SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT CHAPTER 11

The three major variations of online catalogs are
a. catalogs by vendors, catalogs by intermediaries, and exchanges provided by buyers
b. EDI, ERP, and ASN
c. cost-based, market-based, and competitive bidding
d. drop shipping, channel assembly, and postponement
e. all auction-based
a. catalogs by vendors, catalogs by intermediaries, and exchanges provided by buyers
increasing fluctuation in orders that often occurs as orders move through the supply chain.
bullwhip effect
the coordination of all supply chain activities involved in enhancing customer value.
Supply chain management
a network of suppliers. Usually
the suppliers are partially owned or debtors to
the purchasing organization. This structure is quite common in Japan.
What is a keiretsu?
The advantages of shipping by truck include
flexibility, on-time behavior, no damage,
paperwork in order, and low cost.
What are the advantages of shipping by truck?
The occurrences include local optimization, in
centives (sales incentives, quantity discounts,
and promotions), and large lots (bullwhip effect), and gaming
Name three common things that contribute to di
stortion of information about the supply chain?
an approach that seeks effcieny of operations through the intergration of all material acqusition, movement, and storage activities
logistics management
1. Trucks
2 Railroads
3. Airplane (fastest, meant for perishables)
4. Boats (cheapest but slowest)
5. Piping
Shipping system for SCM
-Accurate “pull” data (what customers are actually buying)
-Smaller lot sizes
-make 1 member of Supply chain responsible for invenetory within the supply chain.
-Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI)- vendor has to keep shelf stocked at walmart. not the employees of walmart
-Postponment- lowes has on hand a bunch of white paint and then mixes it later to the color the customers want. instead of having tons of different colored paints that go to waste.
-Channel assembly
-drop shipping- retailer gets an order, tells manufacturer they have an order, manufacturer sends product to customer instead of retailer. ( gets rid of the middleman)
-blanket orders
-standarization
-Electronic data change (EDI)- use computer to send information instead of fax machine
Opportunties in Supply Chain Management
-lower cost ( lower labor cost)
-allows you to focus on primary business ( like an accountant or HR)
-item protected by patent or trade secret
-inadequate capacity
-reduces inventory costs
Reasons to outsource
-Advantages: long-term suppliers better unders
tand firm, suppliers may gain economies of
scale, trust, and willingness to participate in
JIT.
-Disadvantages: concern about trade
secrets and suppliers venturing out, high cost of
changing partners, and risk of poor supplier performance
Identify the advantages and disadvantages of using the few suppliers approach.
-Its a core competence ( like coca cola doesn’t want to outsource their marketing)
-No good suppliers
-proprietary design( you have the patent or the secret formula)
-more control over quality
-utilize excess capacity
Reasons NOT to outsource
transferring a firms internal activity to external supplier
outsourcing
the bullwhip effect equation
variance of orders/ variance of demand
Visibility throughout the supply chain is a requirement among supply chain members for
a. mutual agreement on goals
b. mutual trust
c. compatible organizational cultures
d. local optimization
e. the bullwhip effect
b. mutual trust
Which of the following is not a concern of the supply chain?
a. warehousing and inventory levels
b. credit and cash transfers
c. suppliers
d. distributors and banks
e. maintenance scheduling
e. maintenance scheduling
What type of negotiating strategy requires the supplier to open its books to the purchasers?
a. cost-based price model
b. market-based price model
c. competitive bidding
d. price-based model
e. none of the above
a. cost-based price model
Which of the following statements is true regarding the leverage of supply chain savings?
a. Supply chain leverage is about the same for all industries.
b. Supply chain savings exert more leverage as the firm’s purchases are a smaller percent of sales.
c. Supply chain savings exert more leverage as the firm has a lower net profit margin.
d. Supply chain leverage depends only upon the percent of sales spent in the supply chain.
e. None of the above is true.
c. Supply chain savings exert more leverage as the firm has a lower net profit margin.
