understanding management Chap 8 Monikamade

Organizational change
defined as the adoption of a new idea or behavior by an organization
Disruptive innovation
referrs to innovations in products, services or process that radically change an industry’s rules of the game for producers and customers (DVD’s wiped out videotapes)
trickle-up innovation or reverseinnovation
rather than innovating in affluent countries and transferring products to emerging markets companies like John Deere are creating innovative low-cost products for emerging markets then quickly and inexpensively repacking them for sale in developed countries (low cost high-quality tractor for India, us people want it wit recession)
ambidextrous apporach
mans incorporating structures and processes that are appropriate for both the creative impulse and systematic implementation of innocation
Product change
is a change in the organization’s product or service output. (amazon putting out kindle fire)
technology change
a change in the organization’s production process-how the organization does its work. (change the way package candy canes so they wouldn’t break)
Exploration
involves designing the organizations to encourage creativity and the initiation of new ideas-creativity, bottom-up approach, internal contests, idea incubators
(the stage where ideas for new products and technologies are born)
Cooperation
creating conditions and systems to facilitate internal and external coordination and knowledge sharing. -Horizontal coordination mechanisms, customers and partners, open innovation
Innovation Roles
managers put in place processes and structures to ensure that new ideas are carried forward for acceptance and implementation
Creativity
is the generation of novel ideas that may meet perceived needs or respond to opportunities for the organization
bottom-up-approach
using an American Idol-style contest to encourage employee ideas for new services at the giant accounting and consulting firm.
six hats red
emotional responcse
six hats white
thinking hat
six hats green
new ideas
six hats black
negative pessimistic
six hats yellow
optimistic
six hats blue
group leader
innovation contests
contests the company holds so employees can share their ideas for improving business
idea incubator
on organizational program that provides a safe harbor where employees can generate and develop ideas without interference from company bureaucracy or politics.
horizontal linkage model
several departments, such as marketing, research and manufacturing, work closely together to develop new products
open innovation
some companies extend the search for and commercialization of innovative ideas beyond the boundries of the organization
idea champoin
a person who sees the need for change and is passionately committed to making it happen
Crowdsourcing
an open innovation approach used by Fiat and other companies, taps into ideas from around the world and lets thousands or hundreds of thousands of people participate in the innovation process, usually via the internet
new-venture team
structural mechanism that promotes entrepreneurship, a unit separate from the mainstream organization that is responsible for initiating and developing innovations
skunkworks
highly autonomous and often secretive group that focuses on breakthrough ideas top secret google X is and example
new-venture fund
provides financial resources from which individuals or teams can draw to develop new ideas, products or businesses
People change
refers to a change in the attitudes and behaviors of a few employees
Culture change
a major shift in the norms, values, and mindset of the entire organization
Organization development (OD)
a planned systematic process of change that uses behavioral science techniques to improve an organizations health and effectiveness through its ability to cope with environmental changes, improve internal relationships and increases learning and problem-solving capabilities.
What three problems can OD help managers address?
mergers/acquisitions, Organizational decline/revitalization, and Conflict management
List some OD Activities
Team-building
Survey back
large group interventions
Team-building
is an OD intervention that enhances cohesiveness by helping groups of people learn to work together as a team.
survey feedback
OD change agents survey employees to gather their opinions regarding corporate values, leadership, participation, cohesiveness, and other aspects of the organization, then meet with small groups to share the results and brainstorm solutions to problems identified by the results
Large-group intervention
an OD approach that brings together people from different parts of the organization (& often include outside stakeholders) to discuss problems or opportunities and plan for change.
unfreezing
is the stage in which people are made aware of problems and the need for change
change agent
an OD specialist who contracts with an organization to help managers facilitate change
changing
is the “intervention” stage of OD when change agents teach new people new behaviors and skills and guide them in using them in the workplace
refreezing
at this stage people have incorporated new values, attitudes and behaviors into their everyday work and the changes become institutionalized in the culture
implementation
the final step to be managed in the change process
need for change
is a disparity between existing and desired performance levels
self-interest
people resist change they believe conflicts with their self-interests. the fear of personal loss is perhaps the biggest obstacle to organizational change.
lack of understanding and trust
employees often distrust the intentions behind a change or do not understand the intended purpose of a change.
Uncertainty
the lack of information about future events
different assessments and goals
people who will be affected by a change or innovation may assess the situation differently from an idea champion or new-venture group.
force-field analysis
a technique for determining which forces drvie a proposed change and which forces restrain it
parcitipation
involves users and potential resisters in designing the change
negotiation
is a more formal means of achieving cooperation. uses formal bargaining to win acceptance and approval of a desired change.
Coercion
means that managers use formal power to force employees to change. you are told to accept the change or lose rewards
top management support
symbolizes to all employees that the change is important for the organization. top management support is especially important when a change involves multiple departments.
Inventor
develops and understands technical aspects of ideas
does not know hos to win support or make a business of it
Champion
believes in idea and visualizes benefits, confronts realities of costs, resources. Obtains financial and political support. Overcomes obstacles
Sponsor
High-level manager who removes barriers. Approves and protects idea within organizations.
Critic
provides reality test, looks for shortcomings and defines hard-nosed criteria that idea must pass