Sports program and management midterm

C. William Hulbert
Who founded the National League of Professional Baseball Players?

A. Bill Veeck
B. James G. Mason
C. William Hulbert
D. Adrian “Cap” Anson

A. Athens
The modern Olympic Games in 1896 were held in which city?

A. Athens
B. Megara
C. London
D. Olympia

B. Jockey clubs
Sport management originated in thoroughbred racing in the form of

A. organized betting.
B. Jockey Clubs.
C. privately owned tracks.
D. the National Thoroughbred Racing Association.

D. Fred Corcoran
Who is recognized as the architect of the professional golf tournament?

A. Larry Mize
B. Bobby Jones
C. Clinton Blanford
D. Fred Corcoran

B. Ohio University
What university had the first sport management academic program?

A. University of Massachusetts-Amherst
B. Ohio University
C. Loughborough University
D. Indiana University

C. COSMA
The organization(s) that approve(s) sport management academic programs is/are

A. EASM/NASSM.
B. SRLA/NIRSA.
C. COSMA.
D. ICSSPE/AAHPERD

D. Harness Racing
What was the first sport to use sport management principles in the United States?

A. Baseball
B. Basketball
C. Track and field
D. Harness racing

A. 1896
In what year were the first modern Olympic Games held?

A. 1896
B. 1894
C. 1876
D. 1904

B. Walter O’Malley
What baseball industry professional was involved with the initial discussions of developing sport management as an academic field?

A. William Hulbert
B. Walter O’Malley
C. James G. Mason
D. George Steinbrenner

C. Pierre de Coubertin
Which of the following was instrumental in initiating the modern Olympic Games?

A. Gianna Riga
B. Spyros Constantinides
C. Pierre de Coubertin
D. Stephen Lanara

D. National Association of Professional Baseball Players
The first organized group of professional baseball players was known as the

A. National League of Professional Baseball Players.
B. Players Brotherhood.
C. Professional Baseball Players of America.
D. National Association of Professional Baseball Players

A. Baltimore
Which of the following was not an inaugural member of the National League?

A. Baltimore
B. New York
C. Boston
D. Louisville

B. Municipality
Which of the following is not a sport management structure?

A. League
B. Municipality
C. Professional tournament
D. Club

C. honesty and inclusion
What two themes are consistent with this chapter’s examination of sport organizations?

A. Cheating and politics
B. Democratic inclusion and fairness
C. Honesty and inclusion
D. Organizational politics and inclusion

D. 350+
How many sport management academic programs are there today in the United States?

A. 50-100
B. 100-200
C. 300+
D. 350+

A. Professional golfers spending on hotels and restaurants.
Fred Corcoran convinced cities to host golf tournaments by telling them the benefits of

A. professional golfers spending on hotels and restaurants.
B. the media coverage for the city.
C. corporate sponsorships.
D. All of these are correct.

C. James G. Mason
The academic who first discussed the concept of offering sport management programs at colleges and universities was

A. Walter O’Malley.
B. William Sutton.
C. James G. Mason.
D. William Penny Brookes.

D. Broad social change
Sport management structures evolve in response to

A. changes in the nation’s economy.
B. development of players’ unions.
C. changes in league commissioners.
D. broad social change.

A. Newmarket
The first recognized Jockey Club was in

A. Newmarket.
B. Newcastle.
C. London.
D. Scottsburg

B. England
The Jockey Club concept originated in which nation?

A. Germany
B. England
C. The Netherlands
D. Greece

A. EASM
The academic association that oversees sport management academic programs in Europe is

A. EASM.
B. NASPE.
C. ICSSPE.
D. NASSM.

C. 350
Today, the total number of sport management programs in North America is around _______.

A. 40
B. 100
C. 350
D. 1000

D. Pierre de Coubertin
The most well-known originator of the modern Olympic Games is _______.

A. William Hulbert
B. Walter O’Malley
C. James Mason
D. Pierre de Coubertin

C. existed primarily for the entertainment of wealthy club members
Thoroughbred horse racing in the mid-eighteenth century _______.

A. was the primary business interest of horse owners
B. was an independent, self-supporting financial entity
C. existed primarily for the entertainment of wealthy club members
D. was attended by only the elite of the community

A. True
The Cincinnati Red Stockings were the first all-professional baseball team.

A. True
B. False

A. Humans relations movement
______ is defined as a management theory focusing on the behavior and motivations of people in the workplace.

A. Human relations movement
B. Human resource management
C. Organizational behavior
D. Scientific movement

D. Managers’ concern with the human component of employees
Current management theory stresses the concepts of employee involvement, employee empowerment, and ______.

A. employee effectiveness
B. administrators’ nonprofit organizations
C. employee knowledge and skills
D. managers’ concern with the human component of employees

C. Diversity
The underrepresentation of women, minorities, and people with disabilities in the sport industry is an important issue for sport managers who value ______ in the workplace.

A. equality
B. uniformity
C. diversity
D. fairness

D. All of these are correct
Although most change happens without major resistance, sport managers have to be aware that people tend to resist change for ______ reasons.

A. emotional
B. social
C. security
D. All of these are correct.

D. All of these are correct
With regard to international sport management, sport managers from North America must be aware that

A. they cannot unilaterally impose domestic models of sport governance on other cultures.
B. differences exist in terms of language, culture, etiquette, management, and communication styles.
C. they need to learn, understand, and respect cultural and systematic differences that exist.
D. All of these are correct.

A. People
. Keeping the financial scope of the sport industry in mind, it is important to note that sport managers need to be able to organize and work with ______, the most important asset in their organization.

A. people
B. players
C. businesses
D. administrators

D. None of these are correct
Which of the following is NOT an appropriate title of a manager in a sport organization?

A. athletic director
B. health club manager
C. coach
D. None of these are correct

C. Human Relations
The ______ movement is significant in that it transformed the focus of management thinking onto the behavior of people and the human components in the workplace rather than on the scientific approach to performing a task.

A. organizational
B. human resources
C. human relations
D. motivational

D. All of these are correct
The role of managers can be challenging as they try to ______.

A. assess the needs of their employees
B. utilize appropriate skills to meet the needs of employees
C. reach organizational goals and objectives
D. All of these are correct.

B. Planning
______ is a continuous process that involves establishing organizational vision statements, mission statements, goals, objectives, tactics, roles, and evaluation.

A. Leading
B. Planning
C. Evaluating
D. Organizing

B. Organizing
The manager determines what types of jobs need to be performed and who will be responsible for doing these jobs during the ______ function.

A. planning
B. organizing
C. leading
D. evaluating

C. Managing the facilities
The position description of the Assistant Athletic Director for Marketing may include all of the following except

A. soliciting corporate sponsors
B. selling stadium signage
C. managing the facilities
D. promoting teams or special events

B. advertising the position, reviewing completed applications, choosing qualified people for the interview process, checking references, and selecting the “best fit” person for the job.
The proper sequence of steps involved in recruiting and selecting the right person for reaching organizational goals and objectives include

A. advertising the position, checking references, reviewing completed applications, selecting the “best fit” person, and choosing qualified people for the interview process.
B. advertising the position, reviewing completed applications, choosing qualified people for the interview process, checking references, and selecting the “best fit” person for the job.
C. reviewing completed applications, choosing qualified people for the interview process, checking references, advertising the position, and selecting the “best fit” person for the job.
D. advertising the position, choosing qualified people for the interview process, reviewing completed applications, checking references, and selecting the “best fit” person for the job.

A. Delegation
The process that involves assigning responsibility and accountability for results to employees is ______.

A. delegation
B. leading
C. evaluating
D. None of these are correct.

D. Evaluating
______ involves measuring and ensuring progress toward organizational objectives.

A. Leading
B. Organizing
C. Communicating
D. Evaluating

B. 35%, 44%
In 2011, minorities accounted for approximately ______ of the sport industry workforce while women held approximately ______ of managerial positions in the workforce.

