SYG ch 4

Although there are many agents of socialization, four of the primary ones are:
family, schools, peers, and media.
Venus Williams is one of the top women’s tennis players in the world. This status overrides all of her other statuses and is known as her:
master status.
Front-stage mistakes, such as if your sociology professor accidently trips as she walks into class one day, are known as:
breaches
Cooley’s theory of socialization states that the self develops from our interactions with others and their reactions to us. This theory is known as:
looking glass self theory.
Who developed role theory as a way to examine social interaction?
Robert Merton
In which of the following situations would the process of resocialization most likely occur?
a marketing director of a large firm is sent to prison for embezzlement
Harold Garfinkel and his students devised “breaching experiments” in order to:
reveal the presence of unspoken expectations that people in particular roles have of one another.
A recognizable social position that an individual occupies, such as “student” or “professor,” is known as a:
status
Ethnomethodology is an approach to studying human interaction that focuses on:
how we make sense of our world and convey this understanding to others in our ef-fort to create mutually shared realities.
The popular television show Sesame Street was created with the explicit purpose of providing educational opportunities for low-income children. Being that this show was successful, we can argue that:
the media serves as a powerful socializing agent.
The process by which people internalize the values, beliefs, and norms required to become functioning members of a given society is known as:
socialization.
Harold Garfinkel developed an approach to studying human interaction that focused on how people produce (and maintain) a mutually shared social order. This method was called:
ethnomethodology.
Most sociologists (and biologists) argue that race is a human invention, or is socially constructed. Which of the following statements does NOT highlight how race is socially constructed?
Racial boundaries provide an obvious and natural means of dividing the world.
Sandra’s boss asked her to work this weekend, but Sandra feels obligated to attend a family reunion and she has to study for an exam. She is having trouble deciding which “activity” to let go. Sandra is experiencing:
role conflict
Today’s assumption that childhood represents a distinct phase in the life course stands in sharp contrast to the notion of children as “little adults” that was popular in preindustrial times. This example highlights:
how our notions of childhood are socially constructed.
According to Annette Lareau (2003), working-class and poor parents focus on the “accomplishment of natural growth,” while middle-class parents are more likely to engage in “concerted cultivation.” In the “accomplishment of natural growth,” children experience:
long stretches of leisure time, child-initiated play, and clear boundaries between the social life of children and adults.
Which of the following would be the best example of a total institution?
a convent
If your professor asked you to do a “breaching experiment,” you might do which of the following?
ask a stranger to tie your shoes
A good deal of impression management can be said to involve “teamwork.” Which of the following is NOT an example of teamwork?
pedestrians on a street who gather to watch someone jump from a building
Mead would probably argue that if your four-year-old daughter picks her nose and keeps pulling up her dress while you are out at a fancy restaurant, it is because:
she has not internalized the generalized other.
An ascribed status is:
a status a person has little or no control over.
Which of the following scenarios involves the use of peer pressure?
A student decides to go out for drinks after her friends make her feel guilty for “stud-ying too much.”
Children like Anna, who have experienced long periods of isolation, illustrate how:
“human nature” is the result of a complex relationship between nature (biology) and nurture (the social environment).
People and groups who influence our orientation to life, our self-concept, emotions, attitudes, and behaviors are:
agents of socialization
According to research by Kohn and Schooler (1983) and Laureau (2002), parents of different social classes socialize their children differently. Which of the following statements best describes these differences?
Middle-class parents are more likely to stress independence and self-direction; working-class parents are more likely to instill respect for authority.
Which of the following provides a good example of the generalized other?
A child is taught to say “bless you” every time someone sneezes in her home. When she is at the grocery store one day, the child says “bless you” to a complete stranger who sneezes in the checkout line.
Which of the following scenarios provides an example of front-stage behavior?
??
Using Mead’s concept of the generalized other, which of the following explanations would you use to explain why a man “streaked” (ran around nude) at Harvard’s graduation ceremony?
He has a keen awareness of the generalized other and simply enjoys soliciting peo-ple’s reactions.
Which of the following is NOT an example of a given-off gesture?
stifling a laugh when someone walks into the class with toilet paper on his or her shoe
Which of the following best describes the difference between the I and the me in George Herbert Mead’s theory?
The I is selfish and impulsive; the me is how we believe others see us.