Sports and Entertainment Marketing- FINALS Review MASTER SET

Athletes are often considered to be particularly effective promoting products related to their
Sport. Celebrity endorsers are often considered to be particularly effective promoting products related to their sport. Their endorsement has a certain amount of authority because they know a lot about those products. Consumers assume they know about the products because they are prominent in that particular sport. Athletes usually are not necessarily effective in promoting products simply because of their background, education, or lifestyle. In fact, their background and lifestyle may be controversial and have a negative effect on endorsements.
A salesperson who tells a customer that a particular product will be easy to keep clean has presented a
customer benefit
Why do large fund-raisers and major sporting events often invite celebrities to participate?
To increase attendance. Marketers also use celebrities to promote events, which range from large fundraisers for charities or politicians to local amateur tournaments. The purpose of inviting celebrities to participate is to increase attendance. For example, on opening day of baseball season, most ballparks have a celebrity throw out the first ball. Fans come not only to see the game, but to see the celebrity. Although some celebrities may be asked to entertain at an event, that is not the main reason for inviting them. They are invited to increase attendance rather than make donations or sell concessions.
Salespeople use feature-benefit charts to help them
develop meaningful selling techniques.
A customer interested in buying a stereo was told by the salesperson the stereo’s size, weight, number of transistors, and amount of wiring, but the customer left without buying. What did the salesperson do wrong?
Sold product features instead of customer benefits
One of the benefits of using celebrities to endorse products is that the celebrities
Attract attention. One of the main benefits of using celebrities to endorse products is that the celebrities attract attention. Celebrities have a lot of appeal because of their fame and because the public is curious about them. As a result, people are more likely to read an ad, watch a commercial, or attend a special event featuring a celebrity rather than an ordinary, unknown person. Most celebrities expect to be paid to endorse products. Celebrities are not necessarily well informed about the products they endorse. Celebrities often have busy schedules which limit their availability.
A radio station sells a 30-second spot for $500. If the number of listeners is 100,000, calculate the cost per thousand (CPM).
Cost per thousand measures the cost efficiency of a media vehicle based on the cost of exposing 1,000 people to a promotional message. To calculate cost per thousand, multiply the cost of the ad by 1,000, then divide by the number of listeners in the audience.

$500 x 1,000 = 500,000/100,000 = $5.00 per thousand

What is the most appropriate media-scheduling strategy for advertising food and other frequently purchased items?
Continuous. Food is a product bought on a regular basis; thus, it needs a continuous scheduling strategy which provides steady, regular advertising. A flighting strategy would be inappropriate since buying food is not a seasonal activity. Although a pulsing strategy offers regular advertising, it is not steady, but intermittent. Intermittent could apply to pulsing or flighting.
What does one Federal Trade Commission regulation prohibit businesses from doing with celebrity endorsements?
Rewording statements. The Federal Trade Commission states that endorsements may not be presented out of context or reworded to distort the endorser’s opinion or experience with a product. This means that a company cannot use only part of what a celebrity says to make it sound like the celebrity believes in a product. To avoid this problem, businesses generally use exact quotations. Businesses are not prohibited from including photographs or reprinting advertisements.
The most commonly used type of endorsement involves paying a celebrity to
Advertise a product. The most commonly used type of endorsement involves paying celebrities to appear in ads and say what the company wants them to say. It simply involves having the person appear in a print or broadcast advertisement and talk about how great the product is. Other types of endorsements include paying celebrities to use a brand of equipment, wear a certain brand of clothing, or appear at an event. However, theseare not the most commonly used types of endorsements.
Which of the following is an example of a celebrity promoting a service:
A professional golfer endorsing a credit card. Sometimes, marketers use celebrities to promote services such as credit cards and health services. Although celebrities are most often used to endorse tangible items on the retail level, they are sometimes used to endorse services. Advertising gas grills, recommending exercise equipment, and wearing a brand of athletic shoes are examples of promoting tangible items.
If a customer wants to be fashionable, the salesperson should emphasize features and benefits related to the product’s
appearance
Can any brand name be selected and used by a business?
The business needs to make sure the brand name is not the property of another company since it is illegal to use another company’s brand name. Brand names can be registered with the federal government in order to protect them, but this is not necessary in order to use a brand name that is legally available.
Why do some businesses pay college and high school sport teams to wear a manufacturer’s clothing?
To influence other students. Paying college and high school sport teams to wear a manufacturer’s clothing is a variation of the endorsement that involves paying celebrities to wear a certain brand of clothing or use a certain brand of equipment. The athletes on these teams are celebrities on the local level and have an influence on their fellow students. The hope is that other young people will want to buy the clothing because they are influenced by what the athletes are wearing. The student athletes are suggesting their approval rather than making positive statements, giving testimonials, or serving as spokespersons.
The non-profit organization Sesame Workshop, which produces the Sesame Street television series, often gives permission to manufacturers such as Fisher Price and Build-a-Bear Workshop to use numerous Sesame Street characters on their products for a fee. This arrangement between Sesame Workshop and these companies is known as
Sesame Workshop licenses the use of its Sesame Street characters to manufacturers such as Fisher Price and Build-a-Bear Workshop for a fee. Although these licensees produce and sell the products, they become, in effect, extensions of the core brand, Sesame Street. Co-branding is a brand strategy that involves businesses joining forces as equals for mutual benefit and to increase brand recognition, customer loyalty, and sales for both brands.
Which of the following is a sport/event good made available through a sport/event service:
Water bottle sold at a health club pro shop. Joining a health club is a sport service, but a membership also provides you with many opportunities to consume pure goods, such as buying a water bottle at the pro shop. Workout sessions with a personal trainer, tennis racket repair, and aerobics classes are all sport services
When a customer asks how long a product will last, s/he is interested in its
How long a product will last and give dependable service is essential information which you should be prepared to give customers or clients.
To prepare a feature-benefit chart, a salesperson must know
facts about the product
Names, terms, symbols, or designs that identify products are called
product brands
When an advertiser wants to reach specific target markets, which type of print medium would be most cost-effective?
To make their products stand out from those of the competition. Marketers use branding to make their products stand out from those of the competition. Giving products positive, memorable names and using logos and trademarks are methods of branding but not reasons for branding. Branding is not a way to distinguish between goods and services because both goods and services are branded products.
Which of the following is a reason that sport/event marketers use branding:
To make their products stand out from those of the competition. Marketers use branding to make their products stand out from those of the competition. Giving products positive, memorable names and using logos and trademarks are methods of branding but not reasons for branding. Branding is not a way to distinguish between goods and services because both goods and services are branded products.
Salespeople often gain firsthand knowledge about the features and benefits of the products they sell from
Salespeople should study and, if possible, use the good or service they sell before attempting to sell it to others. Firsthand knowledge, gained by personal experience, tends to give a salesperson confidence.
Which of the following sport/event products is a sport event:
Ocean kayaking in Alaska. Ocean kayaking in Alaska is a sport event that you could either participate in or watch. Yankee Stadium is a sport/event venue, but not a sport event itself. The premiere of a play on Broadway is an event, but it is not sport-related. ESPN The Magazine is sport media, not a sport event.
Why do retailers give the best shelf space in their stores to licensed sport products?
The products are in high demand. Because licensed sport products are in such high demand, retailers often give the best spots in their stores to them. Licensees’ products usually enjoy prime shelf space in retail stores, helping them to sell more quickly. Licensing agreements are between licensors and licensees and do not put stipulations on retailers. Licensees do not need to pay for the best shelf space since their products are typically higher priced, giving the retailer enough incentive to place them in prime locations
Why must businesses that use celebrity endorsers follow the rules and guidelines established by the Federal Trade Commission?