One dollar saved in purchasing is
a. equivalent to a dollar earned in sales revenue
b. worth even more than a dollar earned in sales revenue
c. worth slightly more than a dollar earned because of taxes
d. worth from 35% in the technical instrument industry to 70% in the food products industry
e. only worthwhile if you are in the 50% tax bracket and still have a low profit margin
b. worth even more than a dollar earned in sales revenue
Which one of the following statements about purchasing is true?
a. The cost of purchases as a percent of sales is often small.
b. Purchasing provides a major opportunity for price increases.
c. Purchasing is always more efficient than making an item.
d. Purchasing has an impact on the quality of the goods and services sold.
e. Competitive bidding is a major factor in long-term cost reductions.
d. Purchasing has an impact on the quality of the goods and services sold.
In the make-or-buy decision, one of the reasons for making is
a. to reduce inventory costs
b. to obtain technical or management ability
c. inadequate capacity
d. reciprocity
e. to assure adequate supply in terms of quantity
e. to assure adequate supply in terms of quantity
In the make-or-buy decision, which of the following is a reason for making an item?
a. management can focus on its primary business
b. lower production cost
c. inadequate capacity
d. reduce inventory costs
e. None of the above is a reason for making an item.
b. lower production cost
In the make-or-buy decision, one of the reasons for buying is
a. to assure adequate supply
b. to obtain desired quality
c. to remove supplier collusion
d. inadequate capacity
e. to maintain organizational talents
d. inadequate capacity
In the make-or-buy decision, which of the following is not a reason for buying?
a. inadequate capacity
b. to obtain desired quality
c. patents or trade secrets
d. lower inventory costs
e. All of the above are reasons for buying.
b. to obtain desired quality
Outsourcing
a. transfers traditional internal activities to outside vendors
b. utilizes the efficiency which comes with specialization
c. lets the outsourcing firm focus on its critical success factors
d. None of the above are true of outsourcing.
e. All of the above are true of outsourcing.
e. All of the above are true of outsourcing.
The transfer of some of what are traditional internal activities and resources of a firm to outside vendors is
a. a standard use of the make or buy decision
b. not allowed by the ethics code of the Supply Management Institute
c. offshoring
d. outsourcing
e. keiretsu
d. outsourcing
The Institute for Supply Management
a. establishes laws and regulations for supply management
b. is an agency of the United Nations charged with promoting ethical conduct globally
c. publishes the principles and standards for ethical supply management conduct
d. prohibits backward integration into developing economies
e. All of the above are true.
c. publishes the principles and standards for ethical supply management conduct
In supply chain management, ethical issues
a. are particularly important because of the enormous opportunities for abuse
b. may be guided by company rules and codes of conduct
c. become more complex the more global is the supply chain
d. may be guided by the principles and standards of the Institute for Supply Management
e. All of the above are true.
e. All of the above are true.
Keeping a product generic as long as possible before customizing is known as
a. postponement
b. keiretsu
c. channel assembly
d. forward integration
e. backward integration
a. postponement
Which one of the following is not a supply chain strategy?
a. negotiation with many suppliers
b. vertical integration
c. keiretsu
d. short-term relationships with few suppliers
e. virtual companies
d. short-term relationships with few suppliers
A disadvantage of the “few suppliers” strategy is
a. the risk of not being ready for technological change
b. the lack of cost savings for customers and suppliers
c. possible violations of the Sherman Antitrust Act
d. the high cost of changing partners
e. All of the above are disadvantages of the “few suppliers” strategy.
d. the high cost of changing partners
The purchasing approach that holds the suppliers responsible for maintaining the necessary technology, expertise, and forecasting ability plus cost, quality, and delivery competencies is
a. few suppliers
b. many suppliers
c. Keiretsu
d. vertical integration
e. virtual companies
b. many suppliers
Which of the following is not an advantage of the “few suppliers” concept?
