Systems Engineering Management

What is the MBTI?
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator :Psychometric questionnaire designed to measure psychological preferences in how people perceive the world and make decisions
system
-Any set of components which could be seen as working together for the overall objective of the whole.
-An integrated set of elements that accomplishes a defined objective. These elements include products, processes, people, information, techniques, facilitates, services and other support elements.
System Thinking
A holistic mental framework and worldview that recognizes a system as a entity first, with its fit and relationship to its environment being primary concerns
Systems Engineering
an interdisciplinary approach and means to enable the realization of successful systems. it focuses on defining customer needs and required functionality early in development cycle, documenting requirements, then proceeding with design synthesis and system validation while considering the complete problem
System Life Cycles
Establish System Need.
Develop System Concept.
Design & Develop the System.
Produce the System.
Deploy the System.
Operate the System.
Retire the System.
Engineering (System) Design
-The organized, thoughtful development and testing of characteristics of new objects that have a particular configuration or perform some desired functions that meet our aims without violation any specified limitations
-Concerned with the appropriate selection of system components and their arrangement(structure), so as to meet the overall objectives of the system
Management
-The work of creating and maintaining environments in which people can accomplish goals efficiently and effectively.
-The process of achieving desired results through efficient utilization of human material resources.
Engineering Management
A field that concentrates on the application of engineering principles for the effective planning and efficient operations of managing manufacturing or industrial operations
What does a function HAVE to have?
has a verb and a noun that is independent of the solution.
What is a requirement
Something that can be assigned to a function
Functions of management
planning, organizing, staffing, leading, controling
Which function of managers is the most important?
All of them!
System boundary
boundary that encapsulates all the essential elements, subsystems, and interactions necessary to address a systems decision problem. The system boundary isolates the system under study from its external environment except for inputs and outputs that are allowed to move across the system boundary.
Element types: Structure
Element types: flow
Element types: operating
Open Classification
Interacts with Environment. Internal and External Feedback
Closed Classification
No interaction with environment.Internal Feedback only
Boundary: Environment
Boundary: Feedback
Functions: Input output diagrams
Functions: interfaces
Structure: system hierarchies
spatial
components
mathmatical
uses engineering economic analysis & deterministic modeling
Behavior designed
Behavior emerging
behavior evolution
holistic
-relating to or concerned with wholes or with complete systems rather than with the analysis of treatment of or dissection into parts
– emphasizing the organic or function relation between parts and the whole
Energy Orientation
extroversion, draw energy from outside world & introversion, draw primary energy from inner world of information and thoughts
Perception
sensing, absorbs data in a literal fashion & intuition, generates abstract possibilities from information gathered
Judgment
thinking, makes decisions based on logic and reason & feeling, makes decision based on value system
Outer World Orientation
judging, likes things neat, orderly and established & perceiving, likes things flexible and spontaneous
What type of development is best used with a spiral development chart
Software
The System Decision Process
useful for complex system decision making (green book)
Red on System Decision Process map?
Problem Definition, stop and think
Yellow on System Decision Process map?
Solution Design , caution
Green on System Decision Process map?
Decision Making, pick a decision and go
Purple on System Decision Process map?
Solution Implementation, all blue skies but usually black and blue
What does it take to be a good systems thinker?
-Operational thinking.
-Nonlinear thinking.
-Scientific thinking.
-Creative thinking.
-System as a cause.
-10km view.
-closed loop thinking.
-dynamic thinking.
Classes of Physical Systems
-non living (iPhone).
-living (lamb).
-manmade (Hoover dam).
-natural (human heart).
-open (interacts with environment).
-closed (no interaction with environment).
Black Box:Degree of Visibility of Internal Workings of System
structure that behaves without providing any visibility into internal elements. Ex: iphone & Expedia
Gray Box:Degree of Visibility of Internal Workings of System
offers partial knowledge of selected internal component interactions and processes. Ex: security screening at airport & flight baggage claim.
White Box:Degree of Visibility of Internal Workings of System
recognizes complete transparency on a systems internal elements. Ex: boarding a flight & airline check-in.
IDEFO
models are used to understand the functionality of a system.
-Formal method of describing systems, processes, and their activities. (p 31)
-MUST get system function right!
-Inputs/outputs must cross system boundary.
