understanding psychology Chapter 13: Therapies for Psychological Disorders

Therapy
A general term for any treatment process; in psychology and psychiatry, it refers to a variety of psychological and biomedical techniques aimed at dealing with mental disorders or coping with problems of living.
Psychological therapies
Therapies based on psychological principles; often called “psychotherapy.”
Biomedical therapies
Treatments that focus on altering the brain, especially with drugs, psychosurgery, or electroconvulsive therapy.
Talk therapies
Psychotherapies that focus on communicating and verbalizing emotions and motives to understand their problems.
Analysis of transference
The Freudian technique of analyzing and interpreting the patient’s relationship with the therapist, based on the assumption that this relationship mirrors unresolved conflicts in the patient’s past.
Neo-Freudian psychodynamic therapies
Therapies for mental disorder that were developed by psychodynamic theorists who embraced some of Freud’s ideas but disagreed with others.
Humanistic therapies
Treatment techniques based on the assumption that people have a tendency for positive growth and self-actualization, which may be blocked by an unhealthy environment that can include negative self-evaluation and criticism from others.
Reflection of feeling
Carl Rogers’s technique of paraphrasing the clients’ words attempting to capture the emotional tone expressed.
Cognitive thinking
Emphasizes rational thinking (as opposed to subjective emotion, motivation, or repressed conflicts) as the key to treating mental disorders.
Systemic desensitization
A behavioral therapy technique in which anxiety is extinguished by exposing the patient to an anxiety-provoking stimulus.
Exposure therapy
A form of desensitization therapy in which the patient directly confronts the anxiety-provoking stimulus (as opposed to imagining the stimulus).
Aversion therapy
As a classical conditioning procedure, aversive counterconditioning involves presenting individuals with an attractive stimulus paired with unpleasant stimulation in order to condition revulsion.
Contingency management
An operant conditioning approach to changing behavior by altering the consequences, especially rewards and punishments, of behavior.
Participant modeling
A social-learning technique in which a therapist demonstrates and encourages a client to imitate a desired behavior.
Active listener
A person who gives the speaker feedback in such forms as nodding, paraphrasing, maintaining an expression that shows interest, and asking questions for clarification.
Psychosurgery
The general term for surgical intervention in the brain to treat psychological disorders.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
A treatment that involves magnetic stimulation of specific regions of the brain; unlike ECT, it does not produce a seizure.
Therapeutic community
Jones’s term for a program of treating mental disorder by making the institutional environment supportive and humane for patients.
Community mental health movement
An effort to deinstitutionalize mental patients and to provide therapy from outpatient clinics; proponents envisioned that recovering patients could live with their families, in foster homes, or in group homes.
INSIGHT THERAPIES
…a variety of individual psychotherapies designed to give people a better awareness and understanding of their feelings , movtivations, and axctions in the hope that this will help them to adjust.
psychotherapy p 425
…the use of psychological techiques to treat personality and behavior
Insight therapies
Psychotherapies in which the therapist helps patients/clients understand their problems.
free association p426
..a psychoanalytic techinque that encourages the person to talk without inhabition about wherever thoughts or fantasies come to mind. .
transference p426
..the client carring over to the analyst feelings held towards childhood authority figures.
insight p426
.awarenes of perviously unconscious feelings andmemories and how they infulence present felings and behaviors. ..
client-centered (or person-centered therapy p 427
…non directional form of therpy developed by carl rogers that calls for uncondintional postive regardof the clint by the therapy with the goal of helping clients become fully functioning
Client-centered therapy
A humanistic approach to treatment developed by Carl Rogers, emphasizing an individual’s tendency for healthy psychological growth through self-actualization.
gastalt therapy p 429
… an insight therapy that emphasizes the wholeness of the personality and attempts to reawaken people to their emotions and sensation in the present.
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS

short term psychodynamic therapy p 430

insight therapy that is time limited and focused on trying to help client correct the immedediate problems in their lives.

