Sports Management Exam#1

Managing Sport in the 21st Century
*sponsorships
*logos
*professional, collegiate, & starting children out in the sport
*colors
*excitement
* parents
* cannot predict sport
*audience
*facilities
*athletes
*equipment
*competition
*uniforms
*coaching
What is Sport? Council of Europe
“All forms of physical activity which through casual (informal) or organized participation, aim at expressing or improving physical fitness and mental well being, forming social relationships or obtaining results in competition at all levels”
What is Sport? Pitts, Fielding, Miller
“Any activity, experience, or business enterprise for which the primary focus is fitness, recreation, athletics, and leisure related”
Different Kinds of Sports
Nascar, basketball, cheerleading, videogames, X games
How do you think this major is unique or different?
*adapt to issues/problems
* public relations
*staying on top of new trends (social media)
* have to think of new ways to bring in new audience members in
*can’t guarantee customer satisfaction
*social (brings people together)
*financial structure
What skills are necessary to succeed in this major that you
may not need in other majors?
*communication
*networking
How can sports bring people together in a time of
crisis? (i.e.) Hurricane Katrina
*sports uplift your spirits, unpredictable thing you put your faith and if it makes it, then anything can happen
*distraction
* people rally behind (great PR)
* rivalries between teams ( come together)
How do you think the New Orleans Saints have
contributed to the re-building of the city?
*volunteering
Sport Management
” All people, activities, businesses, and organizations involved in producing, facilitating, promoting, or organizing any product that is sport, fitness, and recreation related” -Pitts, Fielding, Miller
NASSM
sport management programs
Sport vs. Sports, Management vs. Administration
*housed in different departments, different philosophies, etc.
*counterproductive to debate
Unique components of sport management
*sport marketing= the sport product
1.Aspects of sport are intangible. (hard to sell)
2.Sport is subjective and heterogeneous b/c the impressions, experiences, and interpretations may vary.
3.Sports are inconsistent and unpredictable. (calls made)
4.Sport is consumed as it’s produced.( be ready for the unexpected i.e. backboards breaking- how are you going to entertain audience during that time?)
5.Sport involves emotion.
Sport Enterprise Financial Structures:
*revenue comes from TV rights, concessions, road game guarantees, parking, and merchandise

NCAA breakdown
*81% TV & Marketing rights and fees
* 11% championships
*4% investments
*2% NIT, LLC, Eligibility Center
*1% sales and services
*1% contributions and facilities

Sport Fan Loyalty Index
* measures all the teams in the MLB, NBA,
NHL, and NFL provides apples-to-apples comparisons of the emotional intensity with which fans within a team’s local area support the home team versus corresponding values for fans of other teams in that market.

* 20% on win/losses
*80% based on pure entertainment, authenticity, fan bonding and history

discretionary funds
money left over after necessary expenditures have been made
ex: after the bills for rent,food, car payment, and insurance
Fan Cost Index
tracks the cost of attendance for a family of four. The FCI includes: Two adult average price tickets. Two child average price tickets. Four small soft drinks
Unique Aspects of Sport Management
Sport industry career paths:
*Intercollegiate, professional, recreational, non-profit, private, minor leagues/amateur, etc.
*underrepresented groups traditionally have not been hired in sport management positions
**NETWORKING/INTERNSHIPS give you an added advantage

Sport as a social institution:

Competencies
* management leadership skills
*technology aptitude
*critical thinking
*personal management
*planning
*communication
*ability to interact in global and multicultural society
Models (support industry)
* product
L types of products sold or promoted by the businesses or organizations within them
*economic
L broad definition of sport enabled analysis of the economic activity of the teams and business within each sector and the economic activity associated with sport
*sport activity
L focuses on the single characteristic that differentiates the sport industry from all other industries: sport activities, such as games and events
Example Issues Faced In The Field
*Are we responsible for safeguarding youth athletes from burnout?
*Should intercollegiate athletes receive salaries?
* Should male and female coaches receive the same salary if they coach the same sport?
* Should athletes in the Olympic Games receive a share of the revenues of the IOC?
* Should sport organizations place restrictions on the social media activities of their front-office personnel and affiliated athletes?
Critical Thinking -Ennis
*Care that their beliefs are true and that their decisions are justified; that is, they care to get it right to the extent that is possible
* Care to present a position honestly and clearly, there are well as those of others
*Care about the dignity and worth of every person
Framing Critical Thinking
1: What are the issues and the conclusion?
2: What are the reasons?
3: What words or phrases are ambiguous?
4: What are the value conflicts and assumptions?
5: What are the descriptive assumptions?
6: Does the reasoning contain fallacies?
7: How good is the evidence?
8: What significant information is omitted?
Prescriptive
The way the world should be
Descriptive
The way the world is
Professional Preparation
*general education
* conferences (NASSM)
* sport management courses
* campus discussions
* job shadowing
* internships
*interviewing
* professional associations
* community service
* student association
* publications (journal of sport management, sport management quarterly)
Professional Attitude
* enthusiasm
* ethical decision making:
* explicit norms
* implicit norms
* Critical thinking skills
* professional image
* work transition and adjustment
* continue professional development
Career Planning and Management
* career decision steps
L self-awareness
occupational exploration
career decision making
career implementation
* values
* interests
*skills
Type of Organizations
*public: parks and rec, National park service
*nonprofit: Rio 2016= Para Oympics, and Special Olympics
*commercial: Reds and Nike (logos)
Unique Elements of Sport/Sport Product
* unpredictability
* untangible
* multiple definitions of sport
* financial structure
* sport involving emotions
* different perceptions on calls
* social institution
Millennials as Workplace Leaders: Dr. Simmons
* Director of Career Services in PH
Employers most interested in _______
*soft skills like:
* communication
* punctuation
* time management
* organization
Millennials
*83 million (1981-1997)——> Generation X is the smallest
Bar Bell model
*At the left end are the “Baby Boomers” who haven’t started retiring until recently.
* The bar is “Generation X” they didn’t get a chance to go into the workforce until later because of the “Baby Boomers”.
* Right end are the “Millennials” which will eventually have more workers in the workforce than the “baby Boomers” and “Generation X”
Leadership for Millennials
* likely to step into leadership roles more quickly than their predecessors
National Association of Colleges and Employers:
* bring together college students and employers at job fairs
What Employers are Seeking Today:
1.Ability to work in a team work structure
2. ………….. make decisions and solve problems (tie)
3. …………… communicate verbally w/ people inside and outside the organization
4. ………….. plan, organize, and prioritize work
5. ………….. obtain & process info
6. ………….. analyze quantitative data
7. technical knowledge related to job
8. proficiency w/ computer software programs
9. ………….. create and/or edit written reports
10. ………….. sell and influence others
Office of Career Services:
*one-on-one career coaching
*workshops
* job-fairs
* interview preparation (IU Stream: interviewing on skype)
*networking & information sessions
NPR Video
* concussions more likely during practice
* 54% in youth games
* 42% in high school/ collegiate games & 58% during practice
L from Datalys Center for Sports Injury Research and Prevention Inc.
* movement to teach safer tackling skills
* some players don’t receive enough attention for their head pain
* good coaches limit one-on-one hitting during practice
Sport Company saying it had Concussion protected helmet:
* when helmet was tested it was shown that it actually did very little to protect against them. ( Lied)
* company put “concussion protect” to feed into parents’ emotions so they would buy more
* after interview the company took off the concussion protection
*** IT’S IMPORTANT TO KNOW WHICH PARTIES ARE FUNDING. CREDITABILITY= know that they are just sending money in to get results they want***
Creating the 2016 Rio logo:
* created by Tatil Design
*human embracing = welcoming
*had to have Rio/ Brazil’s spirit
* spells out Rio
* also symbolizes the Sugarloaf and Dios Irmaos Hill
* full of emotion
Internships: Process for Applying
* research on the organization (website) * knowledge
* follow every social media site they offer * skill
L lockerdome & linked in profiles * experience