A. 90%, 10%
B. 35%, 44%
C. 50%, 50%
D. 25%, 21%

B. Formal and Informal
Sport organizations, like all organizations, have two types of leaders:

A. perceptive and insightful.
B. formal and informal.
C. passive and proactive.
D. competent and proficient.

B. Empowerment
______ refers to the encouragement of employees to use their initiative and make decisions within their area of operations.

A. Emotional intelligence
B. Empowerment
C. Diversity
D. Managing

A. Emotional intelligence
______ refers to the ability of workers to identify and acknowledge emotions when they occur, and instead of having an immediate emotional response, to take a step back, allowing rational thought to influence their actions.

A. Emotional intelligence
B. Empowerment
C. Emotional change
D. Motivation

D. planning, organizing, leading, and evaluating
Functional areas of management that have been used to explain and prepare managers for the various activities they get involved in include

A. planning, leading, organizing, and empowering.
B. leading, organizing, empowering, and evaluating.
C. planning, leading, evaluating, and operating.
D. planning, organizing, leading, and evaluating

B. False
Organizational behavior is also characterized as one “best way” to perform a job.

A. True
B. False

A. True
Two of the more recent approaches to management are empowerment and emotional intelligence.

A. True
B. False

B False
Organizing involves setting a course of action for the sport organization.

A. True
B. False

B. False
The latest development in ticketing is M-ticketing, which is using social media to allow season ticket-holders to share tickets with friends.
A. True
B. False
C. Creating Demand
According to Kotler (2003), the marketer’s job boils down to one action:

A. advertising.
B. pricing.
C. creating demand.
D. maximizing revenues

C. Target marketing
The group of consumers to whom a product is marketed is the

A. audience.
B. demographic.
C. target market.
D. sports fan.

A. ABC’s Monday Night Football Broadcast
The earliest evolutionary change in sports broadcasting from factual reporting to sports entertainment was seen within

A. ABC’s Monday Night Football broadcast.
B. the Internet.
C. 1950 World Series radio broadcasts.
D. the NCAA basketball tournament.

D. Significant Progressions in the way that sport marketers research the demands of the fan.
Roone Arledge’s influence upon sports broadcasting included all of the following except

A. innovations such as instant replay, sideline reporters, multiple cameras, and crowd microphones.
B. efforts to “take the fan to the game, not take the game to the fan.”
C. refusing to allow leagues commissioners and team owners to approve announcers.
D. significant progressions in the way that sport marketers research the demands of the fan.

B. Spalding
The first company to capitalize on the term “official” with regard to a professional sport product was

A. Rawlings.
B. Spalding.
C. Wilson.
D. Diamond.

B. Golf
Mark McCormack’s sports marketing agency, IMG, began through a relationship with players of this sport

A. baseball.
B. golf.
C. tennis.
D. football.

C. League sponsorships
Nike’s huge success since 1972 has come primarily as a result of all of the following except

A. brand strength.
B. advertising.
C. league sponsorships.
D. athlete endorsements.

D. Ambush Marketing
By turning a parking garage in proximity to the 1996 Atlanta Olympic Village into a mini-Niketown, Nike was engaged in

A. target marketing.
B. athlete endorsements.
C. sponsorship.
D. ambush marketing.

B. Bill Veeck
The emphasis on product extensions and the development of team sport promotional strategy can be attributed to

A. Roone Arledge.
B. Bill Veeck.
C. Branch Rickey.
D. David Stern.

A. Be entertained
Bill Veeck believed and operated under the philosophy that fans came to the ballpark to

A. be entertained.
B. analyze baseball strategy.
C. study player development.
D. watch a baseball game.

D. Sport Marketing research
When working for the Golden State Warriors, Matt Levine developed an “audience audit” which advanced the practices of

A. sport sales.
B. sport accounting practices.
C. sponsorship awareness.
D. sport marketing research

C. Allowing fans direct input into team personnel decisions
The purposes of sport marketing research include all of the following except

A. profiling the sport consumer demographically.
B. analyzing purchasing behavior.
C. allowing fans direct input into team personnel decisions.
D. offering two-way communication with target market.

C. Pass-by interviews
In 1992, the San Jose Sharks utilized _____________ in heavily traveled areas to help gain information about fan reaction to proposed logo and uniform designs.

A. exit polling
B. focus groups
C. “pass-by interviews”
D. random sampling

C. Marketing mix
The controllable variables the company puts together to satisfy a target group are referred to as the

A. promotional mix.
B. target market.
C. marketing mix.
D. product orientation.

B. Product extensions
Because a sport marketer has very little control over their core product it has led entrepreneurs like Bill Veeck to focus on

A. team winning percentage.
B. product extensions.
C. efficient operational systems.
D. sponsorship revenues.

B. Pricing research
All of the following are functions of promotion except

A. advertising.
B. pricing research.
C. personal selling.
D. publicity.

C. Fan identification
Sports marketers define ______ as the personal commitment and emotional involvement customers have with a sport organization.

A. target marketing
B. customer promotion
C. fan identification
D. the winner’s curse

D. Relationship marketing
“______ has the aim of building mutually satisfying long-term relations with key parties—customers, suppliers, distributors—in order to earn and retain their business” (Kotler 2003).

A. Fan identification
B. Sponsorship sales
C. Sport marketing
D. Relationship marketing

C. relationship marketing
Customer retention activities demonstrating care and concern for the customer following a purchase is considered by marketers as

A. telemarketing.
B. target marketing.
C. relationship marketing.
D. aftermarketing.

D. All of these are correct.
Beyond teams, recent research suggests that fans may also identify with an array of elements including

A. coaches.
B. individual players.
C. smaller subgroups of fans.
D. All of these are correct

B. Database marketing
While at a sporting event it is common for a sponsor company to offer free merchandise in exchange for filling out personal information, such as name, address, and demographics, on a specialized index card. This is an example of

A. pass-by interviews.
B. database marketing.
C. focus groups.
D. relationship marketing.

A. Nike
Which of the following companies had early roles (early 1900s) in exploiting our country’s interest in sport through sponsorship except

A. Nike.
B. Coca-Cola.
C. Gillette.
D. American Tobacco Company

D. Yao Ming
Nike has successfully used each of the following as athlete endorsers except

A. Tiger Woods.
B. Michael Jordan.
C. LeBron James.
D. Yao Ming.

B .Products, services, entities, and recruitment
Sports marketing includes the marketing of ______.

A. leagues and teams
B. products, services, entities, and recruitment
C. sponsorships, outfield billboards, and ticket packages
D. leagues, individuals, and events

B. False
The sport marketer is able to control their product in a manner similar to a traditional marketer.

A. True
B. False

B. False
Unpredictability is a major disadvantage for sport marketers.

A. True
B. False

B. False
When a team raises ticket prices significantly after a winning season, it represents an action consistent with the principles of relationship marketing.

A. True
B. False

A. True
Fan identification is defined as the sense of oneness with or belongingness to an organization.

A. True
B. False

B. False
Ideally, a sponsor will be able to tap into some of the strong emotional connections between a fan and his or her sport team through a sponsorship.

A. True
B. False

B. False
Trained sport management professionals have managed the sport business world since the emergence of professional sports in the country.

A. True
B. False

B. False
Recent trends in sport organization business practices have led American sports fans to become increasingly trustworthy of team owners.

A. True
B. False

A. True
The potential for future embarrassment is a major concern in the thought process of corporations deciding whether or not to use athlete endorsers.

A. True
B. False

B. False
On a global scale, major corporations have not changed the way they view athlete endorsement contracts based on events in recent history.

A. True
B. False

A. $4.95 billion
The NFL’s current TV contract calls for the league to be paid more than ______ per year.

A. $4.95 billion
B. $3 million
C. $100 million
D. $100 billion

A. $435 billion
Plunkett Research estimates that total spending across the entire sports industry amounted to approximately ______ in 2012.

