Sports Public Relations Chapter 1 Introducing Sport Public Relations

Sports Public Relations
– A managerial communication-based function designed to identify a sport organization’s key publics, evaluate its relationships with those publics, and foster desirable relationships between the sport organization and those publics.
Common Elements in all 4 definitions of Sports Public Relations Definitions
– Management function
– Involves communication
– Emphasizes strengthening or fostering relationships
– Recognizes that organizations have “publics”
Sports Marketing
-The organizational function that focuses on consumers identifies how the sport organization may meet the consumers’ desires, and structures marketing programs accordingly.

•Sports marketing consist of all activities designed to meet the needs and wants of sport consumers through the exchange process.

Marketing Mix
– Is made up of the four Ps:
product, price, place, and promotion.
Product
-Component that focuses on developing goods or services customized to consumers’ wants and needs.
Price
– Specifies the cost that consumers will incur in exchange for the organization’s goods and services.
Place
– Distribution function that links consumers with goods and services.
Promotion
– Relates to communicating messages to the consumer regarding the product and attempting to make the exchange.
Promotional Mix
– Four elements make up the promotional mix,
1.) Advertising
2.) Personal Selling
3.) Sales Promotion
4.) Publicity
Advertising
– May be described as commercial messages regarding the product carried by mass media.
Personal Selling (sales)
– In personal sales a representative of the sport organization interacts with consumers in an effort to motivate them to buy.
Sales Promotion
– Vary, but they frequently include additional incentives to the consumer such as premium giveaways, discounts, or other attempts to add value to the core product.
Publicity
– Refers to the information regarding the product of sports organization conveyed through mass media for free.
Media Relations
– Aims to foster desirable relationships with members of the mass media.

• Media relations professionals in professional and collegiate sport assume a similar set of primary responsibilities, which include;
1.) Cultivating Publicity
2.) Managing Statistical Services
3.) Managing the media at games and competitions
4.) Creating Publications
5.) Generating online content

Cultivating Publicity
– Publicity is a powerful tool for sport organizations, and soliciting and nurturing it is a critical part of the media relation’s professional’s job.
Managing Statistical Services
– Tracking, analyzing, and storing statistical information is a major responsibility for many sport media relation’s professionals.

• They track statistics on a game-by-game or event-by-event basis and produce in depth statistical reports, many of which are detailed enough to offer play-by-play information regarding how the contest unfolded.

Managing the media at Games and Competitions
– Managing the media those events is a critical aspect of their jobs.

• They are responsible for cultivating media attendance art the competitions, administering credential requests, providing media work space and other relevant services, and generating the various forms of information for members of the media.

Creating Publications
– Media, guides, game programs, and schedule cards are just a few examples of publications that sport media relations’ professionals create in the course of their jobs.

• Media guide is the term traditionally used to describe the information-rich publications that they create on an annual basis, but those publications serve multiple promotional purposes.

Generating Online Content
– This aspect of the job has probably changed more than any other in the last years.

• Given that the media relations office is usually the information hub for professional sport franchises and college athletic programs, it is not surprising that many media relations professionals were given the responsibility for managing their organization’s website.

Community Relations
– May be defined as organizational activity designed to foster desirable relationships between the sport organization and the communities in which it is either located or has strategic interests.

• Accordingly, it is related to corporate social responsibility, which is considered to be an organziation’s discretionary practices that positively affect its community.

Personal Contact Programs
– Face-to-face contact between representatives of a sport organization and members of the general public can be a powerful public relations tool, especially for professional and collegiate organizations whose coaches and athletes are likely to be both recognizable and respected because of the media attention afforded to them.

• Making players and coaches accessible to members of the public is conducive to desirable outcomes such as building fan identification.

Corporate Social Responsibility Programs
– Corporate social responsibility (CRS) is one of the dimensions that affect an organization’s reputation.

• Specific considerations include supporting good causes, being environmentally responsible, and treating people well (Value Based Management, net, n.d.)

Employee Relations
– Although often taken for granted, employees are a critical stakeholder group that deserves specific public relations consideration.

• Frequent communication between senior management and employees and between employees in various functional units is an important part of the equation, but employee relations extends beyond even that

Investor Relations
– Some sport organizations are publicly owned. This form of ownership is mostly common in the sporting goods industry.

• Manufactures such as Adidas and Callaway golf and retailers such as Foot Locker and Dick’s Sporting Goods have stockholders who have interest in the company.

Customer Relations
– As noted, the sport organization’s marketing staff designs, programs to facilitate transactions with customers, and public relations plays a key role in the promotional mix.

• But public relations can make other contributions in fostering desirable customer relations.

Donor Relations
– Given the vast number of sports organizations that operate in nonprofit settings, donor relations are an important sport public relations consideration.

• Fitness and recreation providers such as the YMCA need donors to support sport programs, particularly those designed for children from economically disadvantaged backgrounds.

Government and Regulator Relations
– Sport organizations frequently function in relationship to numerous government agencies and other regulatory organizations.

• Most sport businesses are highly regulated by federal, state, and local laws.

Brand
– Is identified by terms (e.g., Under Armour) and logos or symbols (e.g., the Nike swoosh) that represent the products or services offered by a particular organization.

• For example, the Olympic brand, commonly represented by the five interlocking rings, is commonly associated with elite sports competition and community building on a global scale.

Promotion
– Ex: ” I am really excited and I’m really sexy.”
– Serena Williams
Hype
– Ex: “Your talking about the transformation of a society. This project can actually bind the nation.”
– Danny Jordan CEO of World Cup
Spin
– Ex: “During the time I gambled as a manager, I never took an unfair advantage… I never allowed my wagers to influence my baseball decisions. So in my mind, I wasn’t corrupt.” – Pete Rose
Forms of Public Relations
The forms include, but are not limited to
1.) Media Relations
2.) Community Relations
3.) Employee Relations
4.) Customers Relations
5.) The benefits that public relations brings to the sports organization.
Public Relations Definitions
1.) “The management function that identifies, established, and maintains mutually beneficial relationships between an organization and the various publics on whom its success or failure depends.”

2.) “Organizational function that fosters the development of positive relationships between the organization and its most important publics. “

Sports Public Definition
– A managerial communication-based function designed to identify a sport organization’s key publics, evaluate its relationships with those publics, and foster desirable relationships between the sport organization and those publics.

– Sports Public Relations is a communication-based practice, and although not exclusively composed of communication activities, it is certainly predicated on them.

Edward Bernays
– Considered profession’s founder (1920’s)

– Took what he had learned, dropped term “propaganda” replaced it with “Public Relations,” and opened PR business in New York City

Ivy Lee
– Contemporary of Bernays

– Best known for:
1.) Articulating the profession
2.) Inventing Press Release
3.) Developing Crisis Communication

Arthur Page
– Vice President of AT&T in 1920’s

– Widely known for management philosophy, Page Principles (Tell the truth – most important of 7)

Public Relations Society of America (PRSA) Code of Ethics core values
1.) Advocacy
2.) Honesty
3.) Expertise
4.) Independence
5.) Loyalty
6.) Fairness
Typical Background of PR Professionals
1.) College education/degree in: Public Relations
Journalism, etc.

2.) Skills in Desktop publishing (computer software) and Internet and social media (ability to successfully use)

PR Inside
– Organizations, sport leagues, clubs

– PR function housed within:
Marketing Department
Corporate Communications Department
Etc.

PR outside
– Agencies who provide PR services

– Public Relations counselors or agencies which provide their services and expertise to their clients for a fee.