* cover letters and resume
* practice interviewing
* 3 postive references ( NOT FAMILY)
* be on time
L treat everyone w/ respect
* 20-30 seconds about yourself
What Internships Do for YOU
1. Mutual beneficial relationships
2. Relationships w/ mentors, co-workers, other interns
3. get your foot in the door
4. stregthen your skill sets and identify weakness
5. “Test Drive” a career
6. Possible credit or certification
7. Introduction to the culture and etiquette
Steps to get an Internship
* networking
* perfect your “about me” materials
* identify and checking in with your resources
* application process
* follow-up
Olympics :Citius, Altius, Forrtius
Higher, Faster, Stronger
First President of IOC
Pierre de Coubertin
Coubertin believed :
* sports were spiritual
* promotes health
* promotes peace
* promotes understanding between cultures
* about participation
First Modern Olympic Games held:
Athens, Greece 1896
The Babe
*Mildred “Babe” Didrickson
L dominated multiple sports & won 3 gold medals
L helped develop the women’s PGA tour
Billie Jean King (1960s)
* played tennis and won several titles
* Battle of the Sexes- played against Riggs
L ABC (50 million watched)
*advocate for equal pay in tennis and spread to other sports
1936 Berlin Games
* wanted to bring a positive light to Germany & a way for Hitler getting the country on the map to show he had the best athletes
* first game that was televised
* Jesse Owens
L African American that dominated the track and long jump fields. Broke concept that Hitler wanted to create
Avery Brundage
* USOC president from 1928-1953
* President of IOC 1952-1972
AB Positive Beliefs:
* didn’t get salary
* games increased in popularity
* nonpolitical
* amateur
* signed major TV contracts
AB Negative Beliefs:
* Boycott 1936 games
* “Slavery Avery” – took medal away from Jim Thrope
* pursuit of amateurism
* overlooked Soviet abuse
* (in) actions in Munich
1964 Tokyo
* first games to be held in Asia
* wanted to repair their image after WWII
* first broadcast live**
Roone Arledge
* helped Olympics and sports develop into an event
* created athlete profiles
Jim Mckay
* created the idea of having announcers on site
* wall-to-wall coverage
Olympics and TV
* ABC= every summer Olympics 1968-1988
* WBC= every Olympics since 2000-2020
L fees have increased
Mexico City 1968
*Black power Salute
L John Carlos and Smith raised black gloves when they were 1st and 3rd on the podium, they were then sent home and suspended. When they arrived home they received a large negative response.
Munich 1972
* “Olympics of Joy”
* Bruce Jenner
* Munich Massacre
L 5 a.m. Sept.5 , 1972
Palestinian Black September (8)
2 Israelis killed & 9 hostages
Germany didn’t negotiate
Olympics stopped for only 2 days: the attack and the memorial service
Reasons For Failed Rescue in Massacre
*unprepared officials
* no radios or ways of communication
* guns not accurate enough
* not enough gun power
LA 1984
* USA won the most gold medals ever
* Mary Lou Retton: 5 medals, and she was only 14 yrs old. She was behind 9.9 points and stuck her vault and scored a perfect 10 to win the gold
Peter Uberoth
* Time Magazine Man of the year
* gave us the most profitable TV contracts
* financed privately
Barcelona 1992
* mini- biographies about athletes
L background info
* Dream Team
L FIBA agreed to allow them to compete (1989)
Magic, Bird, Jordan
had an average of 51.5 points ( differential)
Atlanta 1996
* Magnificent Seven (gymnast)
L 40+ million viewers
* Mia Hamm led the women soccer team to a gold medal
* Micheal Johnson wears gold shoes during 400 & 200
Title 9 (1972) in women’s soccer
must have equal representation between men and women
L public & private schools
must have the same number of facilities and practices/ practice times
How have historical developments related to endorsement and sponsorship marketing affected the sport industry?
* Olympians can now focus on their sports (get paid)
* 1917 using athletes to get brand recognition like Louisville Slugger used Babe Ruth’s signature ( Under Armor now does this, started with Spalding)
The Spalding & Brothers were responsible for which four developments in business activities we see today?
diversification, promotional skills, vertical integration, and modern management systems
B/c of sport’s unpredictable nature and the fact that it is produced as it is consumed, marketing of sport presents unique challenges to sport managers.
T/F
Extreme Sports
a general term for a collection of action sports involving adrenaline-inducing exploit. ( speed, height, danger, and stunts) ex: X games
Associated Spending
money spent by sport participants, spectators, and sponsors ex:
Underrepresented groups
people who traditionally have not been hired in sport management positions ex: women, people of color, people with disabilities)
Networking
the building up or maintaining of informal relationships, especially with people who could bring advantages such as job or business opportunities. (making connections)
Workforce Diversity
people of different ages,genders, religions, physical abilities, social classes, sexual orientations, races, ethnicities, and cultures working together in an organization.
Organizational Cultural
workplace values, norms, and behaviors that produce patterns of behavior unique to an organization
Principled Decision Making
basing decisions on the six pillars of character– trustworthiness, respect, responsibility, fairness, caring, and good citizenship (responsible participation in society)
Extracurricular Activities