A. $435 billion
B. $214 billion
C. $1 billion
D. $1 trillion

D. Value added
The concept of ______ is probably the best single measure of an industry’s impact.

A. total output
B. total spending
C. aggregate market value of firms in industry
D. value added

D. A and B are correct
Which of the following most accurately defines the managerial discipline of finance?

A. How an organization generates the funds that flow into the organization
B. How an organization allocates its funds once they are in the organization
C. Any decision relating to money
D. A and B are correct.
E. All of these are correct.

C. Profits
In a basic sense, the financial success of an organization is ultimately dependent on

A. revenues
B. sales
C. profits
D. expenses
E. A and B are correct.

A. Assets
. ______ is/are anything that an organization owns that can be used to generate future revenues.

A. Assets
B. Liabilities
C. Owners’ equity
D. Bonds
E. A and C are correct.

C. Universeity of Notre Dame athletic department
. All of the following are examples of publicly traded sport companies except

A. Electronic Art.
B. Nike.
C. University of Notre Dame athletic department.
D. Callaway Golf.
E. All of these are publicly traded sport companies

D. Return on investment
As chronicled in the book Moneyball, the strategy employed by the small-market Oakland A’s general manager Billy Beane to better compete with large-market teams by identifying and acquiring undervalued players is an example of an organization maximizing its ______.

A. revenues
B. tax breaks
C. athlete endorsements
D. return on investment

B. Generally, financing with debt carries more risk than equity.
Which statement concerning the tradeoff between financing through debt or equity is true?

A. Generally, financing with debt is more expensive than equity.
B. Generally, financing with debt carries more risk than equity.
C. A and B are correct.
D. Neither A nor B are correct.

B. Income statement
Which financial statement measures the financial performance of an organization over a specified time period, usually a year?

A. Statement of cash flows
B. Income statement
C. Balance sheet
D. Financial ledger

A. Baseball
In which American major league sport has a rival league NOT emerged since World War II?

A. Baseball
B. Basketball
C. Football
D. Hockey

C. A and B are correct
Why have no rival leagues to the major American sport leagues emerged in more than 20 years?

A. Players today have much less incentive to jump to a rival league, as the emergence of stronger players associations and free agency means that players are much less often “underpaid.”
B. There is a lack of viable cities and markets in which to play as the major professional leagues have gone through successive rounds of expansion to the point where all four currently have 30 or more franchises.
C. A and B are correct.
D. Neither A nor B are correct.

D. A and C are correct
The increase in ticket prices in all leagues in recent years reflects

A. consumers’ increased affluence.
B. decreased regulation on ticket scalping.
C. the growing popularity of sport.
D. A and C are correct.
E. All of these are correct.

E. All of these are correct
Increased revenue in spectator sports has come from

A. gate receipts.
B. broadcast contracts.
C. stadium naming rights.
D. B and C are correct.
E. All of these are correct

D. Reverse-order draft.
All of the following are examples of “financial” mechanisms for altering competitive balance except

A. luxury tax.
B. salary cap.
C. revenue sharing.
D. “reverse-order” draft.
E. All of these are financial mechanisms

A. NBA
Which of the following leagues uses a “soft” salary cap?

A. NBA
B. MLB
C. NHL
D. NFL

B. Constrain all franchises to spend the same amount on payroll
The philosophy behind a “hard” salary cap is to

A. change the behavior of high-payroll teams.
B. constrain all franchises to spend the same amount on payroll.
C. share certain types of revenue amongst all franchises.
D. All of these are correct.

B. Teams receiving revenue-sharing transfers may have little incentive to use the money to increase payroll, simply choosing to retain the transfer as added profit
Why do economists suggest that revenue sharing, in and of itself, will do little to improve competitive balance?

A. Teams receiving revenue-sharing transfers do not receive enough money for it to make a difference.
B. Teams receiving revenue-sharing transfers may have little incentive to use the money to increase payroll, simply choosing to retain the transfer as added profit.
C. Teams receiving revenue-sharing transfers are already the highest payroll teams.
D. Both B and C are correct.

D. Hard salary cap
Where revenue sharing may be effective as a tool to improve competitive balance is when it is used in conjunction with a ______.

A. luxury tax
B. soft salary cap
C. “reverse-order” draft
D. hard salary cap

B. the leagues can borrow less expensively than can individual teams.
Leagues such as the NFL, NBA, and MLB all maintain “credit facilities” because

A. the leagues do not trust the financial markets.
B. the leagues can borrow less expensively than can individual teams.
C. the leagues use them to administer revenue sharing.
D. A and B are correct.
E. B and C are correct.

B. NFL
Which league has the highest credit rating in sports?

A. MLB
B. NFL
C. NBA
D. NHL

C. $5.15 million
The average player salary in the NBA is now approximately ______.

A. $800 thousand
B. $1.4 million
C. $5.15 million
D. $10.3 million

D. Equity
What is the term given to the amount of their own money owners have invested in the firm?

A. Debt
B. Assets
C. Liabilities
D. Equity

C. bonds
In spectator sports, stadium construction projects are often financed with ______.

A. equity
B. interest
C. bonds
D. expenses

E. All of these are correct
Increased revenue in spectator sports has come from
A. gate receipts.
B. broadcast contracts.
C. sponsorship sales.
D. stadium naming rights.
E. All of these are correct.
B. False
If a golf club manufacturer sells a set of golf clubs to a retailer for $1,000, who in turn sells the clubs to a customer for $1,500, then the total output of the industry is $2,500.

A. True
B. False

A. True
Common in the Southeastern Conference and a growing model in collegiate athletics is a structure in which the program is run through an outside entity that is incorporated by the state.
A. True
B. False
D. All of these are correct
Before a sport manager is liable for negligence, the plaintiff must show that the sport manager owed the plaintiff a duty of care. A legal duty of care arises from which of the following origins?

A. A relationship inherent in a particular situation
B. A voluntary assumption of the duty of care
C. A duty mandated by a law
D. All of these are correct.

E. All of these are correct
To successfully show a defendant was negligent, a plaintiff must prove

A. that a duty of care is owed to the plaintiff by the defendant
B. that the defendant breached the duty of care
C. that the defendant’s actions were the actual and proximate cause of the plaintiff’s injury
D. Both A and C are correct.
E. All of these are correct.

A. The duty to compensate or reimburse
Under the law of agency, the agent owes the principal fiduciary duties. Which of the following is not a fiduciary duty owed to the principal by the agent?

A. The duty to compensate or reimburse
B. The duty to obey
C. The duty of loyalty
D. The duty to exercise reasonable care

A. To negotiate a written contract with the agent
Under the law of agency, the principal owes the agent certain duties. Which of the following is not a duty owed to the agent by the principal?

A. To negotiate a written contract with the agent
B. To comply with a contract, if one exists
C. To compensate the agent for his or her services
D. To reimburse the agent for any expenses incurred while acting on the principal’s behalf

B. A tort that allows a plaintiff to sue a superior for the negligent acts of a subordinate
Vicarious liability is

A. a tort that allows a plaintiff to sue for the defendant interfering in contractual relations between the plaintiff and another party
B. a tort that allows a plaintiff to sue a superior for the negligent acts of a subordinate
C. a tort that allows a plaintiff to sue a superior for all torts committed by a subordinate
D. Both B and C are correct.

E. All of these are correct
A valid contract contains which of the following elements?

A. Offer and acceptance
B. Capacity
C. Consideration
D. Legality
E. All of these are correct.

E. All of these are correct
A waiver violates public policy if

A. it pertains to a service important to the public.
B. the parties are not of equal bargaining power.
C. there is an employer-employee relationship between the parties entering into the waiver contract.
D. it attempts to preclude liability for extreme forms of conduct, such as gross negligence or intentional acts.
E. All of these are correct.

D. All of these are correct
Equal protection applies to discrimination on the basis of

A. race, religion, and national origin.
B. gender.
C. such areas as physical or mental disability, sexual orientation, socio-economic background, or athletic team membership.
D. All of these are correct.
E. None of these are correct.