Endorsements are a form of advertising. Businesses that use celebrity endorsers must follow the Federal Trade Commission’s rules and guidelines regarding advertising because endorsements are a form of advertising. Celebrities do not limit competition. The Federal Communications Commission regulates television stations. Businesses do not need permission from the Federal Trade Commission to use celebrities.
Which of the following is an example of a licensed product:
NASCAR earrings. NASCAR is a licensor to a licensee who produces earrings using the NASCAR name and logo. Converse shoes are branded products. The Wheaties cereal box is an example of endorsement, and the golf tournament is an example of sponsorship
Which of the following companies is a licensor (holds the rights to trademarked property):
The New York Yankees. A licensor is an organization or company that holds the rights to trademarked property. The Yankees organization licenses its name and logo for merchandise. Adidas and Upper Deck are licensees, and Champ’s Sporting Goods is a retail store
The main benefit of being a licensor is
Profits. Public relations, trademark protection, and market expansion are all benefits of being a licensor, but the most obvious reason for a team or league to become a licensor is the enormous income that licensing brings in.
A radio station sells a 30-second spot for $700. If the number of listeners is 80,000, calculate the cost per thousand (CPM).
Cost per thousand measures the cost efficiency of a media vehicle based on the cost of exposing 1,000 people to a promotional message. To calculate cost per thousand, multiply the cost of the ad by 1,000, then divide by the number of listeners in the audience.
$700 x 1,000 = 700,000/80,000 = $8.75 per thousand
If an endorsement features a celebrity wearing a watch, then the celebrity must be
An actual user. If an advertisement indicates that the endorser uses the product, then the endorser must be an actual user. If the endorser stops being a user, then the Federal Trade Commission requires that the company stop running the advertisement. For example, if an ad features a celebrity wearing a watch, then the celebrity must really be a user and continue to be a user. Celebrities usually are paid to appear in ads, but that is not a requirement. Most celebrities are not qualified experts unless they are endorsing products related to their field,
The best source of specific information on a product’s construction and materials is
manufacturer’s publications
Which of the following is the biggest risk for licensees
The nature of the licensing agreement. The biggest risk that licensees take is actually signing the licensing agreement. In doing so, they are agreeing to pay a certain amount of money, the guarantee, no matter how much they make in profits. The minimum guarantee must be paid to the licensor no matter what. If licensees do not sell enough merchandise to cover that cost, they will have to pay it out of pocket. The location of the team and the type of sport are not risks for licensees. The nature of sport fans is a risk of being a licensee; however, the risk associated with the nature of the licensing agreement outweighs it.
Sears pays a fee to the WNBA to have some of its players come to the store for an autograph-signing session. This is an example of
Sponsorship. In a sponsorship agreement, a company pays a fee to a team or an event for the right to affiliate itself with that team or event. Sears is paying the WNBA for the right to affiliate its store with WNBA players. Licensing is incorrect because Sears isn’t paying the WNBA to use its logo on Sears products. Retailing is incorrect because neither the league nor the players are offering products for sale. Branding is incorrect because there are no branded products involved
The overall impression consumers get from a sport/event product’s unique name, design, or symbol is the product’s
Brand. The overall impression consumers get from a product’s unique name, design, or symbol is the product’s brand. Quality is a different product characteristic that evaluates dimensions such as performance or reliability. The dimension of performance refers to the product’s ability to do what it is supposed to do. The dimension of reliability refers to the product’s consistency.
While explaining the price difference between two garden hoses, a salesperson said, “Although they look alike, this one is more durable. It is made of higher quality material which is guaranteed for 20 years.” The salesperson has identified a(n)
Hidden benefits are advantages that cannot be seen or understood without the assistance of a salesperson.
The actions a business takes with a brand in order to accomplish its goals are referred to as
The effective use of brand strategies helps to make brands more successful. A frequently used brand strategy is brand positioning = the creation of an image or impression of a brand as compared to those of competitors’ brands. Market share is an organization’s portion of the total industry sales in a specific market. Multinational marketing is the marketing of goods and services in two or more countries
The fee a licensee pays up front to use trademarked property is called a(n)
Guarantee. A guarantee is the fee a licensee pays up front in order to use the trademarked property. It is a figure based on expected sales, but it isn’t called an expected sales fee. A royalty is a fee paid after the guarantee has been met; royalties are a percentage of actual sales, but aren’t called percentage fees.
An advertiser spent $106,700 for 12 television spots with a total of 235 GRPs (gross rating points). What was the cost per GRP?
An advertiser spent $106,700 for 12 television spots with a total of 235 GRPs (gross rating points). What was the cost per GRP?
Businesses generally pay more for newspaper advertisements when purchasing space at a __________ rate
Preferred-position. When requesting preferred positions, advertisers place their ads in the newspaper location that generates optimal exposure for their target market. For example, an athletic shoe retailer might request placement in the sports section of the newspaper instead of the home and garden section. Because the advertiser is requesting a specific placement location, the advertiser pays a higher rate. Run-of-page rates do not allow advertisers to specify advertisement placement and are generally lower than the preferred-position rate. Contract rates are negotiated rates and are often lower than preferred-position rates. When advertisements are placed more than once, the advertiser often receives a frequency rate. The higher the frequency of ad placement, the lower the rate
Which of the following is an example of a company using a celebrity as an expert to endorse a product:
A professional bowler endorsing a brand of bowling balls. If companies use celebrities as experts to endorse products, the Federal Trade Commission requires that the celebrity have the necessary qualifications to be an expert. For example, it is all right for a professional bowler to endorse a particular brand of bowling balls if the bowler has tried various brands and selected one as the most effective. The professional bowler is considered an expert in that area. An actor is probably not qualified to be an expert endorser of a brand of breakfast cereal or a brand of tennis racquets. A professional golfer is probably not qualified to endorse a brand of pain medication
Your business wants to sell a shipment of goods by the end of the current work week at the lowest possible advertising cost. Which of the following promotional media would be best
Radio spot commercials. Radio requires a relatively short lead time for placing advertisements, and it is considered an effective medium for local and regional markets. Point-of-purchase displays would reach only those customers who came into the business. A direct-mail campaign must be prepared well in advance and may not be delivered on time. The Sunday paper would not be printed in time to publicize the sale
Simon was determined to get the new Tiger Woods golf game for his video game collection. The game cost $50 at the mall, but Simon was excited to find it for only $35 on eBay. He didn’t mind that it didn’t come from the mall. This is an example of
Separability. Separability refers to the close link between a product and its provider. Goods are easily separated from their provider—as long as Simon gets the video game he wants, he doesn’t care where it comes from. Consistency refers to the quality of a product from consumption to consumption; the quality of the video game isn’t in question in this example. Perishability refers to a product’s ability to be stored; the perishability of the video game isn’t in question, either. Tangibility refers to the way a product is experienced, either detected through the five senses or not; the tangibility of the video game isn’t referred to in this example.
Bo and his friends went to the State Fair. The fair itself was great, but they had trouble finding a place to park, several of the ride attendants were rude, and the bathrooms were really dirty. Overall, Bo and his friends gave the fair a “C” rating. The close link between the fair and all the product elements involved with the fair is known as
Separability. The close link between a product and its related elements is a matter of separability. Consumers combine all these elements in their minds when making a judgment about the product. That’s why Bo and his friends weren’t too impressed with the State Fair, even though the fair itself was an excellent product. Smoothing is offering consumers a discount for purchasing products that otherwise would go to waste. Consistency refers to the guarantee of a product’s quality over a period of time. If the State Fair were excellent one year but poor the next, then it would be an inconsistent product. Perishability refers to a product’s ability to be stored. The State Fair is a perishable product, but that characteristic isn’t illustrated in this story.
