Sports Marketing Chapter 3

(Sports) Marketing Research
SYSTEMATIC process of collecting, ANALYZING, and reporting information to enhance decision making THROUGHOUT the strategic sports marketing process
Steps/Framework for Marketing Research
1. Defining the problem or opportunity
2. Choosing the research design type
3. Identifying data collection methods
4. Designing data collection forms
5. Designing the sample
6. Collecting, analyzing, and interpreting
7. Preparing the research report
Research Problem Statement
Defines problem and what research will be done to affect the problem.
Research Objectives
types of information needed to address the problem or opportunity (eg identify benefits associated with NASCAR sponsorships; record fan preferences for sales promotions; etc)
Research Proposal
written blueprint describing the necessary information to conduct and control the study
Types of Research Design
Exploratory designs, descriptive designs, causal designs
Exploratory Designs
used when research problems are unclear to gather broad information to identify causes of issues (eg River Rats unsure about lack of attendance, could look at attendance trends or interview management)
Descriptive Designs
used for more clearly defined issues to find out characteristics of a targeted group to find out who, what, when, where, how often, etc. They are also used to find correlation between two variables (eg. River Rats research would look at age/income of attendants and compare these variables to attendance)
Causal Designs
examine whether changing the level of one variable causes the level of another variable to change aka is it a cause-and-effect relationship
Criteria to Prove Cause-and-Effect Relationships
1. Causal event must precede or be simultaneous to affected event
2. Concomitant Variation
3. Elimination of other causal factors aka controlled environment
Concomitant Variation
When cause and effect vary at the same degree
Two Categories of Data Collection Techniques
Primary and secondary
External Secondary Data
1. Government reports and documents
2. Standardized sports marketing information studies
3. Trade and industry associations
4. Books, journals, and periodicals
Internal Secondary Data
Merchandise records, employer information, etc
Primary Data Collection Methods
1. Depth interviews
2. Focus groups
3. Projective techniques
4. Surveys
5. Experiments
Depth Interviews
“Unstructured” discussions lasting about an hour; useful in gathering detailed information and when studying complex decision making
Focus Groups
Moderately structured discussion normally with 8-10 people; useful for understanding research problem at hand and understand group mentality.
NOTE: must be careful in choosing number of people in group, incentive for participants, location of group, moderator, number of groups, and composition of group.
Projective Techniques
Methods that allow respondents to project their feelings, beliefs, or motivations, onto a neutral stimulus (eg sentence completion, word association, etc). Useful for understanding consumer perceptions of product.
Less expensive than in-person collection and useful for collecting data on awareness, attitudes, behaviors, demographics, lifestyle, etc
Cross-Sectional Studies
Studies that examine characteristics of a sample at one point in time
Longitudinal Studies
Studies used to examine an issue over a longer period of time
When one or more variables are manipulated and results are measured; necessary for causal research
Test Marketing
Experimental marketing where a product or service is introduced in a limited geographic area
Questionnaire Design
1. Specify information requirements
2. Decide methods of administration
3. Determine content of questions
4. Determine form of response for questions
5. Determine exact wording of questions
6. Design order of questions
7. Design physical characteristics of questionnaire
8. Pretest questionnaire
9. Modify according to pretest results
Designing the Sample
Uses either nonprobability (subjectively chosen) or probability (random) sampling
Types of Nonprobability Sampling
1. Convenience sampling (“accidental” sampling; easiest)
2. Judgement sampling (chosen subjectively to best serve purpose in eyes of researchers)
3. Quota Sampling (used so sample subgroup reflects population percentages)
Data Analysis
Data must be edited, coded (assigned numerical values), and then analyzed (often with frequency distributions)
Preparing Research Report
Final report that should lead to action by managers. Important to know audience, be thorough but not overwhelming, and carefully interpret the findings