• “Advertising is fundamentally persuasion and persuasion happens to be not a science, but an art.” – William Bernbach
• “There’s a saying in advertising that half of every advertising dollar is wasted, but you don’t know which half. If we had a science of images, we wouldn’t make so many mistakes.” – Dr. Esther Thorson (professor in the University of Missouri, Columbia)
• “Advertising people who ignore research are as dangerous as generals who ignore decades of enemy signals.” – David Ogilvy, “The Father of Advertising”
• Advertising: Specialized form of marketing research that focuses on planning, preparations, and placement of advertising.
• Guide for creative development
• Consist of target market unique selling point (USP), and brand characters.
• Ex.) To women aged 18-54 who are concerned about looking good at work and comfort, Health Heals is the brand of comfort in women’s shoe products which relieves women of painful, typical high-heeled shoes. The reason is the Health Heals shoe is specifically designed to wear like an athletic shoe. The shoe has special cushioning to protect the foot and absorb the normal impact of walking. The brand character is appealing, stylish, comfortable, and innovative.
• General Consumer Trends
o Changes in lifestyles, priorities, attitudes, and beliefs that may have potential impact on the brand’s positioning and advertising
• Product-specific consumer characteristics
o Benefits sought from the product
o Brand-specific perceptions and attitudes
o Underlying factors of purchase decision
o Brand trial, purchase patterns, usage behavior
o Only do research for the client that pays them and research areas are only for that client
o Project-by-project supplier
o Particular types of research
• Syndicated research firm (syndicated information)
o Do research and then sell research to whoever wants it
o One particular area
o Media ratings, media usage & demographics, ad expenditures, consumer trends
• Three key elements
o Problem definition
The first and the most important step in the advertising research process
Description of the problem or opportunity motivating the research
Should be 1st, it is critical for the brands success, if problem cannot be solved by doing research, it is meaningless to us. If solution of problem can’t lead to decision making, it is not a good research problem.
Clear, concise, properly focused
Types of Problem Definition
• Knowledge and Understanding
o Need to learn about the consumer, product, or marketing environment to assist a decision-making
What is the personality of our primary market?
What competing brands do consumers consider “substitutes” for our brand?
What is our brand image compared to competing brands?
• Problem & Opportunities
o Finding the source of the problem and the potential solution
o Client X has authorized an additional $500,000 to boost advertising expenditures in the Texas market to “turn around” declining sales. Before making this investment, we need to determine if this boost in spending will affect sales.
• Selection of Alternatives
o Selection of a course of action among set of alternatives
o Should the introductory campaign for Brand X focus on children as the primary user or on parents as decision-makers/purchasers? Children are the actual target market, however parents decide whether to purchase the product and actually make the purchase. Because this is a new product roll-out, we need to recommend the audience that will have the largest impact in immediate sales.
o Justification of research need
Previous research does not exist or is insufficient or inappropriate
• Value of information obtained from research is greater than the cost of research
• Cost of implication for making the wrong decision when solely relying on judgment
o Specification of informational need
Identify the information that responds to the problem definition
• Specific and concrete informational need
• Avoid broad and obscure description
Focus and core of research questionnaire or interview
• Directly affects questions asked during research
Based on agreement among management
o Probability sampling: random selection, generalizability, representativeness
o Non-probability sampling: convenience or purposeful
• A sampling option is chosen based on:
o Research objectives
o Need for generalizability
1. In-depth interviews
2. Focus groups
-exploratory in nature
-gain consumer insights
-first hand observation on consumer ideas/responses
-rich, in-depth information
-help develop future research
– subjective interpretations
– not appropriate to compare the difference in magnitude
– limited generalizability of research findings
– quality of research dependent on skills of researchers
– not easily replicable for future studies
• Quantitative: numbers, more structured, confirming (e.g., survey)
o Categorize and synthesize the information
o Find the existing data and general trends
• Quantitative Research
o Edit and translate into a computer file
o Statistics testing
o Example: The grocery chain.
• Secondary: The individual or organization that provides the information after obtaining it from the original source.
o Example: An online database that provides data for all groceries.
• Program’s ability to attract viewers when compare to other programs airing at the same time period
• Absolute measure, more stable & valuable
• Formula: (Cost of 1 unit of time (commercial)/ # of people or homes reached) x 1,000
• Measure of cost-efficiency
o Base counts
• Proj ‘000
o Projected number of users for the classification
• Pct Across
o Percent of users within the specific classification out of total people in that classification
• Pct Down
o Percent of users within a specific classification out of the total users
o Indicator of propensity (likelihood) to consumer, use, or participate in the measured behavior
• By calculating one brand, different media