Time and Motion Studies*
“One best way” to complete a task. More macro; relationship based
Benefits/Negatives to apprenticeship
Trained by someone personally Could be trained improperly
Concept of piecework
getting paid depending on the amount of items you complete
“Busting the Rate”
someone who completes more work in a shorter amount of time & everyone is then expected to do the same.
keeping productivity down so the rate remains the same.
1 Division of work
This principle is the same as Adam Smith’s ‘division of labour’. Specialisation increases output by making employees more efficient.
Managers must be able to give orders. Authority gives them this right. Note that responsibility arises wherever authority is exercised.
Employees must obey and respect the rules that govern the organization. Good discipline is the result of effective leadership, a clear understanding between management and workers regarding the organization’s rules, and the judicious use of penalties for infractions of the rules.
4 Unity of command
Every employee should receive orders from only one superior.
5 Unity of direction
Each group of organisational activities that have the same objective should be directed by one manager using one plan.
6 Subordination of individual interests to the general interest
The interests of any one employee or group of employees should not take precedence over the interests of the organization as a whole.
Workers must be paid a fair wage for their services.
Centralisation refers to the degree to which subordinates are involved in decision making. Whether decision making is centralized (to management) or decentralized (to subordinates) is a question of proper proportion. The task is to find the optimum degree of centralisation for each situation.
9 Scalar chain
The line of authority from top management to the lowest ranks represents the scalar chain. Communications should follow this chain. However, if following the chain creates delays, cross-communications can be allowed if agreed to by all parties and superiors are kept informed
People and materials should be in the right place at the right time
Managers should be kind and fair to their subordinates
12 Stability of tenure of personnel
High employee turnover is inefficient. Management should provide orderly personnel planning and ensure that replacements are available to fill vacancies
Employees who are allowed to originate and carry out plans will exert high levels of effort
14 Esprit de corps
Promoting team spirit will build harmony and unity within the organization
(1) planning; (2) organizing; (3) leading; and (4) controlling