behavior therapies
Behavior therapy
Any form of psychotherapy based on the principles of behavioral learning, especially operant conditioning and classical conditioning.
BEHAVIOR THERAPIES
…theraputic approaches that are based on the belief that all behavior , normal and abnormal, is learned and that the objective of therapy is to teach people new, more satisfying ways of behaving.
Behavior modification
Another term for behavior therapy.
THERAPIES BASED ON CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
.
systematic desensitization p431
a behavioral technique for reducing a person’s fear and anxiety by gradually asscoiaing a new response( relaxation.)with stimuli that have been causing the fearand anxiety.
aversive conditioning p432
…behavior therapy technique aimed at eliminating undedesirable behavior pateerns by teching the person to asscociate with pain and discomfort.
THERAPIERS BASED ON OPERANT CONDITIONING

behavior contracting p433

form of operant conditioning therapy in which the client and therapies set behavioral goals and agree on reinforcements that the client will recceive on reaching those goals.
token economy p433
…an operant conditioning therapy in which people earn tokens (reinforcers) for desired behaviors and exchange them for desired items or privileges
THERAPY BASED ON MODELING

modeling p434

a behavior therapy in which the person learns desired behaviors by watching others perform those behavior….
COGNITIVE THERAPIES
….
Cognitive-behavioral therapy
A newer form of psychotherapy that combines the techniques of cognitive therapy with those of behavioral therapy.
cognitive therapies p434
…..psychotherapies that emphasize changing client’s perceptions of their life situation as a way of modifying their behavior..
stress-inoculation therapy p434
…a type of cognitive therapy that trains clients to cope with stressful situations by learning a more useful pattern of self-talk.
Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT)
Albert Ellis’s brand of cognitive therapy, based on the idea that irrational thoughts and behaviors are the cause of mental disorders.
rational-emotive therapy (RET)p434
..a directive cognitive therapy based on the idea that clients’ psychological distress is caused by irrational and self-defeating beliefs and the therapist’s job is to challenge such dysfunctional beliefs..
BECK’S
cognitive therapy p435
GROUP THERAPIES
Group therapy
Any form of psychotherapy done with more than one client/patient at a time; often done from a humanistic perspective.
group therapy p436
…type of psychotherapy in which clients meet regularly interact and help one another achieve insight into their feelings and behavior.
family therapy p436
…a form of group therapy that see the family as at least partly responsible for the individual’s problems and that seeks to change all family members behaviors to the benefit of the family unit as well as the troubled individual
couple therapy p 436
a form of group therapy intended to help troubled partners improve their problems of communication and interaction….
SELF-HELP GROUPS
EFFECTIVENESS OF PSYCHOTHERAPY
WHICH TYPE OF THERAPY IS BEST FOR WHICH DISORDERS
eclecticticism p440
…psychotherapapeutic approach that recognizes the value of a broad treatment package over a rigid commitment to one particular form of therapy.
BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT
biological treatment p441
…a group of approaches including medication, electroconvusive therapy, and nerosurgery, that are sometimes used to treat psychological disorders in conjunction with, or instead of psychotherapy.
Psychopharmacology
The prescribed use of drugs to help treat symptoms of mental illness ostensibly to ensure that individuals are more receptive to talk therapies.
Antipsychotic drugs
Medicines that diminish psychotic symptoms, usually by their effect on the dopamine pathways in the brain.
LOOK ON PG 442
TABLE 13-1
antipsychotic drugs p442
Antidepressant drugs
Medicines that affect depression, usually by their effect on the serotonin and/or norepinephrine pathways in the brain.
Lithium carbonate
A simple chemical compound that is highly effective in dampening the extreme mood swings of bipolar disorder.
Tardive dyskinesia
An incurable disorder of motor control, especially involving muscles of the face and head, resulting from long-term use of antipsychotic drugs.
Antianxiety drugs
A category of drugs that includes the barbiturates and benzodiazepines, drugs that diminish feelings of anxiety.
Stimulants
Drugs that normally increase activity level by encouraging communication among neurons in the brain; however, they have also been found to suppress activity level in persons with ADHD.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
A treatment used primarily for depression and involving the application for an electric current to the head, producing a generalized seizure; sometimes called “shock treatment.”
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)p444
.biological therapy in which a mild electrical current is passed through the brain for a short period often producing convulsions and tempory coma used to treat severe prolonged depression..
neurosurgery p444
…brain surgery performed to change a person’s behavior and emotional state a biological therapy rearly used today.
INSTITUTIONALIZATION AND ITS ALTERNATIVES
Deinstitutionalization
The policy for removing patients, whenever possible, from mental hospitals.to smaller residential center : halfway house rather than in large public hospital.
PREVENTION
primary prevention p448
techniques and programs to improve the social environment so that new cases of mental disorders do not develop.
secondary prevention p448
.program to idenify groups that are at high risk for mental disoders and to detect maladaptive behavior in these groups and treat it promptly…
tertiary prevention p448
.programs to help people adjust to community life release from a mental hospital…
CLIENT DIVERSITY AND TREATMENT
GENDER AND TREATMENT
CULTURAL AND TREATMENT