Strategic Communications

Message Strategy Objectives & Methods
OBJECTIVES
Promote Brand Recall
Instill Brand Preference
Scare the Consumer to Action
Induce Anxiety to Change Behav.
Transform Consumption Exper.
Situate the Brand Socially
Define the Brand Image
Persuade the Consumer
Invoke a Direct Response

METHODS
Repetition Ads
Slogan Ads/Music
Humor Ads
Sexual Innuendo
Threat/Fear Appeals
Anxiety Ads
Transformational Ads
Slice-of-Life Ads
Image Ads
Hard Sell Ads
Comparison Ads
Message Discrepancy
Spokespeople
Late Product Identification
Testimonial Ads
Demonstration Ads
Direct Response Ads

Media Mix
A combination of advertising channels employed in meeting the promotional objectives of a marketing plan or campaign.
Media Placement
the process by which advertising time and space is researched, negotiated, and orders placed.
Media Vehicle
A single component of a mass medium, for example, a newspaper or TV network.
Media Buyer
A Media Buyer is responsible for purchasing media space or time, as well as developing the campaign and researching how it will be most effective for the client. Their mission is to find a combination of media that will enable the marketer to communicate the message in the most effective manner possible at the minimum cost.
Geo-targeting
having the ability to target a marketing or advertising campaign at a limited set of visitors based on their physical location. Advertising programs that support geo-targeting allow you to control where your ads are displayed based on parameters like country, state, city, or even within X miles of a postal address.
Testimonials
recommendation from a celebrity or satisfied customer affirming the performance, quality, and/or value of a product or service. Testimonials are one of the most potent tools of marketing.
Scarcity Appeal
Scarcity appeals are based on limited supplies or limited time period for purchase of products and are often used while employing promotional tools including sweepstakes, contests etc.
Frequency
The number of times an audience has an opportunity to be exposed to media vehicle or vehicles in a specified time span
Effective frequency
the number of times a person must be exposed to an advertising message before a response is made and before exposure is considered wasteful.
Effective Reach
Percentage of targeted-audience that is exposed to a particular ad during a specific period, to effect the purchase of a product or service.
Gross Rating Point
Gross Rating Points (GRPs) equal Reach times Frequency, expressed as a percentage.

GRPs measure the total of all Rating Points during an advertising campaign. A Rating Point is one percent of the potential audience

Cost Per Thousand (CPM)
The cost, per 1000 people reached, of buying advertising space in a given media vehicle.
Spot Television//Advertising
Spot advertising is any advertising in a selected geographic area called a market that does not appear on a national scale. Spot advertising is an attempt to brand a message to a captive viewership to entice a response to patronize a business or purchase a particular product.
Cable TV
-Cable is used by nearly 60% of population
-Cable channels have approx. 20% of the prime-time viewing audience
-Cable has the ability to reach selected targets (i.e., narrowcasting) using stations such as ESPN, MTV, CNN, Cartoon Network, and BET
-Less desirable programming than major networks
-Ratings for cable channels are low
-Cable has lack of penetration in some major markets
Syndicated Television
In broadcasting, syndication is the sale of the right to broadcast radio shows and television shows by multiple radio stations and television stations, without going through a broadcast network, though the process of syndication may conjure up structures like those of a network itself, by its very nature
Catalog marketing
Direct selling method in which merchandise from several vendors, or several items from the same vendor, are presented to prospective buyers via mail or internet
Public Relations
Public relations includes ongoing activities to ensure the overall company has a strong public image. Public relations activities include helping the public to understand the company and its products. Often, public relations are conducted through the media, that is, newspapers, television, magazines, etc. As noted above, public relations is often considered as one of the primary activities included in promotions.
Advocacy Advertising
Advertising used in supporting a particular cause, point of view, or a matter of public importance or interest. Sometimes controversial topics
Cause related advertising
Joint funding and promotional strategy in which a firm’s sales are linked (and a percentage of the sales revenue is donated) to a charity or other public cause. However, unlike philanthropy, money spent in cause related marketing is considered an expense and is expected to show a return.
Media Planning
The process of establishing the exact media vehicles to be used for advertising
Advantages of Radio
Diversity: Radio stations offer diversity

Loyalty: Consumers are loyal to 1 or 2 stations

Effective in reaching highly selective audiences (talk radio captures adult markets, Spanish radio captures Latinos, Rock/Hip-Hop captures youth)

