Textile & Apparel Production, Management, and Services Reference Book

Textile Industry
common reference to the fiber-to-fabric segment of the textile and apparel industry.
Apparel Industry
common reference to industry segment involved in the manufacture of garments and accessories.
Sewn products industry
includes all stages of apparel production and interior furnishings, luggage, awnings and sewn toys.
Textiles
materials such as fibers, yarns, fabrics, or productions made of these.
ATC-Agreement on Textiles and Clothing
instrument to rovide the guidelines to integrate textiles and apparel into mainstream international trade rules.
FTC-Federal Trade Commission
responsible for preventing unfair and deceptive trade, to rotect teh ultimate consumer, and to regulate segments of the industry itself.
Apparel services
occupations that serve customers in the planning, selection, maintenance, and care of apparel.
Industrial apparel production
done by apparel firms including manufacturers, jobbers, or contractors.
Apparel manufacturer
designs, produces, and markets garments with its own brand label and own facilities.
Jobber
develops ideas for looks or designs, selects the fabric for the designs, and markets the finished products.
Contractors
business that produce apparel for jobbers or manufacturers.
Private label merchandise
made specifically for a retailer and carries the store’s private label.
Staple or basic apparel
clothing items that are primarily replacement rather than a want.
Fashion apparel
items that experience styling changes from season to season based on the wants and demands of customers.
Cottage industries
home-based sewing companies.
Gray or greige goods
knitted or woven fabrics in an unfinished state ( before dyeing)
Fashion
style accepted and used by the majority of people at any given time.
Haute couture
fashion from a designer who creates a collection of original designs and are sold on made-to-order basis.
High Fashion
styles or designs accepted by a limited gorup of fashion leaders.
Common sales transactions
cash, charge and layaway.
Ergonomics
science of fitting the job to the worker.
3 levels of business organization
management, mid-management, staff.
SOP- Standard Operating Procedures
written procedures for the teasks that are done on a regular basis.
Most commonly used natural fibers
Cotton, wool, silk and linen.
Classifications of wool on labels
WOOL-fiber from the fleece of the sheep or lamb or hair of Angora or Cashmere goat; -VIRGIN OR NEW WOOL-wool that has never been used or reclaimed- RECYCLED WOOL-fiber made from previously produced wool fabric
Two basic types of manufactured fibers
Cellulosic made from plants (rayon, triacetate, and acetate); noncellulosic-made from molecules fouind in petroleum, natural gas, air and water to become POLYMERs
Generic name
official name given to a fiber and are significantly different in chemical composition.
Trademark name
an assigned name given to the generic name.
Property of Fibers
abrasion resistance;absorbency;chemical reactivity; cohesiveness, cover; creep;crimp; density; dyeability; elastic recovery; elongation; feltability; flammability; flexibility; hand; eat conductivity; loft; luster; mildew resistance; pilling; reiliency; stiffness; strength; sunlight resistance
Yarn
a continuous strand of textile fibers, filaments, or material suitable for processing into a textile fabric.
Silk
the only natural filament fiber.
Filament yarn
made by twisting several stands of filament fiber together.
Spun yarn
made by twisting many staple fibers together.
Spinning
Last step in converting fibers to yarn.
Three spinning systems used to produce spun yarn
cotton, wool and worsted systems.
Ply
number of strands or yarns twisted togeter.
Blended fibers
have advantage of desirable characteristics of both fibers.
4 methods of producing fabric
felting, bonding, weaving or knitting.
Looping or interlocking yarns together
process for creating knitted fabrics.
Felting
process in which fibers (not yarns) are pressed together to form a fabric
Bonding
use of adhesive substance to hold together either fibers or separate layers of fabric.
Warp yarns
lengthwise yarns woven along the entire length of the fabric parallel to the selvage.
Weft yarns
crosswise yarns woven across the fabric.
Finishes
makes greige goods usable, fabrics more attractive, or improve fabrics performance.
