Supervisory management ch.2

Industrial Revolution
Changed the manager’s job from owner-manager and often owner-worker to professional manager of many. Transformed U.S from agricultural society to a manufacturing environment. Shops grew into factories and new technologies developed.
Classical school “3 courses”
Administrative management
Scientific management
Bureaucratic management
Administrative management
Focuses on management duties.
How to structure an organization for high performance
Scientific management
Focuses on best way to get work done
Bureaucratic management
Relies on a rational set of structured guidelines and hiearchy
Classical school includes (theorists)
Henry Fayol
Mary Parker Follett
Henry Gant
Max Weber
Classical school theorists believe
money motivates employees and in structured management approaches
Theorist(s) associated with administrative management
Henry Fayol & Mary Parker Follet
Henry Fayol
-Founder of Classical School
-Defined 5 functions of management
-Authored General & Industrial Management
– Defined 14 management principles
– Father of modern management
Henry Fayol’s 5 functions of management
1. Planning
2. Organizing
3. Commanding
4. Coordinating
5. Controlling
While other theorists were studying the worker, Fayol studied the __________.
Mary Parker Follet
Administrative management and contemporary theorist. Known for her Law of Situation. There is no one best way to do anything; it depends on the situation.
Scientific management focuses on
the relationship between workers and machinery and defines how to organize tasks for people. It also attempts to create jobs that economize time, human energy, and other productive resources
Theorist(s) associated with scientific management
Frederick Taylor
Frank & Lillian Gilbreth
Henry Gantt
Frederick Taylor
– Father of scientific management
– Authored Principles of Scientific management
– Break a job down into its smallest movements, time each one, then redesign the job
– Proposed incentives to improve output
– Encouraged specialization
-Employees are “not supposed to think”
Frank & Lillian Gilbreth
-Studied time and motions studies
– Work divided into its most fundamental elements
– Their studies eliminated waste and effort
– Only one best way to perform a process
– Identified 17 hand motions, each assigned a symbol known as a “therblig”
Frank Gilbreth
Father of time and motion studies
Lillian Gilbreth
First lady of engineering
Henry Gantt
-Developed a scheduling approach that allowed management to view overlapping tasks that needed to occur over a given time (=Gantt chart).
– Encouraged motivating employees w/ rewards for good work, incentives, and bonuses
Bureaucratic management theorist
Max Weber
Max Weber
-Father of modern sociology
– Believed efficiency came in bureaucracy
-Identified 3 types of authority
3 types of authority: Max Weber
Rational: based on law, procedures, rules
Positional: superior over subordinate stems from legal authority
Charismatic: Personal qualities
Human Relations Movements
Focus is on the workers. Recognized them as “social men”
Hawthorne effect
The phenomenon that people change their behavior when they know they are being studied
H.A. Simon
(human relations movement)
– Limited rationality theory
Workers respond unpredictably to managerial attention
Chester Barnard
(human relations movement)
– Acceptance theory
Authority of a superior exists only when accepted by the subordinates
Human resources school includes
-Hierarchy of needs
– Contingency theory
– Systems theory
– Management as a discipline theory
-Chaos theory
Human resources school incorporates
-Theories of the human relations school and adds emphasis to motivation and leadership techniques to improve productivity
– Employees are considered creative and competent & employees wish to participate in decision making
Abraham Maslow
(Human resources school)
Studied the relationship between human needs and motivation [hierarchy of needs]
Douglas McGregor
(Human resources school)
Labeled the management perceptions of employees
Theory X
Employees are lazy, irresponsible, dislike work, and prefer to be directed
Theory Y
Employees are responsible, enjoy work, and will exercise self-direction; work well if rewarded
Theory Z
Employees can self-manage and be productive through group consensus and decision making, there are assurances of long-term employment, and there is a continued emphasis on quality improvement
Contingency theory
-Supported by others
Fred Fiedler
Organization variables:
– Variables affect the organization’s management culture including size, complexity of tasks, environmental uncertainty
Geert Hofstede
Cultural differences theory:
– Management approaches vary across the world, and managers are selected for different traits in different countries
Alfred Chandler
Natural evolution of the organization to meet the needs of its strategy
Paul Lawrence and Jay Lorsch
Authority granted to managers
Systems theory
The concept that an organization is a collection of open systems that constantly interact with the external environment
Systems theory developed by
Ludwig Von Bertalanffy
Flow of communication within a complex organization
Management as a discipline theory (2 theorists)
Peter Drucker & Henry Mintzberg
Peter Drucker
– Father of modern management
– Supported simplification and decentralization
– Stressed strategic planning and management by objective
Chaos theory
– The theory that the world is unorganized and events are unpredictable; thus, managers must recognize that events cannot always be controlled.
– Organizational events cannot always be controlled, and managers will be faced with challenges
Organizational development
– Organization serves as a social system
– Health and performance of organization related to enriching the environment and lives of the participants
– Encourages improving work processes, communication, employee suggestions, rewards, and goals
Entrepreneurial theory
– Talent is lost from organizations
– Encouraged to leave when bureaucracies hinder employee contribution
– Individual learns from the errors of his managers
– Individual launches new endeavor applying multiple management styles to achieve goals of the endeavor