Businesses that buy broadcast advertising time often ask for information about the __________ before purchasing the time
Ratings for certain shows. Businesses that buy broadcast advertising try to purchase time when a large segment of their target market is watching television. These businesses need information about the ratings for certain shows in order to determine which ones attract a high volume of viewers. The ratings for each show indicate approximately how many households in the viewing area watched the show on a given day. Businesses do not need information about the ownership of the stations, the qualifications of management, or the popularity of newscasters in order to purchase advertising time.
Why do businesses want customers to demonstrate brand insistence for them?
Customers will bypass other brands because they are brand loyal and will buy only the desired brand.
Which of the following is an advantage for both licensors and licensees
Brand building. For licensors, the sale of their products serves to reinforce the team’s image and brand to the public. For licensees, putting a professional sport team’s logo on a product provides instant brand recognition. Low risk and trademark control are advantages unique to licensors, while retail opportunities are the concern of licensees
Since attendance is usually low after school starts, a water park offers a 25% discount on admissions during the first two weeks of September. This is an example of
Smoothing. Smoothing is offering consumers a discount for purchasing products that otherwise would go to waste. By offering discounted admissions during the first two weeks of September, the water park’s owners are recovering at least a portion of their potential losses. Separability refers to the close link between the product and its provider. Consistency refers to the guarantee of a product’s quality over a period of time. Branding is making a product stand out from the competition by giving it a unique personality.
Which type of sport team sells the most licensed products?
Winning teams. Winning teams invariably sell the most licensed products, making the unpredictability of onfield success a risk for licensees. Teams in the Midwest, college teams, and teams with traditional nicknames or mascots are all licensed product sellers, but winning teams sell the most of any category
1.06 For properties like a multi-purpose arena, performing arts venue or an athletic field, the typical term for naming rights ranges from:
For properties like a multi-purpose arena, performing arts venue or an athletic field, the typical term ranges from three to 20 years. Longer terms are more common for higher profile venues such as a professional sports facilityWhich type of sport team sells the most licensed products?
A car salesperson said, “This model has a driver’s side air bag.” The salesperson has identified a product
feature
The three benefit P’s of becoming a licensor:
profit, public relations, and protection
Whenever possible, an effective brand name should always be
short and memorable
The basis for the licensing process is
Trademarked property. Trademarked property is the foundation for the licensing process. All teams and sport events must copyright their names, logos, slogans, and graphics in order to legally protect them. Neglecting to do so means that other companies could use the name and logo without permission. Without a copyright, a company cannot make money from licensing
What are the best-selling licensed clothing items?
T-shirts. Clothing accounts for almost sixty percent of all licensed sport merchandise sales, and T-shirts are the best-selling licensed clothing item because they’re practical and allow people to make clear statements about which team or athlete they are loyal to.
Your company, a dairy, delivers ice cream to its customers. Other dairies in the area do not offer this service. This is an example of a
unique feature
Chloe decided to buy a certain brand of swimwear because she knew it would last for several summers before wearing out. Which dimension of product quality was she most interested in?
Durability. Durability asks the question, “How long will this product last?” Chloe wants to wear her swimsuit for several summers, so she is looking for one with durability. Performance asks, “How well does this product do what it’s supposed to do?” Chloe would be looking at performance if she was most concerned about how well the swimsuit would shed water. Serviceability asks, “Will this product be easy to fix if something goes wrong?” Features are a product’s facts or characteristics
A company that manufactures products using trademarked property is known as a
Licensee. A company that wants to manufacture and sell products using trademarked property is known as a licensee. Licensors hold the rights to the trademarked property. Retailers sell products but do not manufacture them. Unions are organized groups of employees who may work in manufacturing, or in the context of this LAP, unions are organized groups of professional athletes that act as licensors.
An important factor in determining rates for outdoor advertising is its
visibility
Your band is having a concert to raise money for charity. You have 15 tickets left and must sell them before the performance on Thursday night. This is an example of a(n) __________ sport/event product.
Perishable. The concert and its tickets are perishable, rather than imperishable, sport/event products because they cannot be stored. If you don’t sell the tickets before the performance on Thursday night, you will never be able to sell them. This concert will only take place one time, and then it will be gone forever. The concert itself may be excellent or poor—it is an inconsistent product. It is also an intangible product rather than a tangible one because it must be experienced instead of detected through the five senses.
A business owner who wants to obtain a reduced rate for a series of local radio commercials might contract for what type of promotion?
Package. Radio stations offer reduced rates to advertisers who agree to purchase a series of commercials over a certain period of time. The package rates cost less than single commercials and provide considerable savings to advertisers. The stations also benefit because they have sold a block of time. Display is a kind of newspaper and magazine advertising which includes several elements such as illustrations, headlines, white space, and type. Transit is a form of out-of-home media found in various modes and locations of mass transportation. Contingent is not a term that is widely used to describe a type of promotion
A business owner saved money by contracting with the local newspaper to purchase a series of ads over a period of time which entitled the business to a
Volume discount. Newspapers frequently offer volume discounts to advertisers who purchase repeated amounts of space for ads. Offering volume discounts encourages advertisers to purchase more ad space because they receive a better price. Newspapers usually charge flat rates for ads that appear only one time. Advertisers usually pay a higher rate to obtain a preferred position in the newspaper. Newspapers do not provide advertisers with free inserts
If a customer tells a salesperson that s/he can buy a similar product from another company for a much better price, that salesperson should respond by
pointing out the benefits of his/her company’s product.
The team name, mascot, and logo are important elements that a sport/event organization uses to create and maintain (1.06)
Brand awareness. Brand is defined as all the combined impressions and experiences associated with a particular person, company, organization, good, or service. A team name, mascot, and logo are some of the physical images that create brand awareness or recognition among the public. Market segmentation is the division of a total market into smaller, more specific groups. Financial accountability refers to the level of responsibility a business exhibits in terms of money. Image extension is not a widely used term to describe the nature of branding in the sport/event industry
Which of the following is an example of branded merchandise
Nike sweatshirt – Branded items don’t use another company’s trademarks. They feature only the logo of the manufacturer. A Tiger Woods gold towel and Allen Iverson jersey is licensed merchandise. The Nokia Sugar Bow is an example of sport sponsorship.
Why are people more likely to buy products that celebrities endorse?
People want to be associated with celebrities. People are more likely to buy products that celebrities endorse because people want to be associated with famous actors, well-known athletes, and winning teams. That’s why people pay to go to fund-raisers that celebrities attend and drink the soft drinks that celebrities endorse. Celebrities endorse all types of products, not necessarily only the best products or the products that everyone needs. People do not buy products to contribute to a celebrity’s income because most people believe that celebrities are wealthy.
Which of the following is the most appropriate promotional medium for a local hardware store:
Local newspaper. The target market for a local hardware store is adults in the local area. Network television and a national news magazine also target adults, but the national media provide too much wasted coverage for a local business. The local rock station’s audience is generally teenagers, not adults
Which of the following is a qualitative media factor used in the selection of promotional media
Impact is the impression an advertisement will make on the average consumer in a target market. Impact is created by the credibility, prestige, and editorial environment of a media vehicle. Reach, frequency, and cost per thousand are quantitative factors used in media selection
Rayovac Batteries pays a fee to Michael Jordan to appear in its television commercials. This is an example of
Endorsement. In an endorsement agreement, a company pays an athlete or team to promote its products by wearing or using them and by appearing in the company’s advertisements. Rayovac pays Michael Jordan to appear in its television commercials. Licensing is incorrect because Rayovac isn’t paying Michael Jordan to use his name or logo on its products. Sponsorship is incorrect because Rayovac isn’t paying to promote itself at a Michael Jordan-related sport event. Branding is incorrect also. Although the batteries are Rayovac branded merchandise, that fact is irrelevant to the Michael Jordan commercials
One of the problems of using celebrity endorsers who are very well known is that they often __________ the product.
