The Cultural Landscape: An Introduction to Human Geography 11th edition chapter 1

Cartography
The science of making maps
Concentration
The spread of something over a given area
Connection
Relationships among people and objects across the barrier of space
Conservation
The sustainable management of a natural resource
Contagious diffusion
The rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population
Cultural ecology
A geographic study of how humans react to the environment
Cultural landscape
The fashioning of a natural landscape by a cultural group; things human build
Culture
What people care about; food, history, religion, language, government
Density
How much of something is in a given area
Diffusion
The process of spread of a feature or trend from one place to another over time
Distance decay
The further from a characteristic you are the less likely you are to see it or interact with it
Distribution
The arrangement of something across the earths surface
Ecology
Study of ecosystems
Ecosystem
A group of living organisms and the abiotic spheres with which the interact
Environmental determinism
The environment determines what we use and what we do with it
Expansion diffusion
The spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in an additive/snowball process
Formal region
Area in which everyone shares in common one or more distinctive characteristics
Functional region
An area organized around a node or focal point
Geographic information science (GIScience)
The development and analysis of data about the earth acquired through satellite and other electronic information technologies
Geographic information system
A computer system that stores, organizes, analyzes, and displays geographic data
Global Positioning System
A system that determines the precise position of something through satellites, tracking stations, and receivers
Globalization
Actions or processes that involve the entire world and in result making something worldwide in scope
Greenwich mean time
The time zone encompassing the prime meridian,or 0° longitude
Hearth
The region from which innovative ideas originate
Hierarchical diffusion
The spread of a feature or trend from one key person or node of authority or power to other persons or places
Housing bubble
A rapid increase in the value of houses followed by a sharp decline in their value
International date line
the line approximately following the 180° meridian from Greenwich on the east side of which the date is one day earlier than on the west.
Latitude
Used to indicate location of parallels drawn on and measuring north to south
Lithosphere
Earths crust and a portion of upper mantle directly below the crust
Location
The position of anything on the earth’s surface
Longitude
The numbering system used to indicate the location of meridians drawn on the globe and measuring distance east to west of the prime meridian 0°
Map
A two dimensional or flat representation of earths surface or a portion of it
Map scale
The reality ship between the size of an object on a map and the size of the actual feature on earths surface
Mental map
A map based on what an individual knows about a place, containing personal impressions of what is in the place and where it is located
Meridian
An arc drawn on a map between north and south poles
Network
A chain of communication that connects places
Nonrenewable resources
Something that is consumed faster than it is produced
Parallel
A circle drawn around the globe parallel to the equator and at right angles to the meridians
Pattern
The geometric arrangement of something in a study area
Place
A specific point on earth distinguished by a particular characteristic
Polder
Land created by draining water from an area
Possibilism
Theory that the physical environment my set limits, but people have the ability to change them
Preservation
The maintenance of resources in their present condition with as little human impact as possible
Prime meridian
The meridian, designated as 0° longitude, that passes through the royal observatory at Greenwich, england
Projection
A system used to transfer locations from earths surface to a flat map
Region
An area distinguished by a combination of trends or features
Regional (or cultural landscape) studies
An approach to geography that emphasizes the relationships among social and physical phenomena in a particular study area
Relocation diffusion
The spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another
Remote sensing
The acquisition of data about earths surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or from other long-distance methods
Renewable resource
Something produced in nature fast than it is consumed
Resource
Substance in the environment that is useful to people, is economically and technologically feasible, and is socially acceptable to use
Scale
The relationship between the portion of earth being studied nod earth as a whole
Site
Physical character of a place
Situation
The location of a place relative to another place
Space
The physical gap or interval between two objects
Space-time compression
The amount of time it takes to move something
Stimulus diffusion
The spread of an underlying principal even though a specific characteristic is rejected
Sustainability
The use of earths renewable and nonrenewable natural resources in way that do not constrain use of them in the future
Toponym
The name given to portion of earths surface
Transitional corporation
A company that does business outside the location of its headquarters
Uneven development
The increasing gap in economic conditions between core and peripheral regions as a result of the globalization of the economy
Vernacular region
An area that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity
Direction and information
Two things maps give
Color on a map
Clorapleth
Clorapleth, contour lines, dot density
How can you give information in a map
Distortion
What is the issue with maps
Robinson projection
What is the least distorted map projection
Mercator projection
What is the most distorted map projection that is very helpful with the navigation of oceans
The smaller the ratio the greater the land area shown
Formula for scale
Neighborhood
Which has the largest scale: neighborhood, state, country
East to west
How do latitude lines run
North to south
How do longitude lines run
Layers information on top of a map
What does a GIS do
GPS
What needs 4 of the 24 active satellites to pinpoint a location
Google earth
What is a modern example of remote sensing
Site
Physical characteritics
Situation
Location of a place based on reference
Uniform region
What is another name for a formal region
Laws
What is an example of a formal region
Nodal region
What is another name for a functional region
radio station, school, news paper
What are some examples of functional regions
Functional
What type of region is going away
Technology
Why are functional regions going away
Perceptual region
What is another name for a vernacular region
The whole world
What does globalization involve
McDonald’s golden arches
What is an example of globalization
Making it more familiar
What is globalization doing to the world
Outsourcing
To take part of a manufacturing process and do it in another country
How much of something in a given area
What is a way to define density
How much something is spread out
What is a way to define density
Diffusion
What is it called when people move and take their culture
Spread of something from a person or place
Hierarchical deffusion
What is and example of hierarchical diffusion
Washington DC
Almost always references a desiese
Contagious diffusion
Lack of Education
What is often makes contagious diffusion hard to contain
Environment, society, economy
What are the three pillars of sustainability
Limits how much of something can be used
What does conservation do
Make something unusable
What does preservation do
Society pillar
Says that some people live based off their environment
The environment
What is the economy based off
Possibilsm
What form of cultural ecology do we give more credit to
Constantly
How often do we react to the environment
What is a structure used to hold back water
Dike
Smaller area
A larger scale on a map shows what kind of area
What is an example of ground truthing
Google earth vehicles
Mathematical and absolute
What kind of location do GPS use
Spatial association
The way two places relate to each other
Characteristics of the south
Mild climate, cotton, low high school graduation rates, joined confederacy, and Baptist is the prevalent denomination
Functional
A type of region in which something that doesn’t work in another area works in this area.
Functional
Something that is useable is…
Language
An example of something that could define a functional region
Cultural landscape
A town hall, school, cabin, adobe; man-made
Economic and cultural
The spread of McDonald’s is what type of diffusion
Technology
What enhances global movement
The way the world is built
Why will we not ever have equal access to resources
Township and range system
A grid-like pattern that is often used in America to organize land
Contagious, hierarchical, stimulus
What are the three branches of expansion diffusion
Contagious
What type of diffusion often references desiese
Ancient
What type of time does environmental determinism often reference