UF ADV 3500 Linwan Exam 1

Famous figures’ words of research in advertising
• “Scientists are good at the study of advertising, while artists are good at the creation of advertising. Science can take you only so far.” – Hugh Burkitt (Marketing Society CEO)
• “Advertising is fundamentally persuasion and persuasion happens to be not a science, but an art.” – William Bernbach
• “There’s a saying in advertising that half of every advertising dollar is wasted, but you don’t know which half. If we had a science of images, we wouldn’t make so many mistakes.” – Dr. Esther Thorson (professor in the University of Missouri, Columbia)
• “Advertising people who ignore research are as dangerous as generals who ignore decades of enemy signals.” – David Ogilvy, “The Father of Advertising”
Difference between marketing research and advertising research
• Marketing: Systematic gathering, recording, & interpretation of information related to all marketing mix variables (4ps)
• Advertising: Specialized form of marketing research that focuses on planning, preparations, and placement of advertising.
Positioning statement
• “A descriptive statement of the agency’s and client’s view of the marketplace niche that they believe the brand can most successfully fill.”
• Guide for creative development
• Consist of target market unique selling point (USP), and brand characters.
• Ex.) To women aged 18-54 who are concerned about looking good at work and comfort, Health Heals is the brand of comfort in women’s shoe products which relieves women of painful, typical high-heeled shoes. The reason is the Health Heals shoe is specifically designed to wear like an athletic shoe. The shoe has special cushioning to protect the foot and absorb the normal impact of walking. The brand character is appealing, stylish, comfortable, and innovative.
Consumer Analysis
• In-depth exploration of the characteristics of current and potential consumers
• General Consumer Trends
o Changes in lifestyles, priorities, attitudes, and beliefs that may have potential impact on the brand’s positioning and advertising
• Product-specific consumer characteristics
o Benefits sought from the product
o Brand-specific perceptions and attitudes
o Underlying factors of purchase decision
o Brand trial, purchase patterns, usage behavior
Research suppliers
• Customer research supplier(proprietary)
o Only do research for the client that pays them and research areas are only for that client
o Project-by-project supplier
o Particular types of research
• Syndicated research firm (syndicated information)
o Do research and then sell research to whoever wants it
o One particular area
o Media ratings, media usage & demographics, ad expenditures, consumer trends
Problem statement
• Problem statement is the end product
• Three key elements
o Problem definition
The first and the most important step in the advertising research process
Description of the problem or opportunity motivating the research
Should be 1st, it is critical for the brands success, if problem cannot be solved by doing research, it is meaningless to us. If solution of problem can’t lead to decision making, it is not a good research problem.
Clear, concise, properly focused
Types of Problem Definition
• Knowledge and Understanding
o Need to learn about the consumer, product, or marketing environment to assist a decision-making
What is the personality of our primary market?
What competing brands do consumers consider “substitutes” for our brand?
What is our brand image compared to competing brands?
• Problem & Opportunities
o Finding the source of the problem and the potential solution
o Client X has authorized an additional $500,000 to boost advertising expenditures in the Texas market to “turn around” declining sales. Before making this investment, we need to determine if this boost in spending will affect sales.
• Selection of Alternatives
o Selection of a course of action among set of alternatives
o Should the introductory campaign for Brand X focus on children as the primary user or on parents as decision-makers/purchasers? Children are the actual target market, however parents decide whether to purchase the product and actually make the purchase. Because this is a new product roll-out, we need to recommend the audience that will have the largest impact in immediate sales.

o Justification of research need
Previous research does not exist or is insufficient or inappropriate
Cost-value analysis
• Value of information obtained from research is greater than the cost of research
• Cost of implication for making the wrong decision when solely relying on judgment
o Specification of informational need
Identify the information that responds to the problem definition
• Specific and concrete informational need
• Avoid broad and obscure description
Focus and core of research questionnaire or interview
• Directly affects questions asked during research
Based on agreement among management

Sampling
• How to select participants
o Probability sampling: random selection, generalizability, representativeness
o Non-probability sampling: convenience or purposeful
• A sampling option is chosen based on:
o Research objectives
o Budget
o Urgency
o Need for generalizability
Qualitative vs. quantitative research
• Qualitative: words, less structured, exploring (e.g., focus group)
o Types
1. In-depth interviews
2. Focus groups
3. Observations
o Advantages
-exploratory in nature
-gain consumer insights
-first hand observation on consumer ideas/responses
-rich, in-depth information
-help develop future research
o Limitations
– subjective interpretations
– not appropriate to compare the difference in magnitude
– limited generalizability of research findings
– quality of research dependent on skills of researchers
– not easily replicable for future studies
• Quantitative: numbers, more structured, confirming (e.g., survey)
Data Analysis
• Secondary and qualitative research
o Categorize and synthesize the information
o Find the existing data and general trends
• Quantitative Research
o Edit and translate into a computer file
o Statistics testing
Identify secondary and primary source and data
• Primary: The individual or organization that originated the information
o Example: The grocery chain.
• Secondary: The individual or organization that provides the information after obtaining it from the original source.
o Example: An online database that provides data for all groceries.
Share
• % of viewing audience a program has acquired -most good tv shows get a rating of 6.5-7% (except the Super Bowl which gets around 40%)
• Program’s ability to attract viewers when compare to other programs airing at the same time period
Rating
• % of all people/homes with TV set
• Absolute measure, more stable & valuable
CPM (Cost Per Thousand)
• Cost to reach 1,000 individuals or homes
• Formula: (Cost of 1 unit of time (commercial)/ # of people or homes reached) x 1,000
• Measure of cost-efficiency
MRI (Media Research Inc.)
• Total ‘000
o Base counts
• Proj ‘000
o Projected number of users for the classification
• Pct Across
o Percent of users within the specific classification out of total people in that classification
• Pct Down
o Percent of users within a specific classification out of the total users
• Index
o Indicator of propensity (likelihood) to consumer, use, or participate in the measured behavior
Share of voice
• A brand’s percentage of total advertising dollars spent within a category
Media Mix
• The way media dollars are allocated
• By calculating one brand, different media