Design
the organization or arrangement of parts that make up a structure or work of art.
Elements of design
line, shap/form, space, texture, and color.
Characteristics of line
indicates direction, length, width, and straightness.
Shape or form
the silhouette formed by the outline of a clothing design.
3 classic silhouettes
bell, tubular and back fullness.
Space
the background against which forms or shapes are seen.
Texture
the surface quality of an object.; important to how a fabric should be used.
Color
most noted and remembered aspect of clothing.
Considerations in color combinations
hues, values, and intensities.
Color groupings
primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary.
Elements of design
parts that make up a design which have no rigid rules, but follow basic guidelines called principles of design.
Principles of design
balance, proportion, rhythmn, emphasis, and harmony/unity.
Monochromatic color scheme
uses two or more variations of the same hue; contains varius tints, shades and intensities of one color.
Analogous color scheme
colors that are adjacent on color wheel with no fewer than 3 and no more than six colors in this scheme.
Complementary color schemes
use of colors taht are direct opposites of each other on the color wheel.
Split complementary colro scheme
one color with the tow colors on either side of its direct complement.
Triad color schemes
use of hues that are four steps apart and equidistant on the color wheel.
Accented neutral color schemes
made by using black, white, or gray with a small amoutn of bright color accent.
Balance
principle of design that produces a sense of restfulness and equilibrium between opposite elements.
Proportion
relationship of parts to each other and to the whole based on how space is divided.
Rhythm
the illusion of motion as the eye moves from one part of a design to another.
Rhythm
created by repetition, gradation or progression, and transition.
Harmony or unity
the final goal or any design.
Basis for apparel and accessory choices
personality; lifestyle; desiired image and fist impression; and values, needs, and wants.
Factors for apparel and accessory quality
appearance, care, comfort, and durability.
1972 Care Labeling Act
all finished garments and fabric shall have attached labels for garment maintenance.
Textile Fiber Product Identification Act 190
textile products shall have a label listing the generic names of fibers.
Wool Product Labeling Act 1939
all wool products shall be identified as either new or recycled wool.
Fur Product Labeling Act 1951
requires thelabel of a fur product to list the name of the animal, treatment of fur, country, etc.
Falmmable Fabric Act 1953
prohibits sale of fabrics that burn faster, easier, and more intesely than other fabrics.
Labels
piece of cloth or ribbon permanently attached to a gamernt with information about the garment.
Hangtag
detachable label made of heavy paper or cardboard with voluntary information.
Set-in sleeves
sleeves joined to a garment at the armhole with seam all around and allowing free movement.
Raglan sleeve
sleeve attached to the bodice by a seam that contines in one piece to the collar but no seam at the shoulder.
Kimono sleeves
sleeves that do not have seams to connect them to the bodice but are cut in one piece during construction.
Dolman sleeve
a kimono sleeve that is lower than usual at the underarm.
Batwing sleeve
a kimono sleeve that is loose and very low at the underarm.
Types of skirts
A-line, circular, dirndl, flared, gathered, gored, pleated, straight or fitted, wrap.
Types of dresses
A-line, blouson, coat, empire, lowered waistline, princess, sheath, shift or chemise, shirtwaist, tent.
Types of women’s coats
balmacaan, capecoat or Inverness loak, chesterfield, pea, princess, trench, wrap.
Types of women’s jackets
bolero, box, Chanel, Norfolk, safari, windbreaker.
American cut suit
natural sloping shoulders, a loosefitting jacket and moderately wide-notched lapels.
European cut suit
paddes shoulders, tigher armholes, a jacket narrowed at the waist, and peaked lapels.
Men’s jackets
single-breasted, double-breasted, sports, blazer.
Types of lapels
notched (standard business lapel); peak (two sharp points and more formal as seen on double-breasted)
Trousers
pants worn with a suit.
Slacks
pants worn for casual occasions. Traditional slacks have belt loops; Continental slacks have split waistband and no belt loops.