a. suppliers’ willingness to participate in JIT systems
b. trust
c. vulnerability of trade secrets
d. creation of value by allowing suppliers to have economies of scale
e. suppliers’ willingness to provide technological expertise
c. vulnerability of trade secrets
Which of the following supply chain strategies creates value by allowing suppliers to have economies of scale?
a. suppliers becoming part of a company coalition
b. vertical integration
c. long-term partnering with a few suppliers
d. negotiating with many suppliers
e. developing virtual companies
c. long-term partnering with a few suppliers
Which of the following is not a condition that favors the success of vertical integration?
a. availability of capital
b. availability of managerial talent
c. required demand
d. small market share
e. All of the above favor the success of vertical integration.
d. small market share
Which of the following best describes vertical integration?
a. to sell products to a supplier or a distributor
b. to develop the ability to produce products which complement the original product
c. to produce goods or services previously purchased
d. to develop the ability to produce the specified good more efficiently than before
e. to build long-term partnerships with a few suppliers
c. to produce goods or services previously purchased
A fried chicken fast-food chain that acquired feed mills and poultry farms has performed
a. horizontal integration
b. forward integration
c. backward integration
d. current transformation
e. job expansion
c. backward integration
Vertical integration appears particularly advantageous when the organization has
a. a very specialized product
b. a large market share
c. a very common, undifferentiated product
d. little experience operating an acquired vendor
e. purchases that are a relatively small percent of sales
b. a large market share
A rice mill in south Louisiana purchases the trucking firm that transports packaged rice to distributors. This is an example of
a. horizontal integration
b. forward integration
c. backward integration
d. current transformation
e. keiretsu
b. forward integration
Japanese manufacturers often take a middle ground between purchasing from a few suppliers and vertical integration. This approach is
a. kanban
b. keiretsu
c. samurai
d. poka-yoke
e. kaizen
b. keiretsu
The Japanese concept of a company coalition of suppliers is
a. poka-yoke
b. kaizen
c. keiretsu
d. dim sum
e. illegal
c. keiretsu
Which of the following is not an advantage of a virtual company?
a. speed
b. total control over every aspect of the organization
c. specialized management expertise
d. low capital investment
e. flexibility
b. total control over every aspect of the organization
Local optimization is a supply chain complication best described as
a. optimizing one’s local area without full knowledge of organizational or supply chain needs
b. obtaining very high production efficiency in a decentralized supply chain
c. the prerequisite of global optimization
d. the result of supply chains built on suppliers with compatible corporate cultures
e. the opposite of the bullwhip effect
a. optimizing one’s local area without full knowledge of organizational or supply chain needs
The “bullwhip” effect
a. occurs as orders are relayed from retailers to wholesalers
b. results in increasing fluctuations at each step of the sequence
c. increases the costs associated with inventory in the supply chain
d. occurs because of distortions in information in the supply chain
e. all of the above
e. all of the above
Which of the following is not an opportunity for effective management in the supply chain?
a. accurate “pull” data
b. vendor managed inventory
c. postponement
d. local optimization
e. channel assembly
d. local optimization
Which of the following is an opportunity for effective management in the supply chain?
a. random “pull” data
b. multistage control of replenishment
c. the bullwhip effect
d. customer managed inventory
e. channel assembly
e. channel assembly
Drop shipment
a. is equivalent to cross-docking
b. is the opposite of a blanket order
c. means the supplier will ship directly to the end consumer, rather than to the seller
d. is the same thing as keiretsu
e. is a good reason to find a new firm to ship your products
c. means the supplier will ship directly to the end consumer, rather than to the seller
A carpet manufacturer has delivered carpet directly to the end consumer rather than to the carpet dealer. The carpet manufacturer is practicing
a. postponement
b. cross-docking
c. channel assembly
d. drop shipping
e. float reduction
d. drop shipping
Hewlett-Packard withholds customization of its laser printers as long as possible. This is an example of
a. vendor managed inventory
b. standardization
c. backward integration
d. postponement
e. timely customization
d. postponement
All of the following are “opportunities” for supply chain management except
a. postponement
b. drop shipment
c. blanket orders
d. channel assembly
e. line balancing
e. line balancing
Which of the following is an advantage of the postponement technique?
