Sports marketing ambush marketing

Ambush Marketing
A promotional strategy whereby a nonsponsor attempts to capitalize on the popularity/prestige of a property by giving a false impression that it is a sponsor
Driving Forces Behind Ambush Marketing (4)
Sponsorship is expensive

Consumers are not offended by ambush marketing

Attitudes are changing

Ambush marketing works

Why Ambush Marketing Works
Schema
Saliency detection
Ambivalence
Schema
Cognitive framework for understanding and remembering information – affects judgment, memory, and use of new information
Saliency detection
How people focus their finite cognitive resources on the most pertinent subset of available data
Ambivalence
Concurrent existence of strong positive and negative evaluations regarding the same object
Predatory Ambushing
The deliberate ambushing of a market competitor, intentionally and knowingly attacking a rival’s official sponsorship, in an effort to gain market share and to confuse consumers as to who is the official sponsor
Coattail Ambushing
The attempt by an organization to directly associate itself with an entity for the purpose of ambushing through a legitimate link, such as the sponsoring of participating athletes or of a participating team or association, without securing official sponsor status.
Ambushing
The intentional use of protected intellectual property, including trademarked and copyrighted property such as logos, names, words, and symbols, or knowingly infringing on the rules and regulations of an entity, in a brand’s marketing as a means of attaching itself in the eyes of consumers to a particular entity.
Sponsor Self-Ambushing
The marketing communications activities by an official sponsor above and beyond what has been agreed to in the sponsorship contract, effectively ambushing the entity they support and infringing upon other official sponsors.
Associative Ambushing
The use of imagery or terminology to create an allusion that an organization has links to a sporting entity, without making any specific references or implying an official association with the entity.
Distractive Ambushing
The creation of a presence or disruption at or around an event in order to promote a brand, without specific reference to the event itself and its imagery or themes in order to intrude upon public consciousness and gain awareness from the event’s audience.
Values Ambushing
The use of an entity’s central value or theme to imply an association with the entity in the mind of the consumer.
Insurgent Ambushing
The use of surprise, aggressively promoted, one-off street-style promotions or giveaways at an event, in order to maximize awareness, while minimizing investment and distracting attention away from official sponsors and the event itself.
Parallel Entity Ambushing
The creation of, or sponsorship of, a rival event or property to be run in parallel to the main ambush target, associating the brand with the sport or the industry at the time of the event, thus capitalizing on the main event’s goodwill.
Unintentional Ambushing
The incorrect consumer identification of a nonsponsoring company as an official sponsor, unknowingly or inexplicitly, based on a previous or expected association with an entity.
Saturation Ambushing
The incorrect consumer identification of a nonsponsoring company as an official sponsor, unknowingly or inexplicitly, based on a previous or expected association with an entity.
When to Ambush
Firm is doing a poor job supporting its official sponsorship

Good fit with target market

Resources available

Companywide support

No conflict with existing sponsorships

Prepared for controversy

Aware of legal issues

Ambush Marketing – Words of Wisdom
Being a sponsor alone is not enough

Expect the unexpected

Do not expect the entity to look after you

Do not rely on the government / legal system to look after you

Remain vigilant

Customers do not care

Over-reacting to an ambush can make you look like a bully

Ambush Marketing Prevention Strategies The Contract
Greater coordination between entities, sponsors, broadcasters, etc.

Clean stadiums

Advertising controls

Surveillance programs

Sponsorship numbers

Pass-along strategy

Naming rights