Stress Management Chapters 16-17

What is Occupational Stress?
-Pertains to sources of stress at work
-Involves individual characteristics
-Related to employee’s role within organization
-Difficult to define
Occupational Stress Definition
The combination of sources of stress at work, individual characteristics, and extraorganizational stressors.
Constructs of Occupational Stress
-Sociocultural
-Organizational
-Work Setting
-Interpersonal
-Psychological
-Biological
-Physical/Environmental
Why is occupational stress of concern?
-Cost to business is billions per year
-Leads to increased sick days, drug or alcohol abuse, and early death
-Source of unhappiness
-Can promote high turnover rates of employees
-Technology advances keep employees tethered to work
Technology and Occupational Stress
-Technology advances in cell phones contributes to occupational stress
-Never being out of reach or being “always on call”
Stressful Workplaces
Defined as those with high demand and low control or high effort and low reward.
Gender and Occupational Stress: Women
-Career blocks
-Sexual harassment
-Male-dominated climate
-Performance pressure
-Gender stereotyping
-Isolation
-Lack of role models
Disease and Occupational Stress: Physiological effects
-Hypertension
-Elevated serum cholesterol
-Increased left ventricular mass
-Increased catecholamines
-High plasma fibrinogen concentrations
-Increased use of alcohol and drugs.
Occupational Stress and Disease: Disease States
-Coronary artery disease
-Obesity
-Psychosomatic symptoms
-Diabetes
-Hypertension
-Peptic ulcers
Occupational Stress and Disease: Psychological effects
-Low self-esteem
-Increased job tension
-Low job satisfaction
-Depression
-Anxiety
Occupational Stressors
Workers feel stress at work because of:
-Lack of participation in decision-making process
-Role problems
-Job dissatisfaction
-Work environmet
The Wrokaholic
-Immersing oneself excessively in work at the expense of non-work activities.
-Identifying oneself more with the role of a worker than as an individual
Ways to Combat Workaholism
-Focus on work you most like doing, work you could “do for free”
-Use your time; don’t let it use you
-Build friendships at work
-Schedule open time into your work life
-Learn to say no
-Create a work environment that pleases you
-Look for positives in your job
Burnout
-Adverse stress reaction to work with psychological, psychophysiological, and behavioral components.
Symptoms of Burnout
-Diminished sense of humor
-Skipping rest and meals
-Increased overtime/no vacation
-Increased physical complaints
-Social withdrawal
-Changed job performance
-Self-medication
-Internal changes
Five Stages of Burnout
1. The honeymoon
2. Fuel shortage
3. Chronic symptoms
4. Crisis
5. Hitting the wall
How to combat Burnout
1. Identify value and meaning of job
2. List all activities you like, rank them in order
3. Create support group
4. Start physical self-care program
5. Start psychological self-care program
6. Do something silly every day
Women and Work Outside the Home
-Make less money than their male counterparts
-Women are subjected to more sexual harassment
-Minority women earn less than non-minority women
-72% of women work outside the home
-65% still in traditionally female roles (secretary)
-Women cope differently than men
-Women have a retirement age gap, lack of life insurance benefits, and divorced women have less retirement income
Family-Friendly Workplace Policies
-Job-sharing
-Flexible work schedules
-Home-based work
-Health promotion programs
-Child and elder care
-Other policies and perks
Women and Work Outside the Home: Family
-Workers bring family stress to work
-Workers also bring work stress home
-Affects productivity, decision-making, relationships
Working in the Home
-Homemakers experience denigration of their role
-Homemakers are at risk for all the same occupational stressors
-Empty-nest syndrome is a potent stressor
Interventions
-Don’t take work home
-Take breaks; don’t eat lunch at your desk
-Try to see things for what they really are
-Separate your self-worth from the task
-Establish a techno-free time
-Schedule regular exercise
The Family
-set of intimate and personal relationships
-Can be legal or extralegal
Needs Satisfied by Family
-Governs reproduction and child-rearing
-Provides economic support
-Meets emotional needs.
The Changing Family
-58% of adults married with spouse
-58% of 25-29 yr old men and 43% ” women have never been married
-18% meet stereotypical profile of husband, wife, 2 kids
Boomerang Children
Move back in with parents after education or work
Types of Households
-Marriage
-Cohabitation
-Divorce
-Single-parent families
-Gay and lesbian families
Family Stressors
-Dual-career family
-Children
-Family Planning
-Adoption
-Mobility: fam members may be scattered
-Violence
-Financial stressors
Interventions
-Life-situation interventions
-Financial stress interventions
-Perception interventions
-Emotional arousal Interventions
Physiological interventions