Overshadow. Some celebrities are so well known that they detract from the product they’re endorsing. The celebrities become the focus of the ad or commercial rather than the product. Consequently, some companies choose not to use celebrities or to use less well-known celebrities who will not overshadow the product. Celebrity endorsers who are very well known do not add to the cost of the product or lower the quality of the product. Celebrities tend to reinforce a product, which is a benefit rather than a problem.
Determine which of the following is a true statement:
Brand ideas may come from many sources, including company employees and customers
The biggest risk for licensors is loss of control over
The marketing process. The main risk for licensors is loss of control over the marketing process. Teams can’t always guarantee the quality of their official licensed merchandise since they aren’t manufacturing it themselves. Teams also can’t prevent their products from appearing in a discount store or being on the clearance rack. If poor quality merchandise is being sold at a low price, the team’s public image could possibly be damaged. Licensors do not risk control over trademarked property; rather, the licensing system helps them to gain more control over it. Licensors do not risk control over sales or fashion trends since they do not control those factors in the first place
Which of the following is an example of a celebrity endorser:
A well-known person promoting a product. A celebrity endorser is a well-known person who approves, promotes, or supports a good or service, usually for pay. Many well-known athletes and entertainers are paid to endorse a wide variety of sport-related products and events. A publicist writing advertising copy, a college student posing for a print ad, and a business owner appearing in a commercial are not examples of celebrity endorsers.
What are royalties?
A percentage of actual sales. Royalties are a percentage of actual sales. Once the guarantee is paid off, licensors start receiving royalties, usually anywhere from five to fifteen percent.
1.06 A primary reason that many colleges and universities sell the naming rights for their new football stadiums or basketball arenas is to
Help pay for construction expenses. It is very expensive for colleges and universities to build new sport facilities. Selling naming rights to the facilities is one way for colleges and universities to offset the construction expenses. By allowing an individual or business to buy the right to name the facility, the college or university may not need to increase ticket prices to events, or increase college tuition to pay for the construction expenses. Naming rights often sell for millions of dollars. Although it is possible that an individual or business would purchase the naming rights for a sport facility to honor a former student-athlete, it is more likely that a business would the buy the naming rights for promotional purposes, such as media exposure. Selling naming rights might create buzz and publicity for the college or university for a short period of time, but short-term publicity won’t cover the costs of building a multi-million dollar facility. Fans attend sporting events because they support their school and team, not because they like the name of the building
A salesperson said, “As you can see, the larger capacity of these washing machines will enable you towash more clothes at one time.” The salesperson has identified what type of benefit for the product?
Obvious or apparent benefits are advantages that need little explanation by the salesperson. The customer already knows, or can easily recognize the benefit.
An effort that builds up, drops back and then build up again. This could be a good schedule if you have two very different selling seasons, say one at Christmas time, another in spring
Alternating Staggered
When a business places print advertisements in a magazine that has a specific readership reach, it is basing its buying decisions on the publication’s
Circulation. Circulation is defined as the number of people reached by a media vehicle. A company with a well-known brand might want to reach as many people as possible. As a result, it places ads in nationally distributed publications instead of local publications. Motivation is an influence or reason that causes someone to take action. Reputation often refers to the image or status of an entity. Businesses often consider a publication’s reputation when buying advertising; however, a business’s reputation does not always indicate details regarding the publication’s readership or reach. For example, it is possible for a magazine to have a good reputation and small reach. It is also possible for a publishing company to have some negative aspects in terms of overall reputation and still maintain a sizable reach. Participation is the ability or willingness to take part or share something. A publication’s participation in a variety of activities does not necessarily reflect its circulation in terms of size and demographics.
You advertise heavily and constantly for a period, then drop your ads altogether, then get back in again is which scheduling strategy?
Flighting
What must a celebrity endorsement always reflect?
Honest opinion of the endorser. According to the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), endorsements must always reflect the honest opinions, findings, beliefs, or experience of the endorser. These endorsements may not misrepresent the celebrity’s experience with a product or be deceptive in any way. Endorsements usually reflect the findings of the business, but they must go beyond that and also reflect the honest opinion of the endorser. Endorsements do not reflect the experiences of most customers or the beliefs of other advertisers.
College athletic departments use their licensing income to
Build up scholarship funds. College athletes aren’t paid salaries. Professional players’ unions use some licensing income to support charities, and organizations such as the U.S. Olympic Committee use it for training programs and uniforms. However, most colleges and universities put licensing funds toward scholarships.
Over the years, Wrigley Field has earned a reputation as one of the best places to watch a Major League Baseball game. This is called brand
Image. Brand image is a product’s “personality.” Wrigley Field’s reputation as a great sport/event venue is its image or personality. To achieve brand image, Wrigley Field has already established brand awareness. Although Wrigley Field is a sport/event product with brand loyalty and quality, its reputation is what we call brand image.
Your company’s product has an exclusive feature that is not offered by similar products on the market. For consumers, this product provides a(n)
Unique or exclusive benefits are advantages that are available only from your good, service, or business. If your product has one unique or novel feature that can be translated into a benefit desirable to customers, you have a definite selling advantage over your competitors.
1.06 A primary reason that large businesses purchase the naming rights to a new sport/event facility is because it
Provides exclusivity and has potential to maximize exposure. Purchasing the naming rights to a facility or event is very expensive. Because it often provides an exclusive association with the sport/event organization, the purchaser receives high amounts of exposure. In addition, an exclusive relationship is more likely to reduce media clutter and increase name recognition. An organization purchasing naming rights generally makes the investment to create or maintain a certain image. However, the purchase does not guarantee that fan-base loyalty will increase. Fan-base loyalty is driven by many factors including team performance. Purchasing naming rights to a facility does not reduce the need to pursue other promotional activities
Which of the following must a salesperson know to translate features into benefits for customers:
Where to get necessary information
The pattern: a heavy program, followed by a lighter one and then heavy again. Broadcast television is a typical tool to use for this type of scheduling.
Pulsing
The cost to a business of radio spots will vary with the
Number of listeners being reached. The costs of radio spots will increase or decrease depending upon the length of the advertisement, the time at which the advertisement is broadcast, the number of listeners, and how often the ad is run. Most production costs are a small part of the actual charges for broadcast time. The size of the business and the type of information being aired do not affect the advertising rate.
Which of the following decreases the costs to a business of using newspaper advertising:
Sliding-scale rates. Sliding-scale rates are discount rate structures offered by newspapers to advertisers willing to purchase a large volume of advertising space over a one-year period. Split-runs are a printing technique that allows publishers of magazines to print different advertisements for the same product in alternating copies of the publication. Preferred position is newspaper or magazine space thought to attract the greatest audience attention. Color requirements in ads increase their cost, as do split-runs and preferred position
A celebrity’s appearing in a commercial for a soft drink while wearing a certain brand of clothing and holding a certain brand of tennis racquet is an example of
Cross-promotion. Cross-promotion occurs when a celebrity endorses more than one product, or products for another company. Then, all the companies gain from the increased awareness because consumers associate the celebrity with all the products. An example of cross-promotion is a celebrity appearing in a commercial for a soft drink while wearing a certain brand of clothing and holding a certain brand of tennis racquet. All three products benefit even though the commercial is for the soft drink. Public relations is a function of business designed to establish good relations between the business and the public. Team-building is the use of
cooperative efforts among employees and management to accomplish company goals and objectives. Personal selling is the form of promotion that determines client needs and wants and responds through planned, personalized communication that influences purchase decisions and enhances future business opportunities.
Which of the following question should be asked by a firm that is trying to decide whether to brand its products:
The product to be branded should not be too homogeneous, or similar, to others like it. The firm needs to project probable income from the product in order to determine profitability, but it would be impossible to know how much total sales revenue would be.
