by the ________ perspective.
a. trait
b. developmental
c. humanistic
d. psychoanalytic
e. social-cognitive
People who take personality inventories can lie to create a good impression. This best illustrates that the objectivity in scoring personality inventories does not guarantee that they
a. assess several different traits.
b. are research-based.
c. have validity.
d. have been subjected to factor analysis.
e. are empirically derived.
Have validity
People’s scores on personality tests often fail to predict their behavior in a real-life situation. According to Walter Mischel, this should make us more cautious about emphasizing the consistency of
a. reciprocal determinism.
b. personality traits.
c. self-efficacy.
d. self-actualization.
e. unconditional positive regard.
Personality traits
A researcher using the MMPI in a research study is most likely basing her or his hypothesis on which perspective on personality?
a. humanistic
b. behavioral
c. biological
d. trait
e. psychoanalytic
The social-cognitive perspective is LEAST likely to be criticized for neglecting the importance of
a. genetic influences.
b. the collective unconscious.
c. personality traits.
d. environmental influences.
e. unconscious motives.
Environmental influences
A psychodynamic psychologist would find objective tests, such as true-false questionnaires, inadequate as assessment tools because these tests
a. are not empirically derived.
b. are generally unreliable.
c. reveal only conscious motivations.
d. are typically invalid.
e. are based on intuition.
Reveal only conscious motivations
Self-actualized people, as described by Maslow, are LEAST likely to
a. experience the spotlight effect.
b. have a well-developed superego.
c. experience defensive self-esteem.
d. have a strong ego.
e. have a strong sense of gender identity.
Experience defensive self-esteem
Prior to his use of free association, Freud had encouraged patients to retrieve their forgotten memories by means of
a. psychoactive drugs.
b. personality inventories.
c. fixation.
d. hypnosis.
e. projective tests.
Nadine tells her therapist that she is jealous of her best friend’s popularity and wants to tell everyone about her friend’s negative traits. Nadine is afraid her therapist will criticize her for those thoughts, but instead the therapist expresses empathy for Nadine’s feelings. This Rogerian therapist is offering
a. free association.
b. the spotlight effect.
c. self-transcendence.
d. self-actualization.
e. unconditional positive regard.
Unconditional positive regard
A psychotherapist instructs Dane to relax, close his eyes, and state aloud whatever thoughts come to mind no matter how trivial or absurd. The therapist is using a technique known as
a. free association.
b. factor analysis.
c. projection.
d. fixation.
e. hypnosis.
Free association
Frida was informed by a professional palm reader: “You generally communicate openly with others, but you have certain dark secrets that even your closest friends could never guess.” The fact that Frida was impressed by the palm reader’s insight into her personality best illustrates
a. the Barnum effect.
b. unconditional positive regard.
c. the spotlight effect.
d. an external locus of control.
e. the self-reference phenomenon.
The Barnum effect
Which theorists have been criticized for underestimating the human predisposition to engage in destructive and evil behaviors?
a. trait theorists
b. terror-management theorists
c. humanistic theorists
d. psychoanalytic theorists
e. social-cognitive theorists
Humanistic theorists
The parallel processing of distinctive dimensions of a visual scene such as movement, color, and shape best illustrates the importance of
a. an internal locus of control.
b. the false consensus effect.
c. unconscious thought.
d. the spotlight effect.
e. the social-cognitive perspective.
Unconscious thought
Innovation and creativity are most likely to be appreciated in a culture characterized by
a. personal control.
b. free association.
c. collectivism.
d. individualism.
e. optimism
Carl Rogers suggested that when the ideal and real self are nearly alike, then
a. the person has high emotional stability.
b. the use of defense mechanisms is unnecessary.
c. the self-concept is positive.
d. unconscious feelings of inferiority diminish.
e. the individual perceives an internal locus of control.
The self-concept is positive.
Ego is to id as ________ is to ________.
a. regression; repression
b. biology; morality
c. unconscious; conscious
d. external locus of control; internal locus of control
e. reality principle; pleasure principle
Reality principle; pleasure principle
One night after he heard his parents arguing, 4-year-old Wei had a vivid dream in which he saved his mother from being bitten by a large snake. A psychoanalyst would most likely suspect that Wei’s dream reflects a(n)
a. reaction formation.
b. self-serving bias.
c. Oedipus complex.
d. external locus of control.
e. oral fixation.
Oedipus complex
Martin Seligman’s positive psychology differs from the humanistic perspective in that it
a. concentrates on research regarding self-transcendence.
b. emphasizes the use of scientific methods.
c. has less application to educational settings.
d. denies humankind’s capacity for evil.
e. focuses more on a person’s defense mechanisms.
Emphasizes the use of scientific methods.