The Critical Triad: Decision Making, Management, and Leadership

Decision Making
Purposeful, goal-directed effort using a systematic process to choose a particular course of action among options
Do all decisions begin with problems?
Nope
Problem Solving
Process of focusing on an immediate problem to create resolution between the gap of what is and what should be
Similar to critical thinking
Reflective thinking
Theoretical Approaches – example
Nursing process
A
D
P
I
E
Essential elements in decision making
Define objective clearly
Gather data carefully
Use an evidenced-based approach
Generate many alternatives
Think logically
Choose and act decisively
Decision making in organizations
Recurrent and routine
Satisficing (good enough)
Opitmizing (best possible)
Resources for decision making
Professional journals, textbooks, libraries, online
Professional conferences
Policy and procedure manuals
Experienced colleagues
Decision making tools
Complexity theory
Systems interact and adapt
Decision-making occurs throughout the system
(not just in the hierarchy; every voice counts)
Are leadership and management the same?
Nope
When are managers more effective?
When they have good leadership skills
Management
Emphasizes control
Leadership
Increases productivity by maximizing workforce effectiveness
Leaders
Focus on future
Create change
Create shared values
Emotional link w/followers
Personal power
Focus on group process, info gathering, feedback, empowering others
Managers
Focus on present
Maintain stability and status quo
Implement specific functions
Aloof to maintain objectivity
Position power
Emphasize control, decision making, decision analysis, results
Evolution of management theory
Scientific management
Management functions
Human relations era: (Participative management, Hawthorne effect, Theory X, Theory Y, employee participation)
Theory X managers
Believe employees basically lazy – need constant supervision and direction and are indifferent to organizational needs
Theory Y managers
Believe employees enjoy their work, are self-motivated, are willing to work hard to meet personal and organizational needs
Management functions
Planning
Organizing
Staffing
Directing
Controlling
Planning
Determining philosophy, goals, objectives, policies, procedures, and rules; carrying out long/short range projections; determining a fiscal course of action; and managing planned change
Organizing
Establishing the structure to carry out plans
Determining the most appropriate type of pt care delivery
Grouping activities to meet unit goals
Working within structure of organization and understanding and using power and authority appropriately
Staffing
Recruiting, hiring, orienting
Scheduling
Staff development
Employee socialization
Team building
Directing
HR management responsibilities – motivating, managing conflict, delegating, communicating, facilitating collaboration
Controlling
Performance appraisals
Fiscal accountability
Quality control
Legal Ethical control
Professional/collegial control
Autocratic
Decision by leader
Consultative
Group participates
Leader decides
Joint
Group decides with the leader
Delegated
Group makes decision w/o the leader
Does a job title make someone a leader?
Nope
(behavior)
Evolution of leadership theory
Great Man/Trait theories (1900’s)
1940’s – today => Human relationship Era
Human Relationship Era
Behavorial
Situational and Contigency
Interactional
Transactional/Transformational
Full-Range
Leadership Competencies
Integrated Manager-Leader
Leadership Theories – behavioral (focuses on behavior of leaders) (3)
Authoritarian
Democratic
Laissez-Faire
Which leadership theory behavior may result in higher turnover, less motivation, etc?
Authoritarian/Autocratic
Which leadership theory behavior takes the longest =>
Democratic/Participative
Leadership – Interactional Thoeries
View leadership from a group interaction perspective
Interactional Theories – factors
Have strong ethical basis
Gained momentum p Enron, etc.
Kanter – empowerment and organizational structure (opportunity, power, proportion)
Leadership – Transactional theory
Focuses on mgmt tasks
Is a caretaker
Trade-offs to meet goals
Doesn’t ID/share values
Examines causes
Uses contingency reward
Leadership – Transformational Theory
IDs common values
Committed to growth
Inspires others w/vision
Long-term vision
Looks at effects
Empowers others
Leadership – Full Range theory
Identifies 9 factors of leadership
Strength-Based Leadership
Know your strengths and invest in other’s strengths
Right strengths on your team
Understand and meet team members’ 4 basic needs
Team members’ 4 basic needs
Trust
Compassion
Stability
Hope
Level 5 leadership – Level 1
Highly capable individual
Level 5 leadership – Level 2
Contributing Team member
Level 5 leadership – Level 3
Competent manager
Level 5 leadership – Level 4
Effective leader
Level 5 leadership – Level
Great leader
Servant leadership
Leader serves others
(employee, employer, customer, community)
Hears, listens, deals w/complex stuff, etc.
Servant/helper/teacher first – leader 2nd
Principal Agent Theory (Platoon)
Followers (agents) may have an informational (expertise/knowledge) advantage over the leader (principle) as well as their own preferences, which may deviate from the principal’s
Principle agent theory may lead to
Misalignment of goals
Human and Social Capital Theory – Human Capital
Capability of the individual
Organizations offer work to >human capital
Human and Social Capital Theory – Social Capital
What a group can accomplish together
May also refer to social connectedness within community
Emotional Intelligence
Ability to use emotions effectively and is required by leaders/managers in order to enhance their success
Emotional intelligence is critical for
Building a cooperative and effective team
Emotional Intelligence – 4 skills
Self awareness
Self management
Social awareness
Relationship management
Authentic (Congruent) Leadership
Leaders must be true to themselves and their values
Match with organization’s
Authentic (Congruent) Leadership – Williams calls this
Willingness to stick with one’s values and principles about work and people, despite pressure to deliver results, transparent integrity
Thought Leadership
Convince another individual to consider a new idea, product, way of looking at things
Thought leaders
Attract followers by their risk taking and vision in terms of being innovative
To be recognized as a thought leader
Choose ideas that make a significant difference versus those that have marginal impact
Quantum Leadership
The environment and context in which people work is complex and dynamic and that this has direct impact on organizational productivity
Quantum Leadership – Change is
Constant
(Guide others to prepare and go through future changes)