opportunities for involvement with clubs, organizations, and sports in which students in a school may participate that are not part of the regular academic curriculum
Field Experience
A hands-on learning opportunity in which students gain professional experience in an organization while receiving class credit ex: internships
Mock Interview
a practice interview in which you can rehearse your responses to questions that interviewers are likely to ask you ex: career services
Entrepreneur
a person who identifies, organizes and develops a new business venture ex: Derek Eiler (in book)
Explicit Norms
formally communicated rules that govern behavior of group members ex: school policy handbooks
Implicit Norms
unstated or informal rules understood and practiced by members of an organization ex: observing others around you, like work
Etiquette
a system of rules and conventions that regulate social and professional behavior
Work Ethic
a set of values based on desirable workplace characteristics that include accountable, dependability, initiative taking, and accomplishment
Values
indicators of what you consider most important or desirable ex:high income, prestige and independence
Job Content Skills
the specialized knowledge or abilities needed to fulfill specific job duties ex: being a basketball referee and needing to know the rules to it
Vertical Integration
a company’s expansion by moving forward or backward within an industry; expansion along a product or service value chain ex: Spalding- by wholesaling sporting goods from the same store ( was a retail store), Nike and Gero set up divisional offices to go straight to the customer-> and they can control the price of their products
Horizontal Integration
occurs when a company adds new products and services to its organizational structure ex:
Diversification
the act of adding new products to the company’s product mix, thus, diversifying the company’s product offerings ex: Spalding started selling baseball equipment and then branched out to fishing equipment, ice skates, and croquet equipment, new sports (consumer demand), addition of countries, & better equipment
Decentralized Organization
the act of developing separate divisions, sub-companies, or departments that focus on certain tasks or products of the company and can be run autonomously ex: Spalding would buy new factories that developed different materials and kept the workers , Nike running gear & then basketball
Watershed Events
events or developments in an industry that cause significant changes through the industry ex: bicycle companies, black power salute, first females to work in NBA & NFL, Jesse Owens, Battle of the Sexes, Dream Team, Munich Games, Atlanta Olympics bombing
Reason-Why Advertisements
advertising that tells consumers why they should buy a certain product ex: bicycles= good for keeping you healthy and fit
Market Share
the percent that companies have in the overall market ex: the company that sells the most product to customers holds the #1 market share
Emotive Advertising
advertising that attempts to appeal to customers’ emotions and experiences to sell more product ex: breast cancer logo in NFL
Age of Organization
a period from 1880s to the 1890s where companies began to organize and market sport to certain markets ex: to youths
Distributions
how product or service moves from the producer to the consumer; getting the product to the end user ex: TV providers like ABC giving access to the Olympics
Organization Environment
* general environment
* specific environment
* economies of scale
* economies of scope
General Environment
things that don’t impact day to day
ex: politics and economies
Specific Environment
effects day to day operations
ex: customers, employees, employers, the community, and government
Economies of Scale
as you produce more things, reduces the cost of what you are producing ex: Nike 20 specialty shoes, price would be high compared to 3,000
Economies of Sport
total cost of production b/c you are producing different products
ex: IMG (Internation Management Group) with sports and entertainment
Stake Holders
* always first in the organizations
Organization
social entity created to coordinate the efforts of individuals with the intent to achieve goals
Environment
all environments outside the boundary of the organization that have the potential to affect all or part of the organization ex: general and specific environment
Demography
involves the examination of populations, including such elements as size, births, deaths, migration, and aging ex: age structure of population, level of education, standard of living
Effectiveness
the extent to which goals are achieved ex: extent to which it reaches its goals
Efficiency
the extent to which goals are achieved using the fewest possible resources ex: achieving goals using minimum resources
Organizational Structure
a formal system of task and authority relationships that control how people coordinate their actions and use of resources to achieve organizational goals ex: *formal: president in charge but has Vice Presidents that report back *informal: employees eat lunch together and talk about sport and company politics
Organizational Design
process by which leaders select and manage aspects of structure and culture of the organization ex:used to arrange organization’s activities and operations so it can reach goals.
Organizational Culture
set of shared values and norms that control organizational members’ interactions with each other and with people outside the organization