A. taking the athlete’s urine or blood may constitute a seizure and the testing may constitute a search
An athlete challenging a drug test on the grounds that it is an unreasonable search and seizure would attempt to prove to a court that

A. taking the athlete’s urine or blood may constitute a seizure and the testing may constitute a search.
B. taking the athlete’s urine or blood for the test is an invasion of privacy.
C. taking the athlete’s urine or blood without notice of suspicion and a right to a trial violates due process.
D. All of these are correct.

B. The contract between the players and the owners in professional sport.
A collective bargaining agreement is

A. the contract governing the collective trust of the owners in a professional sport league.
B. the contract between the players and the owners in professional sport.
C. another term used for the standard player contract, which governs an individual player-team relationship.
D. None of these are correct

D. Antitrust law
What area of law has left an indelible mark on the structure and nature of labor relations in professional sport leagues?

A. Contract law
B. Labor law
C. Constitutional law
D. Antitrust law

C. in 1972 when Boston college law school’s professor Robert Berry offered a course on legal issues and the professional sport industry.
Sport law was first documented as a formally recognized specialty

A. in a treatise published in 1635 in Britain.
B. in 1890 as part of the case Metropolitan Exhibition Co. v. Ward.
C. in 1972 when Boston College Law School’s Professor Robert Berry offered a course on legal issues and the professional sport industry.
D. in Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972

D. All of these are correct
A collective bargaining agreement is a contract that sets forth

A. hours provisions.
B. wage provisions.
C. terms and conditions of employment.
D. All of these are correct.

D. All of these are correct
Which of the following statements are true?

A. Major League Baseball is the only professional sport league exempt from antitrust laws.
B. All professional sports leagues’ national broadcasting agreements are exempt from antitrust laws.
C. Professional sport leagues’ collective bargaining agreements are exempt from antitrust law under the labor exemption.
D. All of these are correct.
E. None of these are correct

B. When a security guard working for an independent contractor harms a patron at a New England Patriots game
Under the examples below, when would vicarious liability not apply?

A. When a coach is negligent while driving the team van to an away meet and injures student-athletes in her care.
B. When a security guard working for an independent contractor harms a patron at a New England Patriots game.
C. When an athletic trainer at Big State University accidentally gives a student-athlete far to much weight to life and the student-athlete sustains a permanent injury.
D. When a coach negligently instructs a wrestler on a new move and the wrestler sustains a permanent injury.

C. The employee was properly trained by the supervisor/employer and thus, the employer is not negligent
Which is not a defense available to an employer in a vicarious liability claim?

A. If the employee was not negligent, the employer cannot be held liable.
B. That the employee was not acting within the scope of employment, as is the case if an employee is out acting on his own or committing an intentional tort.
C. The employee was properly trained by the supervisor/employer and thus, the employer is not negligent.
D. That the employee is an independent contractor

A. The Lanham Act
The law used to protect against ambush marketing is

A. the Lanham Act.
B. the National Labor Relations Act.
C. the Curt Flood Act.
D. the Uniform Athlete-Agent Regulation.

B. Equal pay act
Female coaches whose salaries are not equal to those of their male counterparts have filed ______ lawsuits.

A. Antitrust
B. Equal Pay Act
C. Age Discrimination in Employment Act
D. Lanham Act

C. Americans with Disabilities Act
The U.S. Supreme Court case, PGA Tour Inc. v. Martin (2001) involved a challenge to PGA Tour rules under what statute?

A. Amateur Sports Act
B. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
C. Americans with Disabilities Act
D. Age Discrimination in Employment Act

A. A bona fide occupational qualification.
Under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, it is not illegal to discriminate based on religion, gender, or national origin if the classification is

A. a bona fide occupational qualification.
B. a bona fide occupational requirement.
C. rationally related to one’s job responsibilities.
D. A and C are correct.

C. Sexual orientation discrimination
What is not a form of discrimination prohibited under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964?

A. Racial discrimination
B. Sexual harassment
C. Sexual orientation discrimination
D. Religious discrimination

D. Management in professional sport opposes unions much more strongly than employers in other industries.
Which of the following is not a way in which labor relations in professional sports are different from those in other industries?

A. The turnover rate for professional sport union members is much higher than for other union members.
B. The players associations also face the logistical challenges of being a bargaining unit with employees on different teams throughout the United States and Canada.
C. Professional athletes have individual bargaining power derived from their unique talent that is unmatched in other industries.
D. Management in professional sports opposes unions much more strongly than employers in other industries.

A. A difference in gender
Which of the following is not a defense available to an employer to justify a disparity in pay?

A. A difference in gender
B. A seniority system
C. A merit system that is being followed in good faith
D. A system measuring pay on the basis of quality/quantity production

E. B and C are correct.
What statement most accurately describes the current status of Major League Baseball’s antitrust exemption?

A. After the enactment of the Curt Flood Act of 1998, MLB’s pooled television rights are now exempt from antitrust scrutiny.
B. After the enactment of the Curt Flood Act of 1998, MLB’s business areas are exempt from antitrust laws.
C. After the enactment of the Curt Flood Act of 1998, MLB’s major league labor relations are subject to antitrust laws.
D. A & B are correct.
E. B & C are correct.

A. The decision involves an on-field decision by an umpire or referee
Which of the following is not an example of judicial review of an athletic association decision?

A. The decision involves an on-field decision by an umpire or referee.
B. The decision violates public policy because it is fraudulent.
C. The decision exceeds the scope of the athletic association’s authority.
D. The athletic association breaks one of its own rules.

B. Exempts the major professional sports leagues’ national television deals from antitrust liability in pooling their television rights as a league
The Sport Broadcasting Act of 1961 does what?

A. Exempts the NCAA from antitrust liability in its college football and basketball broadcasting rules.
B. Exempts the major professional sports leagues’ national television deals from antitrust liability in pooling their television rights as a league.
C. Exempts the Olympic movement from pooling its Winter and Summer Games television rights.
D. All of these are correct.

D. All of these are correct
The goal of risk management is

A. to develop a management strategy to maintain greater control over legal uncertainty.
B. to intervene when problems do occur to minimize their disruption to a business.
C. to prevent problems from occurring.
D. All of these are correct.

A. True
Courts have the power to grant two types of remedies: monetary damages and equitable relief.
A. True
B. False
B. False
Waivers and releases of liability are contracts where parties agree to give up their right to sue for all types of torts.
A. True
B. False
B. False
An agent must never act on behalf of a principal when a conflict of interest is present.
A. True
B. False
A. True
A principal may be held liable for unintentional torts committed by an agent acting in the scope of employment.
A. True
B. False
B. False
Procedural due process requires that the accused be given notice, the opportunity for a hearing, and the right to a government-appointed lawyer.

A. True
B. False

B. False
Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972 bars discrimination in education against women only.

A. True
B. False

B. false
. The National Labor Relations Act governs the labor management relationship for all public and private employers.

A. True
B. False

B. False
All professional sport organizations except Major League Baseball are exempt from antitrust laws.

A. True
B. False

A. True
An injunction is an order from the court to do or not do a particular action.

A. True
B. False

A. True
An athlete challenging an athletic association’s rule is more likely seeking injunctive rather than monetary damages.

A. True
B. False

A. Morality
______, like ethics, is concerned with values guiding behavior.

A. Morality
B. Loyalty
C. Moral principle
D. All of these are correct.

B. Morals
The fundamental baseline values dictating appropriate behavior within a society are known as ______.

A. ethics
B. morals
C. ethical values
D. codes of conduct

C. Ethical dilemmas
Few areas of sport management present managers with more difficulty than ______.

A. moral issues
B. codes of conduct
C. ethical dilemmas
D. ethics

C. Rational
To solve an ethical dilemma, decision makers try to make a(n) ______ argument.

A. irrational
B. defensive
C. rational
D. offensive

A. Ethical decision making
______ is similar to the regular decision-making process in business situations in that there is a given structure to follow.