One reason companies seriously consider the benefits before hiring a celebrity endorser is because the use of celebrities can be
Extremely expensive. Hiring celebrities to endorse products can be extremely expensive. Some superstars have multimillion-dollar contracts as high as $50 million-$100 million over a period of years for the use of their name. Even less famous celebrities, or celebrities who have retired, often receive millions of dollars to be endorsers. Therefore, companies seriously weigh the benefits of hiring a “name” in relation to the costs involved. Using celebrity endorsers is not necessarily controversial, potentially illegal, or deceptive.
1.06 In the private sector, naming rights are
In the private sector, naming rights are a financial transaction and form of advertising whereby a corporation or other entity purchases the right to name a facility or event, typically for a defined period of time
Which of the following products is licensed merchandise:
Taylor Swift concert T-shirt. A concert T-shirt is licensed merchandise because it bears the name and/or likeness of the concert performers. A key chain or a hockey helmet is just a plain product if it does not feature another organization’s trademark. A Nike sweatband is not licensed merchandise because it bears only the Nike logo and not the name or logo of a sport team, league, or event.
The most basic distinction between goods and services states that goods are ____________ products
Tangible. Most of the time, we label products as either goods or services. The most basic definition states that goods are tangible, physical products that we can detect through our five senses and that services are intangible, nonphysical products that we must “experience.” Goods are also generally consistent, whereas services are generally inconsistent. Goods may be branded products, but so are services; therefore, branding isn’t a way to distinguish between the two.
A celebrity who is paid to use a product and discuss its effectiveness during a lengthy TV commercial is giving a(n)
Testimonial. A testimonial is a statement by an identified user of a product proclaiming the benefits received from the use of the product. A celebrity who is paid to use a product and discuss its effectiveness during a lengthy TV commercial, or infomercial, is actually giving a testimonial for the product. During the infomercial, the celebrity explains why the product is good and why consumers should buy it. An interview is a meeting during which information is obtained. During an infomercial, the celebrity usually follows a script rather than making a personal observation. A sales presentation involves a salesperson showing a customer the benefits of the product’s features.
To explain a product’s quality to customers, a salesperson should stress the product’s
Knowing the details of a product’s construction and materials helps salespeople show a product’s quality.
Which of the following statements is true regarding sports marketing (1.06)
The distribution of licensed sports apparel is an effective way to create team and brand awareness. Sports marketing involves planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion, and distribution of ideas, goods, and services related to sports or athletes to achieve individual or organizational goals. A sports team that permits a clothing company to print the team logo on sweatshirts and then sells the sweatshirts to consumers is an example of distributing licensed sports apparel. Consumers who purchase and wear the clothing are promoting a specific team which creates brand awareness. Sports marketing does not encompass only radio and television media. Corporations that sponsor sporting events use their name to increase brand recognition, not to decrease it. High-profile athletes who endorse particular products tend to increase product recognition. For example, golfer Tiger Woods wears Nike apparel and does television commercials for various Nike products. Woods reinforces potential Nike brand recognition each time he wears a Nike logo shirt or hat during a televised golf tournament
In which of the following situations might a celebrity endorser have a negative effect on a product:
Does something inappropriate or illegal. Celebrity endorsers can sometimes have a negative effect on a product, particularly if the celebrity develops an image problem. If celebrities do something inappropriate or illegal, they might transfer their reputation to a product. Companies often worry that they’ll somehow be damaged simply because of guilt by association. Many retired athletes and entertainment figures are effective endorsers. Celebrity endorsers do not have a negative effect on a product when they appear in ads for other types of products or lose major tournaments.
1.06 What might a sports organization offer a business to encourage that business to sponsor an event?
Naming rights. A sponsor is a business that pays to associate its name or products with a sporting event. To encourage businesses to sponsor events, sports organizations sometimes offer a business the right to include its name with the name of the event. For example, McDonald’s sponsors several golf events, and its name is part of the title, such as the McDonald’s LPGA Championship. In return for the naming rights, the business pays a significant amount of money that helps to support the event. Sponsors do not receive a percentage of the profits. In fact, their financial contribution often is needed to make the event possible. Sponsors are not partial owners. They can decide at any time to withdraw financial support, which means the event needs to find another sponsor. Advertising is not free.
Which of the following is a licensee:
Nintendo. Nintendo is a licensee with many sport organizations for electronic video games. Monday Night Football, The Masters Tournament, and Wrigley Field are all licensors.
Team-related factors that affect brand equity include (1.06)
Performance, coaches, and star athletes. Brand equity is the positive feelings of goodwill toward a brand that accumulate over time when customers’ expectations are consistently met. Fan loyalty to star athletes, popular coaches, and winning records (performance) tend to stabilize brand equity for a team over time. Tradition, reputation, and strength of schedule are organization-related factors that affect brand equity
Feature-benefit selling should always occur
during the sales presentation.
Teams have found an additional way to spark major sale increases in licensed products is to:
Make major design changes to logos and/or uniforms
When a customer asks how long a product will last, the salesperson should explain features and benefits relating to its
service and warranty
A new sports car has bright red paint. The bright paint is a feature rather than a benefit of the car because
it is a physical characteristic of the car.
Which of the following is a true statement about using celebrity sport figures to endorse products:
All types of businesses use well-known athletes. All types of businesses use celebrity sport figures to endorse their goods and services. Even businesses that have no connection whatsoever with sports or events pay wellknown athletes to be endorsers. These endorsements are successful because of the athlete. Retailers and service businesses are examples of businesses that use celebrity sport figures to endorse products. Celebrities endorse both tangible and intangible products.
Sport marketers have an advantage over all other types of licensors in the international marketplace because
Sports are universally appealing. The universal appeal of sports is the main advantage that sport licensors have over other types of licensors in the international marketplace. Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, but it isn’t the main cause for successful international sport licensing. Just because a foreign country is wealthy does not mean that the money goes to buying licensed sport products. Success in the U.S. does not necessarily mean an advantage for licensing overseas. Actually, the U.S. market has become more and more saturated, making international licensing more of a necessity to make money
Which of the following could you get from customers that would be useful in selling:
Satisfied customers are often a good source of information about products. Their comments, or testimonials, can be of value in making future sales.
Which of the following is an example of a celebrity endorsing an event simply by being associated with it:
Attending a grand opening. Some endorsements involve paying celebrities to use their pictures on a product or label or to appear at an event. This is a way of endorsing a product or event simply by being associated with it. The celebrity doesn’t say the product or event is great, but that is what consumers usually think. An example is a celebrity attending a grand opening to attract customers. Endorsing an event simply by being associated with it does not involve appearing in a print ad, saying a tournament is great, or cheering for a football team.
What type of business strategy is licensing for a licensor?
Low risk. Licensing is a low risk business strategy for the licensor. Because licensees do all the work of developing, manufacturing, and selling the products, licensors save a great amount of time and effort by being able to skip those steps. That means that all the money the licensors make from the products is pure profit, and they didn’t have to take a marketing gamble in order to make it
A characteristic of an event is that it is produced and consumed (1.02 State)
At the same time. An event is a gathering or activity. Event marketing is the process of planning and executing the conception and promotion of gatherings or activities that satisfy individual or organizational objectives. Examples of events are corporate awards dinners, fund-raising events for charities, dramatic plays, and musical concerts. A characteristic of an event is that it is produced and consumed at the same time—it is an experience. The experience may or may not include planned intervals (e.g., intermission), and different groups of people are often involved in the experience. For example, the Academy Awards ceremony is an event that involves several groups including the actors, movie producers, and screenplay writers who attend the ceremony, as well as the fans who watch it on television. Some fans and participants become quite emotional during certain events.
