Transformational Leadership

Transformational
Process of engaging with others to create a connection that increases motivation and morality in both the leader and the follower

Mohandas Gandhi raised the hopes and demands of millions of his people and in the process was changed himself
Ryan White raised people’s awareness about AIDS
Gandalf the white
Nelson Mandela

Transactional
Focuses on the exchanges that occur between leaders and their followers

The exchange dimension is so common that you can observe it at all walks of life.

No new taxes = votes.
Good service = good tip.
Surpass goals = promotion.

Pseudo-transformational
Focuses on the leader’s own interests rather than the interests of his or her followers

transforming but in a negative way: self-consumed, exploitive; power-oriented, with warped moral values

Ex. Darth Vader, Hannibal Lecter

House’s CL Framework**
Charismatic Leadership Theory (House, 1976)
Charismatic leaders act in unique ways that have specific charismatic effects on their followers
Charisma
A special personality characteristic that gives a person superhuman or exceptional powers and is reserved for a few, is of divine origin, and results in the person being treated as a leader (Weber, 1947)
Model of Transformational Leadership (Bass)
Expanded and refined version of work done by Burns and House. It included
•More attention to followers’ rather than leader’s needs
•Suggested TL could apply to outcomes that were not positive
•Described transactional and transformational leadership as a continuum

Extended House’s work by
•Giving more attention to emotional elements & origins of charisma
•Suggested charisma is a necessary but not sufficient condition for TL

7 leadership factors
Idealized influence/Charisma, Inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, individualized consideration, contingent reward/constructive transactions, management-by-exception/active and passive corrective transactions, and laissez-faire/nontransaction
Leadership Continuum
Leadership Continuum
TL motivates followers beyond the expected by
raising consciousness about the value and importance of specific and idealized goals
transcending self-interest for the good of the team or organization
addressing higher-level needs
the 4 I’s
Idealized Influence, Inspirational Motivation, Intellectual Stimulation, Individualized Consideration
Idealized Influence
Acting as strong role models
High standards of moral and ethical conduct
Making others want to follow the leader’s vision
Inspirational Motivation
Communicating high expectations
Inspiring followers to commitment and engagement in shared vision
Using symbols & emotional appeals to focus group members to achieve more than self-interest
Intellectual Stimulation
Stimulating followers to be creative and innovative
Challenging their own beliefs and valuing those of leader and organization
Supporting followers to
Try new approaches
Develop innovative ways of dealing with organization issues
Individualized Consideration
Listening carefully to the needs of followers
Acting as coaches to assist followers in becoming fully actualized
Helping followers grow through personal challenges
Ex. Showing optimism helps employees become more engaged in their work (Tims et al., 2011)
Transactional leadership factors
Contingent reward, Management-by-exception, Two forms: Active & Passive
Contingent reward
The exchange process between leaders and followers in which effort by followers is exchanged for specified rewards
Management-by-exception
Leadership that involves corrective criticism, negative feedback, and negative reinforcement
Active
Watches follower closely to identify mistakes/rule violations
Passive
Intervenes only after standards have not been met or problems have arisen
Laissez Faire Factor
The Absence of Leadership
A hands-off, let-things-ride approach
Refers to a leader who abdicates responsibility delays decisions, gives no feedback, and makes little effort to help followers satisfy their needs
The additive effect of transformational leadership
The additive effect of transformational leadership
Focus of TL
TLs empower and nurture followers
TLs stimulate change by becoming strong role models for followers
TLs commonly create a vision
TLs require leaders to become social architects
TLs build trust & foster collaboration
Strengths
Broadly researched. TL has been widely researched, including a large body of qualitative research centering on prominent leaders and CEOs in major firms.
Intuitive appeal. People are attracted to TL because it makes sense to them.
Process focused. TL treats leadership as a process occurring between followers and leaders.
Expansive leadership view. TL provides a broader view of leadership that augments other leadership models.
Emphasizes followers. TL emphasizes followers’ needs, values, and morals.
Effectiveness. Evidence supports that TL is an effective form of leadership.
Criticisms
Lacks conceptual clarity
-Dimensions are not clearly delimited
-Parameters of TL overlap with similar conceptualizations of leadership

Measurement questioned
-Validity of MLQ not fully established
-Some transformational factors are not unique solely to the transformational model

TL treats leadership more as a personality trait or predisposition than a behavior that can be taught

No causal link shown between transformational leaders and changes in followers or organizations

TL is elitist and antidemocratic

Suffers from heroic leadership bias

Has the potential to be abused