A. Ethical decision making
B. Moral decision making
C. Ethical reasoning
D. Moral discourse

D. Codes of conduct
A recommendation from the ethical decision-making model is to consult an organization’s ______.

A. ethical reasoning process
B. morality codes
C. values and social obligations
D. codes of conduct

B. Codes of conducts
______ are probably the most visible statements of ethical philosophy and beliefs for a company, business, or organization.

A. Ethical principles
B. Codes of conduct
C. Moral principles
D. Morality codes

D. All of these are correct
Codes of conduct may be considered counterproductive if:

A. They are too long or complex to understand easily.
B. They try to intimidate employees into acting morally.
C. The organization does not demonstrate a commitment to them.
D. All of these are correct.

B. Morals
______ are the fundamental baseline values dictating appropriate behavior within a society.

A. Codes of ethics
B. Morals
C. Ethics
D. Codes of conduct

B. Moral Principle
In sport, an example of a(n) ______ is that all athletes give an honest effort whenever they compete.

A. ethical principle
B. moral principle
C. code of conduct
D. None of these are correct

C. Moral Values
______ are generally accepted so broadly within a community that they are considered self-evident and largely go unquestioned.

A. Ethical dilemmas
B. Social values
C. Moral values
D. Social practices

D. Absolutism; relativism
Academic discussions of morality often start with a discussion of ______ versus ______.

A. society; behavior
B. values; moral issues
C. morality; corruption
D. absolutism; relativism

B. Absolutism
______ argues that moral precepts are universal; that is, applicable to all circumstances.

A. Relativism
B. Absolutism
C. Morality
D. Behavior

A. Relativism
______ argues that what is moral depends on the situation.

A. Relativism
B. Absolutism
C. Morality
D. Behavior

D. All of these are correct
A moral rule of commercial work is to

A. compete.
B. be open to inventiveness and novelty.
C. be efficient.
D. All of these are correct.

D. Ethics
_____ is the systematic study of values guiding our decision making.

A. Moral interpretation
B. Moral absolutism
C. Ethical relativism
D. Ethics

D. Be obedient and disciplined
A moral rule of noncommercial work includes

A. be thrifty.
B. respect contracts.
C. collaborate easily with strangers.
D. be obedient and disciplined.

B. Meaningful and enforceable
To be effective, discipline must meet which of the following criteria?

A. morality and corruption
B. meaningful and enforceable
C. thrifty and honesty
D. None of these are correct.

B. The extensive ramification of immoral choices.
One of the biggest distinctions between moral decision making and other ethical decisions is

A. incorporating codes of ethics.
B. the extensive ramification of immoral choices.
C. deciding what is right and wrong.
D. None of these are correct.

All answers
Choose all that apply. In describing the relationship between laws and morality, it is true to say that ______.

A. something may be legal and yet immoral
B. something may be illegal and immoral
C. some actions may be technically legal, but still violate the overall intention of a law
D. something may be distasteful, but neither illegal nor clearly immoral, depending on the situation

A. True
An organization’s ethical climate establishes the shared set of understandings that determine correct behavior and how ethical issues will be handled.

A. True
B. False

b. False
Codes of conduct are unique to the sport industry in the United States.

A. True
B. False

B. False
Laws and morality are essentially the same.

A. True
B. False

C. Before the signing of the constitution
Youth athletic participation in the United States was first recognized during what time period?

A. During and immediately following World War I
B. During the mid-nineteenth century
C. Before the signing of the Constitution
D. In the early 1990s

B. Lacrosse
The Native Americans played a game that the French Jesuit priests called:

A. football.
B. lacrosse.
C. baseball.
D. soccer.

B. During the mid-nineteenth century
Formally organized athletic participation, particularly those programs run under the auspices of secondary educational institutions, emerged during what time period?

A. During and immediately following World War I
B. During the mid-nineteenth century
C. Before the signing of the Constitution
D. In the early 1990s

A. students from several Boston-area public and private schools
The Interscholastic Football Association was formed in 1888 by

A. students from several Boston-area public and private schools.
B. athletic directors in the New York City area.
C. coaches of football teams across the country.
D. parents of students.

D. Prepare for the rigors of modern life and democracy and to assimilate immigrants into American Culture
The Progressive Movement promoted athletics as a tool to

A. prepare high school students for college.
B. make money through the selling of tickets to games.
C. keep students out of trouble on the streets.
D. prepare for the rigors of modern life and democracy and to assimilate immigrants into American culture.

B. as a source of physical training for the armed forces.
During and immediately following World War I, schools sports for males were promoted as a tool to

A. prepare high school students for college.
B. as a source of physical training for the armed forces.
C. keep students out of trouble on the streets.
D. make money through the selling of tickets to games.

A. During and immediately following World War I
Educators took control of athletics from students during which time period?

A. During and immediately following World War I
B. During the mid-nineteenth century
C. Before the signing of the Constitution
D. In the early 1950s

D. Young Men’s Christian Association YMCA
Historically, the most prominent private (or nonschool) agency to promote youth athletics was

A. Young Women’s Christian Association (YWCA).
B. Pop Warner Football.
C. Catholic Youth Organization (CYO).
D. Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA).

A. local and state governing bodies/athletic associations
The administration of school and youth sports, in particular the final authority in determining athletic eligibility, is primarily performed by

A. local and state governing bodies/athletic associations.
B. the National Interscholastic Athletic Administrators Association (NIAAA).
C. the National Federation of State High School Associations (NFHS).
D. National Youth League Organizations.

A. State athletic associations
What association is the final authority in determining athlete eligibility?

A. State athletic associations
B. National Federation of State High School Associations (NFHS)
C. National Interscholastic Athletic Administrators Association (NIAAA)
D. NFHS Officials Association

C. the organizing body for state championships and competitions
State athletic associations are

A. an advisory body to the NFHS.
B. a for-profit organization.
C. the organizing body for state championships and competitions.
D. found in only 45 states.

B. Little league baseball
Which initial national youth league organization was founded in 1939 as a three-team league?

A. Pop Warner Football
B. Little League Baseball
C. American Youth Soccer Organization
D. National Federation of State High School Associations

B. is organized on four levels: local, district, regional, and international.
The Little League governance structure

A. reports to the National Federation of State High School Associations.
B. is organized on four levels: local, district, regional, and international.
C. involves a paid executive director who ultimately is in charge of running all competitions and events.
D. oversees only teams in the United States.

A. Coach
Knowledge of injury and physical training, equipment knowledge, and bus-driving skills are highly recommended for this position.

A. Coach
B. Trainer/physical therapist
C. School athletic director
D. Officials/judges

D. all of these are correct
What concerns do critics have with children participating in highly organized youth athletics?

A. Development of “win at all costs” attitude
B. Increased pressure to win
C. Safety and increased injury rates
D. All of these are correct.

C. Coaches and administrators
As financial circumstances for schools and leagues become more strained, these job areas are being asked to perform more fund-raising activities at the youth sport level.

A. Coaches only
B. Administrators only
C. Coaches and administrators
D. Neither coaches nor administrators, parents pay an athletic fee instead

D. All of these are correct
Most sex discrimination challenges in high school athletics have been based on

A. state or U.S. Constitution equal protection clauses.
B. state equal rights amendments.
C. Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972.
D. All of these are correct.

C. Stating as one of its legal foundations that interscholastic athletic programs must demonstrate equity or substantive and continuous progress toward equity in all facets of boys’ and girls’ athletics.
The NFHS endorses the concept of gender equity by

A. mandating that all state associations have equal budgets for boys and girls championships.
B. mandating that all high schools have equal athletic budgets for boys and girls sport programs.
C. stating as one of its legal foundations that interscholastic athletic programs must demonstrate equity or substantive and continuous progress toward equity in all facets of boys’ and girls’ athletics.
D. All of these are correct.