Marketers should check on their markets periodically because markets can
change
1.01 Which of the following usually is a characteristic of the sport/event industry
Provides products that are different for each consumer. The sport/event industry is unique because of the type of products it produces. In most cases, the products are produced and consumed at the same time because they are activities or games. As a result, the product is different for each consumer. For example, a baseball game is a product that each spectator experiences differently. Some spectators may enjoy the game while others do not. The sport/event industry communicates with a vast audience. It often works with worldwide media to make products available; however, it does not manage a media network. The industry employs a wide range of people, including those who have athletic ability
A database of competitor information often contains information about the competitor’s
Advertising media. It is useful to maintain a database of competitor information in order to analyze that information when making advertising decisions. One type of information involves the advertising media that competitors use. For example, a competitor might advertise so heavily on local radio that it would not be effective to place competing ads on the radio. Or, a competitor might saturate the newspaper with advertising during certain times so potential customers identify only with the competitor. Maintaining information about the advertising media will prevent using the same medium that is dominated by a competitor. It is often not possible to compile information about a competitor’s production techniques, budget structure, or creative strategy
What must be present for a sporting event to take place?
Athletes. The athletes are the players who make the game or activity happen. Without the players, there would be no event. The athletes might be professionals or amateurs. Some sporting events take place without spectators; however, many would not take place if there were no spectators.
Marketers prepare for determining their target markets by conducting target-market
Activities. Preparation for determining target markets is carried out through target-market activities. Advertising is another facet of marketing. Adjustments are changes that can be made to an item or process. And, accounting is an essential function of internal business operations
One type of primary sport/event marketing information is information that is obtained from
Spectators. Spectators are the fans who attend sports events. They are often a source of primary marketing information because they are the audience that the event is trying to reach. In many situations, spectators are asked to complete questionnaires and provide information about their perception of the event, what they liked, and what they didn’t like. This is primary information because it is new information collected from spectators for the purpose at hand. Primary sport/event marketing information usually is not obtained from referees and coaches. Managers often are the ones who want and need primary information to make marketing decisions
What type of sporting goods are you purchasing when you buy a hat that features the logo of the Miami Dolphins?
Licensed merchandise. Licensed merchandise is all the products that a manufacturer makes and distributes for sale as a result of an arrangement with a sports organization that authorizes the manufacturer to use the organization’s name or logo on various products. Licensed merchandise is one category of sporting goods thatare the tangible, manufactured products that are sold and used within the sports industry. Team uniforms are worn by the athletes. Novelty items are other types of licensed merchandise such as mugs, pens, and banners that feature the name or logo of a sports organization. Athletic equipment is the gear needed to play a sport, such as bats.
When marketers sort customers psychographically, they divide them by
lifestyle habits
When you read a magazine article about a star athlete, you are using the product of
Sports information. Sports information is the sports product that gives you news about teams, events, schedules, and statistics. Sources of sports information include magazines, local newspapers, television, and the Internet. Advertising media are the channels of communication used by businesses for delivering promotional messages to target groups of consumers. Promotional records are documents containing information about various types of communications that businesses use to inform, persuade, or remind customers of their products. Marketing data are information about marketing activities.
Promoting and selling an intangible product that is immediately consumed and cannot be resold is a unique characteristic of __________ marketing (1.02 State)
Event. Event marketing is unique because it involves promoting and selling an intangible product, such as a concert or car race, that is immediately consumed by the customers and cannot be resold. Event marketers promote games or events that take place at a specific time, and once they are over, the products no longer exist. If sales are poor for an event, a marketer does not have an opportunity to resell. Mass marketing is designing products and directing marketing activities in order to appeal to the whole market. Target marketing is the identification and selection of markets for a business or for a product. Direct marketing involves contacting consumers directly
Marketers often conduct primary research when secondary research
Isn’t complete enough. Marketers often conduct primary research when secondary research isn’t complete enough. Secondary research is less costly and less time-consuming than primary research. It is also usually broader than the narrow scope of focused primary research.
Primary research collects data for
The research project at hand. Primary research collects data specifically for the research project at hand; it is original research. Marketers may choose to keep the results of their primary research to themselves; therefore, it is not for use across the entire industry. Primary research usually isn’t conducted to help marketers understand economic cycles. Primary research isn’t used solely for information purposes; though some primary research helps marketers gain initial insights into a marketing problem, this type of research also helps marketers to draw firm conclusions
Which of the following is an advantage of primary research
It is specific. One of the greatest advantages of primary research is that marketers can design it specifically for the research project at hand. Though primary research is current at the time it’s conducted, it will eventually “expire” or go out of date. Primary research is neither inexpensive nor easy to conduct—those are advantages of secondary research
Which of the following marketing activities involves creating copy and illustrations for a sport organization
Advertising. The advertising activity involves creating copy and illustrations for a sport organization. The merchandising activity involves marketing the team logo and name. The media relations activity involves disseminating information to the press. The sales activity involves responsibility for advertising and ticket sales. All the alternatives are activities of marketing, but they do not involve creating copy or illustration
Market segmentation is about dividing the market into __________ groups.
Specific. Market segmentation is about dividing the marketing into specific groups. Though the customers in the specific groups will have similarities, they will not be identical. There may even be a measure of diversity within the groups. But the goal of market segmentation is to narrow the general market to its specific sub-groups.
One of the main reasons why many businesses sponsor a sports product or event is to
Reach a target market. Sponsors are the businesses or organizations that pay to associate their names or products with a sporting event. The reason why sponsorship is becoming more and more popular at all levels is because businesses realize that they can reach a potentially enormous target market. Consider the number of viewers who are exposed to a business that pays to have its name on a banner as a sponsor of an Olympic event. As a sponsor, businesses often support local teams, but the goal is to reach a target market rather than
merely help the team. Businesses do not sponsor a sports product or event to contribute to society or to spend excess funds
Pepsi and Coke competing for the right to sell their line of soft drinks at a stadium is an example of marketing
Products to sports. The sport itself needs goods and services in order to operate. Therefore, businesses that provide these products spend a lot of time and energy on marketing. An example is Pepsi or Coke competing for the right to sell their line of soft drinks at a stadium. The soft-drink companies might offer more money, better service, and promotional assistance to get the business. Competing for the right to sell soft drinks at a stadium is not an example of marketing sport goods and services, marketing the sport event, or marketing services through sport.
Which of the following marketing activities involves writing press releases and organizing news conferences for a sport organization:
Media relations. The media relations activity involves writing press releases and organizing news conferences for a sport organization. The promotions activity involves planning all advertising and sales promotions. Advertising designs and selects all advertising materials, while the community relations activity develops and coordinates all community activities. All are marketing activities, but media relations is the activity that deals directly with the press.
Which of the following marketing activities involves keeping detailed ticket sales records:
Ticket management. The ticket management activity involves keeping detailed ticket sales records. While the ticket sales staff works closely with ticket management, they aren’t in charge of record keeping. The market research and development activity involves developing and maintaining the marketing information system for a sport organization. The merchandising activity involves controlling and establishing production of souvenirs and programs with the team name or logo. Both are marketing activities, but they aren’t responsible for tickets in any way.
You are marketing the premiere of a new Lexus model, which will be revealed at a car show in Detroit. You’re in charge of advertising. Which of the following would be your responsibility:
Buying commercial time on television. This would be your responsibility in advertising. Researching the target audience is a market research and development activity. Conducting test drives is a promotions activity. Taking ticket orders is a ticket management activity.