Collar types
button-down( buttons to the body of the shirt); French-style (short points and large spread); long-point (small spread and 4″-4 1/2″ in length; tab collar (snap tabs or collar point to hold tips behind the knot).
Types of men’s coats
topcoat, overcoat, all-weather, and three-quarter.
Levels of fashion promotion
Producers that manufacture raw materials; Manufacturers who wholesale finished products; Retailers who sell finished products to customers.
Two broad categories of adverstising
Product advertising-to immediately sell merchandise; Institutional advertising- to build a positive reputation for a company.
Three types of special events for publicity
Merchandise Events; Demonstrations and Educational events; Fashion Shows.
Types of fashion shows
Formal- has identifiable theme; informal-also called a showing and is less structured; industrial show- also called a trade show usually by industry producers; retail show- sponsored by a retailer usually in-store,the cutomer sow, or the charity show.
Six types of window displays
single-category (one type of merchandise at one price; campaign window (same type of merchandise for serval weeks in the same windows; single-promotion ( major seling event in all or most of the windows); sale displays- (used to show bargain or clearance sale merchandise);line-of-goods ( show items from one manufacturer; mass displays (include varied, low-priced items).
Open window
permits customers to see into the interior of the sore.
Closed window
closed-in compartment which does not allow viewing inside the store.
Semi-closed window
partial background that hides some of the store’s interior.
Major categories of window displays
selling and prestige.
Components used in window displays
merchandise, functional props, decorative prips, structural props, background, floor covering and lighting.
Interior displays
located where customers will see them and are used in combination with window displays and advertising.
Types of interior displays
showcase, counter, platforms, shdow boxes, environment, island, free-standing units, hanging, point-of-purchase, self-selection, and vidoe kiosks.
Various arrangements for developing displays
single-unit, repetition, step, zigzag, line, S-curve, crescent, reverse curve, radiation, and pyramid.
Elements of an effective sign
informative, accurate, appropriate for the display, follows a set pattern, and does not contain too much information.
Fixtures
items constructed to support and display merchandise.
Fabrics and notions
important components of garments chosen based on fashion trends, quality, performance, price and suitability.
Grain
direction of a weave in a fabric.
On-grain
warp and filling yarns intersect at right angles.
Off-grain
yarns are not at right angles and will cause various construction problems.
Measures of fabric weights
ounces per yard, yards per pound, and onces per square yard.
Large prints
should be used with simple designs.
Small prints and solid colors
should be used with garments of more design detail.
Napped, sueded and pile fabrics
have nap and usually require more yardage than other fabrics.
Hand
the feel, body and way a fabric falls when draped.
Weight
heaviness or lightness and thinness or thickness or the fabric.
Shaping fabrics
used for lining, interfacing, underlining, and interlining.
Yardage
amount of fabric needed for a particular project.
Notions
thread, buttons, elastic, hooks and eyes, smaps, trims, and tape.
Motion economy
using time saving techniques and being more efficient.
Good machine control
starting, stopping,and sweing at the speed desired.
Faulty sewing machine threading
breaking thread and skipped stitches.
Basic sewing techniques
backstitching; staystitching; basting; understitching; topstitching; sewing corners.points, and inserts; feeding uneven plies; and sewing darts, pleats, tucks, and buttonholes.
Types of seams
welt, French, flat-felled, and double-stitched.
Seam finishes
zigzag, handovercast, pinked, pinked and stitched, and clean finished.
Hand stitches
basting; backstitch, catch stitch, slip stitch, banket, buttonhole, therad chain, vertical hemming, blind-hemming, overcast, running, padding, French tacks, and tailor’s tacks.
Repair procedures
darning, patching, and seam reinforcement.
4 types of conventional sewing machines
straight stitch, zigzag, automatic stitch, and electronic or computerized machines.
Types of industrial sewing macines
lock stitch, chain stitch, automatic and decorative stitch machines.
Additional features on industrial machines
treadle, knee press, balance wheel, belt, thread stand, and sewing lamp.