Standard
a document that provides requirements, specifications, guidelines, or characteristics that can be used consistently to ensure that materials, products, processes and services are fit for their purposes
Creativity
playing with imagination and possibilities while interacting with ideas, people, and the environment, thus leading to new and meaningful connections and outcomes
. Perceptual blocks
stereotyping, difficulty isolating the problem, inability to examine problem from multiple perspectives
Emotional blocks
fear of taking a risk, no appetite for chaos, judging rather than generating ideas, lack of challenge or excess zeal
Intellectual and Expressive blocks
– choosing the “correct” problem solving language (mathematical, visual, analogy), flexibility verses fluency, incorrect info, poor communication skills
Cultural and Environmental blocks
taboos, lack of humor, reason verses intuition, left/right brain, tradition and change, supportive vs non supportive environments
Mental Languages
1. Verbal
2. Sensory
3. Mathematical
4. Visual
Habit
intersection of knowledge, skill and desire
Knowledge
theoretical paradigm, the what to do and the why
Skill
the How to do
Desire
the motivation, the want to do
Association
link material you want to remember with material you already know
Word substitution
substitute a tangible object for an intangible thing
Memory Link or Story Chain
development of a story
Phonetic Alphabet
useful for remembering dates and times
Herrmann Brain Dominance Instrument (HBDI)
– tool for enhancing communication, teamwork, and thinking skills. An assessment NOT a test
HBDI- A: analytical technical world
-Data analysis, statistics, financial budgets, logical decision making, technical hardware
-Engineer, computer analyst, technician, accountant, lawyer, statistician
-Mr. Spock from Star Trek
-Solve problems: break the problem into parts
HBDI-B: organized controlled world
-Administration, tactical planning, procedures, safekeeping, knowing how and getting it done, daily routines and schedules
-Planner, administrator, drill sergeant, foreman
-Bookkeeper drawing a ¼ in. line on a receipt
-Solve problems: set up a procedure and follow the steps
HBDI-C: caring networked world
-Teamwork, communications, spiritual values, ethics, personal relationships, customer care, know how people feel about issues
-Teacher, trainer, nurse, social worker, secretary
-Dr. Martin Luther King, Gandhi
-Solve problems: work in a team
HBDI-D: imaginative trailblazing world
-Synthesis, play, vision, strategic planning, global context, change, many ideas and alternatives
-Architect, entrepreneur, explorer, artist, inventor
-Einstein, Leonardo da Vinci
-Solve problems: look at whole picture and context then develop several alternatives
Teamwork
-Attempting a task with a team without working on team building is like walking around in the dark
-Ability to function on a team is part of ABET
Homogeneous Team
same brain dominance
Heterogeneous Team
ppl from all 4 dominances
what are the advantages of teams?
– More knowledge available
– If there’s one “best” solution, team has a good chance of finding it
– Members learn from each other
– Team provides encouraging environment
– Learn from each other
what are the disadvantages of teams?
– Larger investment of personal time is needed
– Team process has low efficiency
– Conflict may impair the productivity
– Can suffer from “group think” through conformity, peer pressure or intimidation
Team Development Stages Model
Forming – Storming – Norming – Performing – Reforming
Forming
members act like individuals, look out for themselves
Storming
Not getting much done, members try to do the work on their own, tension and jealousy
Norming
objectives are worked out collectively and members drawn together, some success, more cooperation, work out their differences
Performing
accepted each other’s strengths and weaknesses, effective productive unit, confident of team’s abilities, fully share accountability
Reforming
team is matured, acts like a team outside of team setting
what are two detrimental behaviors of engineers
– Automatically discounting emotional arguments
o Solution: quadrant A learn to listen and value quadrant C ppl
– Ignoring people who have unorthodox ideas
o Solution: quadrant A can learn to listen and value creative thinkers
Mission statement
states overall purpose of team, scope, list of constraints, available budget
Benefits of Good Communication
– Building an effective team
– Critical in times of rapid change
– A successful negation outcome depends on good communication
– Lowers stress
– Avoid disasters
10 Mental Blocks to Creative Thinking
1. Trying to find the “right” answer
2. Logical thinking
3. Following the rules
4. Being practical
5. Play is not work
6. Lack of time to think creatively
7. Someone else will be creative
8. Fear of being creative
9. Avoiding ambiguity
10. Being wrong is bad
The Function of Constraints
• Guide the direction of creative thinking, the pressure and challenge can enhance idea generation
• Removing or adding constraints can increase creativity
• When constraints are too detailed it creates barriers to creative thinking
What are Traits of Creative Thinking
1. Look for the unexpected
2. Does the idea show flexibility?
3. Is the solution a synthesis of ideas?
4. Is it an improvement of an existing concept?
5. Does the solution have a sense of wholeness, beauty of elegance?
6. Did the person listen to “something inside the head?
7. Was the solution a result of brainstorming?
Approaches to Problem Solving
-Scientific Method
-Creative thinking
-Analytical thinking
-Creative problem solving
-*System decision process (problem definition, solution design, decision making, solution implementation)
Elements of a Good Decision (Alpacas Can Make Cows Like Chickens)
1. Appropriate frame
2. Creative, doable alternatives
3. Meaningful information
4. Clear values and trade offs
5. Logically correct reasoning
6. Commitment to follow-through
what type of engineers focus on Design 1 vs Design 2 problems
Component engineers
what type of engineers focus on value 1 vs value 2 problems
systems engineers
what type of engineers focus on value vs resource space problems
Engineering managers