B. Private youth soccer club
Which of the following youth programs would not have to be Title IX compliant?

A. Public high school athletic department
B. Private youth soccer club
C. Municipal recreation programs, receiving federal funds
D. State university intercollegiate athletic programs

A. True
Similar to the collegiate system, high school students initially organized the high school games.

A. True
B. False

B. False
Educators at both the public schools and private schools immediately embraced the value of exercise and play.

A. True
B. False

B. False
Football was a very popular sport among high school students and became the first organized competition between two high school teams.
A. True
B. False
B. False
High school sports were seen as detrimental to student retention and graduation rates.

A. True
B. False

B. False
When Little League Baseball was first founded, both boys and girls were allowed to compete.

A. True
B. False

B. False
Due to liability reasons, all schools and youth leagues must employ full-time coaches.

A. True
B. False

B. False
Coaching certification programs are required in every state, with coaches being allowed to coach only after having been involved in a certification program.

A. True
B. False

D. organized and sponsored by a railroad company in order to enhance the company’s business
The first intercollegiate athletic contest was

A. a crew race between Harvard and Princeton.
B. a football game between Harvard and Yale.
C. a baseball game between Amherst and Williams.
D. organized and sponsored by a railroad company in order to enhance the company’s business.

B. During the mid- 1800s
The first intercollegiate athletic contest was held in what time period?

A. During the 1700s
B. During the mid-1800s
C. Right after World War I (early 1900s)
D. During the mid-1900s

A. Organized by students
The initial collegiate athletic contests were

A. organized by students.
B. organized by coaches of the teams.
C. organized by athletic directors at schools.
D. organized by the athletic conferences at the time.

C. Ivy league cshools
The “power” schools during the initial collegiate athletic contests were the

A. Big Ten schools.
B. Big East schools.
C. Ivy League schools.
D. Division I schools.

A. Playing and eligibility rules
The Intercollegiate Football Association was formed to regulate

A. playing and eligibility rules.
B. gambling activities.
C. officials.
D. coaches

A. a physical therapist hired to introduce a training program
The first intercollegiate athletic coach was:

A. a physical therapist hired to introduce a training program
B. a doctor hired because of the number of injuries involved in sport competitions
C. a football coach by the name of Amos Alonzo Staggs
D. hired so that the students wouldn’t have to spend so much time organizing games and practices

C. Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States
The NCAA took on its present day name in 1912. The birth of the NCAA, though, actually occurred in 1905 and the initial name of the organization was the

A. Intercollegiate Football Rules Committee.
B. Intercollegiate Conference Association.
C. Intercollegiate Athletic Association of the United States.
D. Intercollegiate Football Association.

D. The number of injuries and deaths occurring
What was the prevailing reason for the push for reform in college football in the late 1800s and early 1900s?

A. The eligibility of players
B. The larger schools consistently winning against the smaller schools
C. The need to legislate the money being received by football college athletes
D. The number of injuries and deaths occurring

C. conference realignment
The Knight Commission was formed in 1989 to propose a reform agenda for intercollegiate athletics. All of the following were legislative rules passed by the NCAA from recommendations proposed by the Knight Commission except

A. recruiting.
B. academics.
C. conference realignment.
D. financial practices.

C. the very first intercollegiate sport competition for women was in the sport of basketball in 1892, but the rules were changed from the men’s game to make i more appropriate for women to play.
Which of the following is a true statement regarding women’s participation in collegiate sports?

A. Women quickly became involved in college athletics as they enjoyed the competitive nature of the games.
B. The very first association to govern women’s college sports was formed during World War II when women were competing in sports because the men were overseas fighting in the war.
C. The very first intercollegiate sport competition for women was in the sport of basketball in 1892, but the rules were changed from the men’s game to make it more appropriate for women to play.
D. Women’s college sports have always been governed by the NCAA.

A. Divisoin I
Under the new organizational structure of the NCAA, which took effect in August 1997, which NCAA membership division uses a Board of Directors?

A. Division I
B. Division II
C. Division III
D. Divisions II and III
E. All of these are correct.

A. Athletics as a level playing field
Which of the following is not one of the three main components in the basic purpose of the NCAA:

A. athletics as a level playing field
B. the athlete as part of the student body
C. the distinction between intercollegiate athletics and professional sports
D. athletics as part of the educational program, mission of the University

D. Major: provides a school with an extensive recruiting or competitive advantage; secondary: provides a minimal recruiting or competitive advantage and may be inadvertent or isolated in nature.
Which of the following best describes the difference between a major and a secondary violation?

A. Major: first violation; secondary: second violation at a school
B. Major: helps a school to gain a recruiting advantage; secondary: helps a school to gain a competitive advantage
C. Major: helps a school to gain a recruiting or competitive advantage; secondary: could result in severe penalties to an institution
D. Major: provides a school with an extensive recruiting or competitive advantage; secondary: provides a minimal recruiting or competitive advantage and may be inadvertent or isolated in nature

C. Committee on Infractions
Which group determines responsibility and assesses penalties for NCAA infractions?

A. President’s Council
B. Executive Committee
C. Committee on Infractions
D. Clearinghouse

B. Maximize the number and variety of athletic opportunities available to students
Which of the following is not one of the philosophy principles followed by Division I institutions?

A. Strive for regional and national prominence
B. Maximize the number and variety of athletic opportunities available to students
C. Strive to finance its athletics program through revenues generated
D. Recognize the dual objectives of serving both the university or college community and the general public

B. Compliance coordinator
Which traditional athletics department staff member oversees adherence to NCAA and conference rules and regulations?

A. senior women’s administrator (SWA)
B. compliance coordinator
C. faculty athletics representative (FAR)
D. student-athlete services administrator

D. President MacCracken of New York University
This university president was a pioneer at the turn of the 20th century in reforming college football and the number of deaths and injuries that were occurring:

A. President Eliot of Harvard
B. President Hutchins of Chicago
C. President Roosevelt of Union College
D. President MacCracken of New York University

A. Showing that a lack of funding, institutional financial limitations, prevents the athletic department from complying with Title IX
Which is not an allowable method an athletic department may use when attempting to comply with Title IX standards regarding participation opportunities?

A. Showing that a lack of funding, institutional financial limitations, prevents the athletic department from complying with Title IX.
B. Capping roster sizes for men’s teams.
C. Eliminating sport programs for men.
D. Adding sport programs for women.

A, B, and C
Which of the following statements is true of the Division I conference? Choose all that apply.
A. As of this writing, the Division I conference consists of 340 member institutions; most of these are either in the Football Bowl Subdivision or the Football Championship division.
B. Division I schools, in general, support the philosophy of competitiveness, generation of revenue through athletics, and national success.
C. Division I schools are required to sponsor at least 14 sports programs; FBS institutions must sponsor 16 teams.
D. A typical Division I coach oversees several sport programs and may also hold an academic appointment, an administrative appointment, or teach activities classes.
E. Athletic department budgets at the Division I level, and especially for FBS institutions, may be as much as two to three million dollars.
more responsibility or more control; one-school/one vote
In 1996, the NCAA passed Proposal 7, “Restructuring,” at the NCAA convention that year. This restructuring plan gave the NCAA divisions ______ for conduct within their division; it also eliminated the ______ structure, in which each school and conference had one vote, assigned to the institution’s president or CEO.
A, B, C, D, E
What skills might be needed for an athletic director or an associate athletic director at the collegiate level? Choose all that apply.
A. Ability to teach an academic class of some type
B. Ability to manage a large number of employees
C. Public relations and negotiating skills
D. Ability to coach a team
E. Knowledge of financial and legal complexities that may affect the department
F. Ability to have played one or more sports competitively at the college level
A. True
The National Collegiate Athletic Association refers to student-athletes from other countries as nonresident aliens.

A. True
B. False

A. True
The first intercollegiate athletic contest involved sponsorship by a company looking to enhance the company’s business.

A. True
B. False

B. False
Faculty and college administrators got involved in the governance of intercollegiate athletics in the 1880s in order to curb the use of paid “professional” student-athletes.

A. True
B. False

B. False
The Carnegie Reports of 1929 stated that the responsibility for control over collegiate athletics rested with the coaches of the teams.

A. True
B. False

B. False
The first association to govern women’s intercollegiate athletics was the Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women (AIAW).