a. reduction in automation
b. early customization of the product
c. better quality of the product
d. reduction in training costs
e. reduction in inventory investment
e. reduction in inventory investment
A furniture maker has delivered a dining set directly to the end consumer rather than to the furniture store. The furniture maker is practicing
a. postponement
b. drop shipping
c. channel assembly
d. passing the buck
e. float reduction
b. drop shipping
What is the average capacity utilization in the motor carrier (trucking) industry?
a. 25%
b. 50%
c. 75%
d. 95%
e. 99%
b. 50%
What term is used to describe the outsourcing of logistics?
a. E-Logistics
b. Shipper Managed Inventory (SMI)
c. Hollow Logistics
d. Sub-Logistics
e. Third-Party Logistics
e. Third-Party Logistics
E-procurement
a. works best in long-term contract situations, and is not suited for auctions
b. is the same thing as Internet purchasing
c. represents only the auction and bidding components of Internet purchasing
d. is illegal in all states except Nevada and New Jersey
e. All of the above are true of e-procurement.
b. is the same thing as Internet purchasing
The three classic types of negotiation strategies are
a. vendor evaluation, vendor development, and vendor selection
b. Theory X, Theory Y, and Theory Z
c. many suppliers, few suppliers, and keiretsu
d. cost-based price model, market-based price model, and competitive bidding
e. None of the above is correct.
d. cost-based price model, market-based price model, and competitive bidding
Consider a firm with a 2007 net income of $20 million, revenue of $60 million and cost of goods sold of $25 million. If the balance sheet amounts show $2 million of inventory and $500,000 of property, plant & equipment, what is the inventory turnover?
a. 12.50
b. 10.00
c. 42.00
d. 4.16
e. 20.00
a. 12.50
The three stages of vendor selection, in order, are
a. vendor evaluation, vendor development, and negotiations
b. vendor development, vendor evaluation, and vendor acquisition
c. introduction, growth, and maturity
d. vendor evaluation, negotiations, and vendor development
e. EDI, ERP, and ASN
a. vendor evaluation, vendor development, and negotiations
Which one of the following distribution systems offers quickness and reliability when emergency supplies are needed overseas?
a. trucking
b. railroads
c. airfreight
d. waterways
e. pipelines
c. airfreight
With the growth of JIT, which of the following distribution systems has been the biggest loser?
a. trucking
b. railroads
c. airfreight
d. waterways
e. pipelines
b. railroads
By which distribution system is 90 percent of the nation’s coal shipped?
a. railroads
b. trucks
c. waterways
d. pipelines
e. none of the above
a. railroads
Which distribution system is the fastest growing mode of shipping?
a. railroads
b. trucks
c. airfreight
d. waterways
e. pipelines
c. airfreight
Which of the following devices represents an opportunity for technology to improve security of container shipments?
a. devices that identify truck and container location
b. devices that sense motion
c. devices that measure radiation or temperature
d. devices that can communicate the breaking of a container lock or seal
e. all of the above
e. all of the above
Which one of the following performance measures is not true of a world class firm?
a. short time placing an order
b. high percentage of accepted material
c. large lead time
d. high percentage of on-time deliveries
e. low number of shortages per year
c. large lead time
Consider a firm with a 2007 net income of $20 million, revenue of $60 million and cost of goods sold of $25 million. If the balance sheet amounts show $2 million of inventory and $500,000 of property, plant & equipment, how many weeks of supply does the firm hold?
a. 12.50
b. 5.20
c. 2.60
d. 0.08
e. 4.16
e. 4.16