One way for the WSC Swim and Racquet Club to obtain primary information about the quality of its facilities and the level of its services is by
Surveying club members. Primary information is facts that are collected for the purpose at hand. A swim and racquet club that wants to obtain opinions about its facilities and services would likely develop a survey for its members to complete. The club can analyze the results of the survey, and make changes to improve the quality of its facilities and services, if necessary. Industry publications, competitors’ web sites, and promotional literature are types of secondary information, which may or may not provide the club with the desired information
Which of the following is an example of internal data:
A cash-register receipt. A cash-register receipt is an example of internal data. A copy of it should exist in the company’s internal information system. A competitor’s web site and a media report are examples of external data. A field test is a method used for primary research
Which of the following sources is the most appropriate for obtaining primary marketing information about fans’ opinions about a rock band’s new album
Concert attendees. Primary marketing information is data (facts) that are collected for a problem or project at hand. If a rock band wants to know its fans’ opinions about a new album, the best source would be the fans themselves. And because many of the fans probably attend the band’s concerts, conducting interviews and distributing questionnaires are methods the band can use to obtain the information it wants. Although some concession vendors, event ushers, and facility managers may be fans of the rock band, not all of them are
A person who sells non-sport products through the use of sport is considered a(n)
Sport marketer. A person who sells non-sport products through the use of sport is considered a sport marketer. Anyone who is involved in any marketing function that is used for or in conjunction with sport is a sport marketer. Advertising and sales are activities that might be performed by a sport marketer. Non-sport marketer is the opposite of the correct answer
How does event marketing differ from sport marketing?
It focuses more on corporate sponsorship. Event marketing offers even more career opportunities than sport marketing. Event marketing is broader in scope than sport marketing. Event marketing includes sport events. Therefore, the other alternatives are all false statements about event marketing.
Which of the following is a reason that some marketers choose to outsource marketing-research activities:
A marketing-research firm can make the research anonymous. One of the advantages of using a marketing-research firm is that the firm can make the research anonymous when it contacts potential respondents. It is not inexpensive to outsource marketing-research activities; it can be quite costly. Professional marketing researchers are objective rather than subjective. Marketing-research activities are not necessarily too difficult for most marketers to conduct
One of the main differences between professional and amateur athletes is that for the professionals, the game is often
Their occupation. Professional athletes are paid, and in many cases, playing the game is their occupation. Whether they are minor league players or major league players, they are compensated for their work. Many professional athletes dedicate their lives to their chosen sport and play for as long as they are physically able. Examples of professionals for whom the game is their occupation are Sammy Sosa, Shaquille O’Neal, and Eddie George. Amateurs usually play for enjoyment, and many of their events are not attended by the public.Games played by professionals are often expensive to attend rather than free.
A sport/event organization that wants to obtain information about the population in a certain geographic location might use
Government sources. Government reports and documents are often an excellent source of secondary information, which is information that has already been collected by others. Information about the population in certain geographic locations is the type of information that governments usually collect. This type of secondary information will help a sport/event organization decide if there is a large enough population in a certain area to support a sport team or a sport event. Telephone surveys and personal questionnaires are methods of obtaining primary information that might be stored in databases.
Which of the following is an example of secondary data:
The information on a sales invoice. The information on a sales invoice is an example of secondary data. The invoice already exists for a purpose other than the research study at hand. The results of a focus group, the outcome of an experiment, and the answers to a survey are all examples of primary data, gathered from original research performed specifically for the study at hand
Most event firms specialize in
Management. Most event firms specialize in management and plan events from top to bottom. While sponsorship sales, marketing, and public relations are activities usually covered under event management, very few firms would specialize in one of those activities alone.
Which of the following marketing activities usually involves managing the web site for a sport organization
Market research and development. Market research and development usually manages the web site for a sport organization. Media relations distributes press releases and creates media guides. Advertising creates copy and illustrations. Promotions generates sales and advertising promotions. All three are marketing activities, but since the web site relates to many different marketing areas, this duty usually falls to research and development
A marketer is having difficulty finding data about a competitor because the competitor’s financial records have not been made public. Which disadvantage of secondary research does this situation illustrate?
It can be incomplete. Secondary research can be incomplete. In this case, the marketer is unable to find all the data s/he wants about a competitor because the full picture simply isn’t available. Secondary data can be out of date, but that isn’t the disadvantage being illustrated in this example. Secondary research is neither costly nor time-consuming—those are disadvantages of primary research
Which of the following might a sport/event organization search to obtain marketing information
Internet. The Internet is a worldwide network of computers that enables users to access information and communicate with others. Searching the Internet is one way that sport/event organizations can obtain useful marketing information because there is a vast amount of information available online. The Internet is one type of media, although other types are not good sources of marketing information. A sport/event organization would not search newsletters or foundations to obtain marketing information
When a sport marketer considers factors such as lifestyles and interest levels in a specific sport, s/he is segmenting a market on the basis of
Psychographics. Market segmentation is the division of a total market into smaller, more specific groups. Sport/event marketers often segment markets on the basis of psychographics, which considers factors such as lifestyles. Lifestyle characteristics include how people spend their money and what they do in their spare time (e. g, hobbies). Hobbies might include participating in certain sports such as biking, skiing, and swimming. Demographic segmentation considers various physical and social characteristics of the market—age, gender, income, and education. Geographics segments a market on the basis of location
What is the main disadvantage of conducting primary research?
It is costly to carry out. The main disadvantage of primary research is that it is costly to carry out. There are many logistical expenses to conducting an original research study. It can be difficult to find appropriate respondents for primary research, but that is not the main disadvantage of this research type. Primary research is customized to the marketers’ research needs and gives them greater control of the study than if they were using secondary research
What do the unorganized participants in sports have that the organized participants do not have?
Freedom from rules. Unorganized participants in sports have freedom that organized participants do not have. There is no organization or group that gives them rules to follow. They are free to participate whenever they want, for as long as they want, and in any way they want. Organized participants may be amateurs or professionals. They often belong to regulated teams and have specific times to participate.
Which of the following is a reason why businesses should regularly monitor their internal records that contain marketing information
To analyze product performance. A business’s internal records contain a wealth of marketing information that can be used for a variety of purposes, such as analyzing product performance. Sales reports and accounts receivable reports contain information about which products sold well and which ones were returned frequently. Businesses can use this marketing information to analyze product performance and make changes if necessary. Businesses do not monitor internal marketing records in order to review employment trends, compile regulatory data, or prioritize investment goals
When examining a market, marketers primarily notice its
Categories: Marketers look at markets in order to divide them into groups or categories according to what customers have in common. Merchants, market leaders, and records have little to do with finding categories.
Which of the following positions creates the marketing budget for a sport organization
Director of Marketing. The Director of Marketing creates the marketing budget for a sport organization. The Chief Executive Officer supervises the Director of Marketing but does not create the budget for him/her. The Director of Sales works underneath the Director of Marketing and coordinates all selling functions for the organization. The Director of Development is usually a position in operations, such as Director of Player Development
Which of the following is the most crucial step in starting a sport or event marketing career:
Internship. An internship is the most crucial step in starting a sport or event marketing career. Networking, personality, and education are all important factors, but employers look for hands-on experience above all else.
Which of the following are characteristics of a sporting event:
Intangible and perishable. The sporting event is a sport product that is unique because of its characteristics. It is mostly intangible because it is not a physical product. It is also perishable because once it is over, it is goneforever. Not all sporting events are inexpensive; some are very costly. Sporting events may be regional, local,or national. They are limited because there are only so many of them; however, they are not scarce. Each event is different.
The National Collegiate Athletic Association and the Professional Golfers’ Association are examples of
Sanctioning bodies. Sanctioning bodies are the groups or organizations that regulate sports and the sports participants. They establish the rules that the athletes must follow. For example, the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) regulates college athletes, and the Professional Golfers’ Association (PGA) governs professional golfers. A trade association is a group of persons in the same industry or geographic area who form a society to solve their common problems. A labor union is a group of workers who have joined together for a common purpose to improve the terms and conditions under which they work. A professional society is a group of persons in the same profession who form an organization to further their common interests.
What type of competitor information is it important for sport/event organizations to maintain in a database?
Price lists. An effective database contains a variety of information about competitors such as price lists. The more a sport/event organization knows about its competitors, the better able it is to compete. Knowing what competitors charge for goods and services helps an organization to price its goods and services. An organization uses this type of information to set prices that are in the same range rather than too high or too low. Information about demographics and market size is general marketing information that organizations maintain in a database. Consumption, or the way people use or consume a sport or event product, is information about consumers rather than competitors
What benefit does a major sporting event or popular sports attraction provide to a city?