Reach: Reach people in their homes, cars, offices, backyards, health clubs

Frequency: Low cost or radio time allows the opportunity to frequently repeat messages

Audiences are small (e.g., market share 3%) thus, COST for radio time is low

Low Production Costs: Radio commercials are inexpensive to produce

Portability: Radios allow the advertiser to reach consumer during the time of purchase decision

Short closing period…advertisers can change their message almost up to the time it goes on the air

Disadvantages of Radio
Attention: Audience give less attention to radio ads (e.g., recall of radio ads is about 33% of prime time television, 50% of daytime television commercials)

Clutter: More advertising clutter than TV, facilitates lack of attention

Creative Limitations: Lack of visual element facilitates lack of attention

Audience Fragmentation: very small percentage of market tuned to any one particular station

Reach: Audience research data is limited

Advantages of Magazines
Audience Selectivity: typically highly selective allowing the advertiser to reach the target efficiently…and are the most selective of all media except direct mail

Creative Opportunities: Allow the use of long copy (i.e., written elements in ad like headlines, captions), use of color, paper quality, ad reproduction quality is high

Long-Life: many magazines are saved issue-to-to issue, month to month and can be reexamined

Prestige: companies whose products rely heavily on perceived quality, reputation, and image often buy space in prestigious publications

Self-Paced: can refer back to the ads for information….facilitates recall

Disadvantages of Magazines
Clutter: High level of ad clutter

Pass-Along: Many readers are not subscribers/purchasers

Long Lead Times: closing dates require submission of ads and the choice of placements far in advance of publication (e.g., 30-to 90-day lead time)

Costs: advertising in large mass-circulation magazines like TV Guide can be very expensive (e.g., one-time color ad can run $100,000 and more)

Limited reach and frequency: The more narrowly defined the interest group the less overall reach a magazines has; also little opportunity for frequent exposure using a single magazine

Advantages of Newspapers
Penetration…Newspapers read routinely in about 70% of American homes

Geographic selectivity: reach a well-defined geographic target audience; newspapers allow advertisers to tailor the message to specific communities

Timeliness: short time needed to produce newspaper ad and the regularity of the daily publication

Self-Paced: Can transmit detailed information because the medium is self-paced

Disadvantages of Newspapers
Limited Segmentation: difficulty to target a specific audience; some advertisers are reluctant to use them because newspapers are not demographically selective (harder to tailor message in NY Times)

Creative Constraints: photographic reproduction is typically poor (some are now using color), and no moving pictures or sound

Clutter: Advertising does not stand out in the clutter of ads

Advantages of Television
Audience Selectivity: Shows can attract a well-defined target segment…narrowcasting–developing programs to reach well-defined audiences

Coverage, Reach, Repetition: reaches 98% of households that represent every demographic group (broad coverage); and can repeat messages frequently

Creative Opportunities: Multi-sensory aspect enables advertiser to portray action and emotion and to demonstrate product features

Cost Per Contact: Can effectively reach millions of households, unmatched by any other media

Disadvantages of Television
Information: Difficult to present detailed information effectively in TV commercials

Not Self-Paced: Audience cannot refer back to the message

Clutter: commercial clutter

Absolute Costs: Cost per contact low, but absolute cost is high (e.g., cost of prime-time spot, and cost of producing a commercial)

Poor Geographic Selectivity: (e.g., TV extends beyond target market)

Poor Attentiveness: Limited viewer attention (remote control, VCRs)

Poor technique to reach highly educated and affluent consumers

Outdoor Advertising
Outdoor advertising is typically in the form of billboards

Outdoor is a mass medium

Useful in reaching a broad spectrum of the population
Wide coverage of local markets

Enhance brand recognition of new products

Should not use outdoor media to communicate substantial info.