A. True
B. False

B. False
Women’s basketball coaches have not yet reached the $1 million mark for salaries.

A. True
B. False

B. False
Soon after the birth of the NCAA in 1905, the Association determined its organizational structure for schools dividing them up into Division I, Division II, or Division III membership status.

A. True
B. False

B. False
The NCAA National Office staff members pass the legislative rules of the association and then enforce these rules through their enforcement and legislative services departments.

A. True
B. False

B. False
The NCAA is the primary rule-making body for all college athletic departments, including junior colleges, small colleges, and universities.

A. True
B. False

A. True
When an institution is involved in an investigation on possible rule violations, the Committee on Infractions (a committee of peers drawn from NCAA membership and the public) determines responsibility and assesses penalties.

A. True
B. False

A. True
To be recognized as a voting member conference of the NCAA, member conferences must have a minimum of six member institutions.

A. True
B. False

B. False
When pursuing a career in collegiate athletics, students should know that the apprentice system is used meaning the traditional route is one of being an athlete first, then a coach, and then becoming an athletic administrator.

A. True
B. False

A. True
As college athletics has become more complex and business-like, colleges and universities are looking more and more to the corporate world for CEOs or administrators with business backgrounds to run their athletics department.

A. True
B. False

A. The legislature
Which of the following is not one of the governing bodies of the IOC?

A. The Legislature
B. The Executive Board
C. The Session
D. The president

C. National organizing committee
The USOC (U.S. Olympic Committee) is an example of

A. an IOC Session.
B. a National Governing Body.
C. a National Organizing Committee.
D. an International Federation.

D. Baron Pierre de Coubertin
The founder of the modern Olympic Games in 1894 was

A. William Hulbert.
B. Fred Corcoran.
C. Henry Mitchell McCracken.
D. Baron Pierre de Coubertin.

D. The organizations governing a specific sport within each individual country.
National Governing Bodies are

A. the federations governing sports throughout the world.
B. the organizing committees for host cities.
C. the national Olympic organizing committees in each individual country.
D. the organizations governing a specific sport within each individual country.

D. All of these are correct.
The USOC is the organization mandated by Congress under the Amateur Sports Act of 1978 to do which of the following?

A. Govern activities of the United States related to the Olympics, Paralympics, and the Pan Am Games.
B. Represent the U.S. Olympic athletes, coaches, administrators and other Americans who support the Olympic Movement.
C. Send the U.S. Olympic teams to the Olympics, Paralympics, and the Pan Am Games.
D. All of these are correct.

A. Men in at least 75 countries on four continents and by women in at least 40 countries on three continents.
For a sport to be included on the Summer Olympic Program it must be practiced by

A. men in at least 75 countries on four continents and by women in at least 40 countries on three continents.
B. men in at least 25 countries on four continents and by women in at least 25 countries on three continents.
C. men in at least 25 countries on four continents and by women in at least 25 countries on four continents.
D. men and women in at least 25 countries on four continents.

C. in at least 25 countries on three continents
For a sport to be included on the Winter Olympic Program it must be practiced by

A. men in at least 75 countries on four continents and by women in at least 40 countries on three continents.
B. men in at least 75 countries on four continents and by women in at least 75 countries on two continents.
C. in at least 25 countries on three continents.
D. men or women in at least 25 countries on two continents.

B. Opera
In its initial efforts to sell more shoes in Europe, Nike incorporated one of Europe’s most popular traditions. What was it?

A. Bullfighting
B. Opera
C. Track and field events
D. Soccer exhibitions

B. Planning, implementing, and staging the olympic games in a host city
The Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games (OCOG) is responsible for

A. awarding the host city for the Olympic Games from the bids that come through the bidding process.
B. planning, implementing, and staging the Olympic Games in a host city.
C. monitoring ambush marketing practices in the Olympic Games and sending out cease and desist orders against sponsors who trample on the property rights of official sponsors.
D. choosing a nation’s athletes and coaches and sending them to the Olympic Games.

A. Nike
Which United States sporting goods manufacturer signed with great teams such as the Brazilian national football team, Manchester United, Juventus, and F.C. Barcelona in an attempt to expand their market presence in football?

A. Nike
B. Reebok
C. New Balance
D. Adidas

D. French, English, German, Arabic, Spanish, and Russian
IOC members must speak one of the six languages spoken at IOC sessions. What are they?

A. French, English, German, Korean, Spanish, and Russian
B. French, English, German, Japanese, Spanish, and Russian
C. French, English, German, Mandarin Chinese, Spanish, and Russian
D. French, English, German, Arabic, Spanish, and Russian

B. An initial term of 8 years, renewable once for 4 additional years.
The term of the IOC President is

A. a non-renewable term of 8 years.
B. an initial term of 8 years, renewable once for 4 additional years.
C. an initial term of 4 years, renewable as often as the IOC members deem appropriate.
D. an initial term of 8 years, renewable as often as the IOC members deem appropriate.

C. 104 Members
Currently the IOC is made up of

A. 14 members.
B. 72 members.
C. 104 members.
D. as many members as there are countries in the world.

E. are undertaken to increase sport participation and interest in a sport in particular international region
Grassroots efforts are programs and activities that

A. take place on grass sport fields.
B. are undertaken to increase sport participation in a particular international region.
C. are undertaken to increase interest in a sport in a particular international region.
D. All of these are correct.
E. are undertaken to increase sport participation and interest in a sport in particular international region.

D. All of these are correct
International federations

A. are the international governing bodies for one or several sports throughout the world.
B. are nongovernmental organizations recognized by the IOC to administer one or more sports at the world level and encompassing organizations administering such sports at the national level.
C. must petition for formal recognition by the IOC and must apply the Olympic Movement Anti-Doping Code and conduct effective out-of-competition tests in accordance with the established rules.
D. All of these are correct.

B. Soccer
The World Cup(s) in what sport led to the creation of two new professional leagues?

A. Hockey
B. Soccer
C. Basketball
D. Lacrosse

D. All of these are correct
Nike has expanded its operations from running shoes to international markets. To capture these markets, Nike has had to move into what sport(s)?

A. Ice hockey
B. Golf
C. Soccer
D. All of these are correct.

A. imperialistic efforts, as a mean’s of imposing the conqueror’s culture on the colonized land
Sport first spread across international borders through

A. imperialistic efforts, as a mean’s of imposing the conqueror’s culture on the colonized land.
B. broadcasting of various games into other nations.
C. the Olympic games.
D. the work of international federations spreading different sports across borders.

D. National Olympic Committees (NOCs) and International Federations (IFs)
In the Olympic organizational structure National Governing Bodies (NGBs) report directly to

A. National Olympic Committees (NOCs).
B. International Federations (IFs).
C. Organizing Committees for the Olympic Games (OCOGs).
D. National Olympic Committees (NOCs) and International Federations (IFs).
E. All of these are correct.

B. “swifter, higher, stronger.”
The Olympic motto “Citius, Altius, Fortius,” translates to

A. “swiftest, highest, winningest.”
B. “swifter, higher, stronger.”
C. “swift, tall, and fortified.”
D. “serious, highest, fortuitous.”

C. IF sponsorship programs
What is not one of the sponsorship levels for the Olympic Games in accordance with the Olympic Charter?

A. The Olympic Partner Program
B. NOC Sponsorship Programs
C. IF Sponsorship Programs
D. OCOG Sponsorship Programs

B. False
The International Olympic Committee is a corporation based in Paris, France.

A. True
B. False

B. False
The International Paralympic Committee is a committee of the International Olympic Committee.

A. True
B. False

B. False
The Paralympic Games are a segment of the modern Olympic Games for disabled athletes that occur during the actual Olympic Games.

A. True
B. False

A. True
The U.S. Paralympics are a division of the U.S. Olympic Committee.

A. True
B. False

B. False
The club system form of sport organization is more common in the United States.

A. True
B. False

A. True
The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) is an independent, international agency funded by the world’s governments and sports programs.