Spreading
laying down of many layers of fabric, each on top of the preceding one, into a stack for multiple cuts.
Pressing
lifting an iron and setting it down on a fabric.
Ironing
sliding the iron back and forth over the fabric.
Essential ingredients for pressing
heat, moisture, and pressure.
Three pressing methods
dry pressing, wet pressing and steam pressing.
Details that require pressing
darts, pleats, tucks, gathers or shirring, plackets and zippers, buttonholes, pockets, and hems.
Taking measurements
major factor in saving time during garment construction.
Key to sewing success
measure often and accurately in addition to rechecking measurements.
Basic measurements for a female client
height, back waist length, high bust, bust, waist, and full hip.
Basic measurements for a male client
height, neck circumference, chest, waist, hips, and shirt sleeve length.
Figure types
gourps of patterns according to height, proportion and shape.
Basic figure types for female patterns
Misses’, Miss Petite, Junior, Junior Petite, Young Junior/Teen, Half-Size, and Women’s.
Basic figure types for male patterns
Boys’, Teen-Boys’, and Men’s.
Children’s clothing categories
Babies, Toddlers’, Children’s, Girls’, and Chubbie.
True
children’s clothing categories reflect physical development of the average child at specific ages.
True
names for figure types are not intended for the age of the client.
Lengthwise grain
perpendicular to the floor at the center front and center back of a garment.
Crosswise grain
parallel to the floor at the center front and center back of a garment.
Balanced garment
hangs the same distrance form teh body from right to left and front to back, is on-grain, and sufficient ease.
Ease
determined b current fashion, body build, activity, and type of fabric, and is distributed evenly to each side of a garment.
Basic pattern alterations
increasingor decreasing length, waist, hip line, crotch depth or length; raising or lowering bust darts; enlarging the bust area.
Final pattern alterations
pieced back together and put on client’s body for proper fit.
Pattern guide sheet
general information about the pattern, a vriety of cutting layouts, and sewing directions for garment construction.
Preshrink and straighten
to be done to fabric before cutting pattern.
Determines straightness of fabric
tearing the fabric, cutitng along a rpminent design line, or pulling a crosswise yarn.
Fabric folds for pattern layout
crosswise, lengthwise, partial or double fold.
Require special pattern layouts
napped, plaid, striped fabrics and geometric design fabrics.
Large pattern pieces with place-on-fold brackets
should be pinned to the fabric before other pattern pieces.
Fitted facing or self-facing
used to finish raw garment edge, such as an armhole or neckline.
Interfacing
used to add firmness or help retain shape.
Linings
may be free-hanging as in skirts and pants, or may be attached to hem as in jackets and sleeves.
Gathered seams
retain fullness.
Eased seams
are smooth and unpuckered.
Self-casing or applied casing
hold elastic or drawstrings in garments.
Fitter
person trained to determine and mark garments for alterations.
Primary parts of blouses and shirts to alter
neckline, shoulders, bodice, and sleevers.
Waistline seam
unique part of a dress that can be increased, decreased, raised, or lowered.
Darts
one of the primary techniques for changing bodices.
True
the lower portion of a gament is easier to alter than the upper portion.
Hemline
part of garments that is altered most.
True
lengthening and shortening alterations are done after all other alterations are complete.
Characteristics of laundry sorting
color, soil, size, texture, and type of handling required.
Methods used to treat stains
presoak, pretreating with a stain remover, stain removal guide and stain removal kits.
Types of energy for soil removal
mechanical(agitation or rotation of washer tub); chemical (laundry products); thermal (hot, warm, or cold water).
Length of time to dry laundry
temperature of the circulating air, size of the load, amount of moisture in teh the laundry, and type of fabric.
Washer/extractor machines
filter dry cleaning solvent to removce bleeding, dye, dirt, oil, and odors.
Sanitizing textile and apparel products
washing in hot water of at least 130F or drying in ultraviolet lamp dryer.