Environmental concerns

Transit
Transit ads on buses, rapid transit cars, and in terminals

Most appropriate to transmit brief messages
Very popular in New York City

Clothing Designers like DKNY and CK use this to dramatically increase the frequency with which their ads are seen

Good for frequency, bad for reach

Narrowcasting
to aim a program or programming at a specific, limited audience or sales market. (satellite radio)
Direct Response Advertising
Direct-Response Marketing is a type of marketing designed to generate an immediate response from consumers, where each consumer response (and purchase) can be measured, and attributed to individual advertisements.[1] This form of marketing is differentiated from other marketing approaches, primarily because there are no intermediaries such as retailers between the buyer and seller, and therefore the buyer must contact the seller directly to purchase products or services. Direct-response marketing is delivered through a wide variety of media, including DRTV, radio, mail, print advertising, telemarketing, catalogues, and the Internet.
Direct Marketing
A system of marketing by which organizations communicate directly with target customers with the goal of obtaining a direct response via phone, mail, or personal visit

Direct marketing generally uses one or more of the following:
Direct Selling
Direct Mail
Telemarketing
Direct TV advertising
Catalogue Selling
Cable TV Selling

Direct Marketing Advantages
Reach: advertiser reaches a large number of of people

Segmentation Capabilities: Lists can be purchased that allow segmentation on the basis of geographic area, occupation, demographics, job title, etc.

Frequency: advertising is usually inexpensive, so the marketer can afford to purchase repeat times
Flexibility: direct marketing can take on a variety of forms

Timing: Direct mail can be put together very quickly and distributed to the target population

Personalization: No other medium can personalize the message as well as direct mail

Measures of effectiveness: No other medium can measure the effectiveness of its advertising efforts as well as direct response…feedback often immediate

Direct Marketing Disadvantages
Invasion of Privacy: greatest concerns about direct marketing expressed by consumers

Image Factors: Many people believe the unsolicited mail they receive is promoting junk products, and others dislike the idea they are being solicited

Accuracy: Targeting customers is directly related to the accuracy of the lists used. People move, change occupations, and lists are not kept current

Factors that led to growth of Direct Marketing
Many factors in American society have led to the growth of direct marketing….

The use of consumer credit cards: Makes it feasible for consumers to purchase both low-and high-ticket items through direct response channels

Direct Marketing syndicates: Companies specializing in list development, statement inserts, catalogs, and sweepstakes

Technological advances: Computers have made it easier for consumers to shop and for marketers to be successful in reaching the desired target markets

American Society and the Market: Country of “money-rich” (e.g., dual income families) and “time-poor” people (e.g., physical fitness, long work hours)

Direct Marketing Database
Marketing databases are developed to segment and target potential customers

Direct marketers use databases that contain:
Customers list and/or potential customers names
Addresses & Phone numbers
Demographic information
Psychographic information
Personal facts
Neighborhood data
Credit history

Direct Marketing Infomercials
Infomercial is a long commercial that ranges from 3 to 60 minutes

Consumers typically dial a toll-free 800 or 900 number to an order

These infomercials are highly effective, particularly when you use testimonials

However, many critics want infomercials to display a symbol that indicates a “paid ad” or “sponsored by” so viewers won’t confuse them with regular TV programming

Direct Marketing Telemarketing
Telemarketing is sales by telephone

Many for-profit and charitable organizations have used this medium

6% of all telemarketing result in a completed transaction

3 Types of Corporate Advertising
Image Advertising
Advocacy Advertising
Cause-related Advertising
Demographic Data
Demographic data may consist of age, disability, race, gender, income, mobility, home ownership, location, employment status, and/or education level. The data can then be used to determine demographic trends. These trends describe the changes that may occur in certain demographic populations over a period of time. Demographics are often used in public policy, sociology, and marketing.
Psychographic Data
Demographic data includes information like sex, race and income. Psychographic analysis encompasses harder to define information like your value system, “hot” buttons, fears and passions. For example, demographics may tell you your target customer is male, ages 35 to 45 and makes on average $100,000 per year. The psychographic data may show you he prefers road trips over cruises and is afraid of flying. This data can be useful when personalizing marketing messages.
Behavioral data
Information employed in marketing for designing promotional campaigns based on consumers’ buying habits, brand preferences, and product usage.
Scheduling
The primary objective of scheduling is to time promotional efforts so they will coincide with the highest potential buying times
Pulsing
A combination of continuity and flighting
Continuity
Continuity: refers to a continuous pattern of advertising, which may mean every day

Food products, laundry detergents, or other products consumed on a regular basis without regard for seasonality

Flighting
Flighting: employs a less regular schedule, with intermittent periods of advertising…at some time periods there are heavier ads, at other times no advertising

ex: Snow skis