A. True
B. False

A. True
A misconception resulting from the influence of contemporary superpowers on spectator sports, and perpetuated by popular media, is that the term globalization is often equated to Americanization.

A. True
B. False

B. False
The size of all International Federation staffs is determined by the IOC.

A. True
B. False

A. True
An OCOG identifies and targets its own sponsors, but must have approval from both the IOC and NOC.

A. True
B. False

A. NFL
What is the only sports league to ban corporate ownership?

A. NFL
B. NBA
C. NHL
D.MLB
E. MLS

D. Resolution of disputes over player compensation
In professional sports, the commissioner has discretionary power in all of the following areas except

A. rule making.
B. approval of player contracts.
C. resolution of disputes between clubs.
D. resolution of disputes over player compensation.
E. disciplinary matters between players and clubs.

A. Players have unique talents and cannot be replaced with temporary replacement workers
Strikes are much more disruptive in pro sports than in mainstream business because

A. players have unique talents and cannot be replaced with temporary replacement workers.
B. professional athletes’ salaries are so much higher than the average worker.
C. sports are seasonal, thus have less time to realize revenue.
D. All of these are correct.

D. None of these are correct
As a general rule, league revenues include which of the following?

A. Local broadcasting revenues
B. Stadium sponsorships
C. Preferred seat sales
D. None of these are correct.

D. A strike and a lockout
The response to an impasse in labor negotiations is usually

A. a strike.
B. a lockout.
C. a court order to force collective bargaining.
D. a strike and a lockout.
E. a lockout and a court order to force collective bargaining.

D. All of these are correct
A collective bargaining agreement covers

A. wages.
B. hours.
C. terms and conditions of employment.
D. All of these are correct.

B. 20% of each
What percentage of NBA television revenues and merchandise sales come from foreign markets?

A. 5% of each
B. 20% of each
C. 40% of each
D. 12% of each

D. All of these are correct
Many individuals in the management of professional sports leagues are not fans of salary caps because they

A. routinely force teams to cut veteran players earning higher salaries to get under the ceiling of the cap.
B. routinely provide teams with spending floors so low-revenue teams are prevented from cutting salaries in order to stay competitive.
C. often have so many exceptions that they have inevitably created a number of loopholes for those agents and general managers who are creative negotiators and thus, the cap is not creating the parity it was intended to create.
D. All of these are correct.

A. The degree of league revenue sharing and the stability of a league’s labor situation
According to Much and Gotto (1997), what are the two most important factors in determining a sports franchise’s value?

A. The degree of league revenue sharing and the stability of a league’s labor situation.
B. The team’s lease agreement and local broadcasting revenues.
C. The team’s stadium revenues and local broadcasting revenues.
D. The league’s having a salary cap and the team’s local revenue streams.

B. The Green Bay Packers
Although the NFL bans public ownership, it has made an exception for what team?

A. The Miami Dolphins
B. The Green Bay Packers
C. The San Francisco 49ers
D. The Seattle Seahawks

C. Major League Baseball
What league first created the position of commissioner to govern the best interests of the sport?

A. National Hockey League
B. National Football League
C. Major League Baseball
D. National Basketball Association

A. Introduced by Pete Rozelle that owners needed to do what was best for the NFL as a whole, as opposed to their individual franchises.
“League think” is the concept

A. introduced by Pete Rozelle that owners needed to do what was best for the NFL as a whole, as opposed to their individual franchises.
B. of thinking of the league as a single entity structure.
C. of creating a league “think tank” of owners to make leaguewide decisions and set league strategies.
D. None of these are correct.

D. All of these are correct
The NFL Trust is responsible for which of the following activities?

A. Ownership of all team logos and trademarks.
B. Oversight and administration of the league’s properties rights.
C. Distribution of revenue for league properties rights to each club.
D. All of these are correct.
E. Oversight and administration of the league’s properties rights and distribution of revenue for league properties rights to each club

B. $600-800 million
What is the current going rate for a franchise in the NFL?

A. $140-160 million
B. $600-800 million
C. $100-200 million
D. $200-300 million

D. Luxury seating revenue
Which of the following is not a revenue that is shared under league revenue-sharing systems?

A. Expansion fees when new teams enter the league
B. National television revenue
C. Gate receipts at individual games
D. Luxury seating revenue

A. True
The PGA operates as two divisions: one that governs the club professionals who serve amateur players and another, known today as the PGA Tour, that governs the tour professionals, and schedules events such as the PGA Championship Tour, PGA Tour Canada, and the Web.com Tour.

A. True
B. False

E. All of the above are steps that eable a golver to qualify for the PGA Tour in any given year.
Professional golfers must earn a right to compete on the PGA Tour annually. How do professional golfers qualify for the PGA Tour?

A. After a golfer finishes in the top 25 in the qualifying tournament known as Q-School, he moves up to the developmental Web.com Tour.
B. The best players move up through the ranks on the Web.com Tour.
C. Players who make the cut move straight from the Web.com Tour to the PGA Tour.
D. Veteran players can maintain their qualifications based on their prior year’s performance on the PGA Tour.
E. All of the above are steps that enable a golfer to qualify for the PGA Tour in any given year.

D. All of the above
According to the textbook, which of the following is a true statement regarding diversity in professional sports?

A. In 2003, the NBA and MLB welcomed their first minority owners.
B. Women now hold more than 40% of the head coaching positions in the WNBA clubs, and more than 60% of the assistant coaching positions.
C. Racial minorities now represent more than 50% of all head coaches in the NBA and more than 40% of assistant coaches in that same league.
D. All of the above.

A. 83, 36
The NBA has the broadest representation of foreign players on its rosters. In the 2009-2010 season, for example, the textbook notes that opening night rosters included ______ players from _____ different countries and territories.

A. 83, 36
B. 115, 84
C. 13, 14
D. 150, 15

B. Wayne Huizenga of the Miami Dolphins and Paul Allen of the Seattle Seahawks
For what NFL owners was the cross-ownership ban in the NFL eased?

A. Eddie DeBartolo and John and Denise (DeBartolo) York of the San Francisco 49ers
B. Wayne Huizenga of the Miami Dolphins and Paul Allen of the Seattle Seahawks
C. Jerry Jones of the Dallas Cowboys and Lamar Hunt of the Kansas City Chiefs
D. Bob McNair of the Houston Texans and Daniel Snyder of the Washington Redskins

C. Major League Baseball
What league recently operated for a number of years without a permanent commissioner?

A. National Hockey League
B. National Football League
C. Major League Baseball
D. National Basketball Association

A. Franchise Rights
The privileges granted to owners that come with team ownership are called ______.

A. franchise rights
B. territorial rights
C. revenue sharing rights
D. ownership committee rights

B. The single-entity structure
________________ has emerged as a method for leagues to establish themselves in a manner that avoids antitrust liability and creates centralized fiscal control.

A. The labor exemption
B. The single-entity structure
C. The corporate governance model
D. Revenue sharing

D. All of these are correct
John Montgomery Ward founded the first baseball players union to fight what practice(s) by baseball team owners?

A. Salary caps
B. Baseball’s reserve system
C. Baseball’s practice of selling players without the players receiving a share of profits
D. All of these are correct.
E. Salary caps and baseball’s reserve system

B. False
Professional leagues have organized themselves in a manner consistent with a corporate governance model.

A. True
B. False

B. False
The term used to describe a team’s ability to relocate is franchise decertification.

A. True
B. False

B. False
Leagues derive the bulk of their revenues from gate receipts.

A. True
B. False

A. True
In 1876, North America’s first professional league, the National League, was organized.

A. True
B. False

A. True
The WNBA league and teams are primarily female-operated organizations.

A. True
B. False

B. False
The single-entity structure is a term used to describe a manner in which a team may organize itself in order to maintain fiscal control.

A. True
B. False

A. True
The practice of charging spectators at golf events began at fund-raisers by top male and female golfers to benefit the Red Cross during World War I.

A. True
B. False