Economic. Sporting events and attractions have a significant economic effect on a city. They attract people who will stay in hotels, eat in restaurants, buy souvenirs, and visit other attractions. These visitors spend money and contribute to the local economy. They create a need for more hotels, restaurants, and support facilities. The local economy prospers because more money is coming into the city and more jobs are available. A major sporting event and a popular sports attraction do not provide cities with cultural, political, or athletic benefits.
Which of the following is an example of marketing the sport event
Distributing information about a NASCAR race. Sports marketing is all the activities involved in pricing, promoting, and distributing the sport event. Making people aware of the sport event is one aspect of marketing. Distributing information about a NASCAR race is a form of promotion that encourages potential customers to buy tickets to the event or to view the race on television. Delivering exercise bikes to retailers is part of marketing sport products. Selling food products to a concession stand is the marketing of products to sports. Holding a race for a charitable organization is marketing other services through the use of sport.
Which of the following is one of the benefits you receive when you participate in sports:
Recreation. When you participate in sports, either by playing or watching, you receive several benefits. One of the benefits is recreation. Participating in sports gives you the chance to play, have fun, relax, and spend time doing something just for you. It makes you feel refreshed and ready to face the world. The majority of people who participate in sports are amateurs who do not receive publicity or compensation. Professionals are paid to play and usually consider it their occupation rather than recreation. Training is not a benefit, although many participants do some type of training.
Which of the following is a true statement about external data
They can cost money to obtain. External data exist outside the organization. Some external data are free to access (e.g., media reports), and other data cost money to obtain from a commercial marketing-research firm. External data are secondary data—they do not come from original research. External data may or may not be represented numerically. They are not typically the easiest data to access—internal data usually are.
1.01 A unique characteristic of the sport industry is that it seeks to attract markets that
Include spectators and participants. Consumers of sport products can both participate in and view a wide array of sports. For example, a consumer may attend a professional golf tournament, participate in an online fantasy golf league, and actually play golf for fitness and relaxation. Sport products are both tangible and intangible. Although some consumers of sport products have artistic talent, and some may be concerned with environmental issues, all sport enthusiasts participate in sport activities for fitness purposes and view sport activities for entertainment
The same person can be included in more than one
Target market. Marketers know that the same person can easily fit into more than one target market. However, the same person would have a difficult time being included in more than one religion, income level, or generation
Which of the following marketing activities involves planning sport camps and answering fan mail for a sport organization:
Community relations. The community relations activity involves planning sport camps and answering fan mail for a sport organization. Media relations deals directly with the press rather than the general public. Market research and development is responsible for providing market research and intelligence to the other marketing departments. The promotions activity involves planning and implementing all sales and advertising promotions. All are marketing activities, but these specific responsibilities belong to the community relations activity.
Participating in an exercise class at the local health club is an example of
Personal training. Personal training is the sport product that involves doing something to better yourself in a sport. It might include participating in an exercise class, lifting weights, taking lessons to improve skills, or obtaining the help of professionals. Whether you’re a professional or an amateur, you have some type of training
What has the growth of the sports industry created?
Job opportunities. The attendance at all types of sporting events and the media coverage of those events have increased dramatically. As a result, the opportunity for employment also has grown. Today, millions of people have sports-related jobs, and new jobs are being created all the time. Physical goals are objectives for your health and well-being. Athletic skills are abilities to perform physical activities. A marketing trend is the direction in which a product’s market is moving.
Which of the following internal records might a business use to analyze information regarding customer satisfaction levels
Comment cards. Comment cards are short versions of surveys that are used to assess customer satisfaction levels with goods and services. For example, restaurants often place blank comment cards on dining tables for customers to complete. The completed comment cards are reviewed by management to evaluate staff performance and food quality levels and make decisions regarding business operations and product line. Debit receipts, credit reports, and expense reports are important information resources for businesses; however, they are not tools that measure customer satisfaction levels
The marketing of sporting goods and services involves a __________ focus.
Retail. The marketing of sport goods and services involves a retail focus because it is directed towards the consumers of sport. The purpose is to encourage fans and participants to buy certain sport goods and services. It is what influences your decision to buy a certain brand or shop at a certain store. This type of marketing is not personal or local because it is directed to all potential customers throughout the world. Wholesale involves the use of intermediaries to move goods between producers and retailers.
What type of marketing information might a business obtain by monitoring sales invoices?
What type of marketing information might a business obtain by monitoring sales invoices?
1.01 The Chamber of Commerce for a large city estimates the income for the city generated by the sales tax, parking fees, food-service tax, and amusement tax collected as a result of a rock concert. This is an example of __________ impact.
Fiscal. This refers to the government revenue generated by an event. Direct impact is based on expenditure figures multiplied by the number of visitors and nights spent in the area. Indirect impact refers to the direct expenditures per industry applied to the multiplier for that specific industry. Total impact is made up of direct and indirect impact
One characteristic of event marketing involves promoting and selling a(n) (1.02 State)
Unique experience. Event marketing involves promoting and selling a unique experience that takes place at a certain time and then no longer exists. Events are intangible products, such as concerts and meetings, which are consumed immediately and cannot be resold. Marketing such products is often complicated because the benefits of buying unique experiences may be difficult to explain to potential customers. Events are intangible products. They are perishable because they are produced and consumed at the same time. Event marketers usually focus on the emotional appeal, rather than the physical appeal, of the products because the products are intangible
You’re in charge of sales promotion for a famous author’s latest book-signing tour. Which of the following would be your responsibility:
Passing out flyers outside the bookstore. This would be your activity as a sales promoter. Writing news releases is a media relations activity. Selling tickets for the author’s lectures is a sales activity. Placing ads in the paper is an advertising activity.
When sellers offer one-size-fits-all products that will appeal to most buyers, they are using
Mass marketing. The goal of mass marketing is to appeal to many types of consumers through one marketing plan. Mass production is the production of a few items in large quantities. Market segmentation is the division of a total market into smaller, more specific groups. Demographic segmentation is the division of a market on the basis of its physical and social characteristics
When customers respond by making a purchase, marketers want to pinpoint the
cause
The customer characteristic that reflects where customers fit in the day-to-day buying routine is known as
Life stage. Though social/economic status, origin/heritage, and personal belief all affect customer purchases, it is life stage (where the customer is in his or her life) that determines how s/he fits into the day-to-day buying routine.
The community college has decided to market its evening classes to women between the ages of 18 and 30 who are high-school graduates. What type of segmentation is the college using?
Demographic. Demographic segmentation is the division of a market on the basis of its social and physical characteristics. These include such characteristics as income, age, gender, education level, life stage, and occupation. Geographic segmentation groups consumers according to where they are located. Lifestyles and personalities of consumers are used as the basis for psychographic segmentation. Dividing consumers into groups according to their response to a product is behavioral segmentation
To learn about its target market’s needs and wants, a professional soccer league should obtain information from its fans
In a proactive and systematic manner. Marketing information is the marketing-related data (internal and external) that the sport/event organization acquires and uses to make marketing decisions. These decisions involve attracting and maintaining the organization’s various target markets and fan bases. To make sound marketing decisions, the organization needs to collect objective and accurate data in a systematic (organized) way. A proactive organization—one that seeks and takes advantage of opportunities—will collect and analyze information on a continuous basis, so it can keep up with the target market’s ever-changing needs and wants. The sport/event organization may collect and use information for many reasons, some of which include solving problems, determining short-term effectiveness of promotional efforts, and weighing the market’s opinions before making certain changes
1.01 Professional sports teams benefit their surrounding community by
Attracting tourist dollars. Professional sports teams draw huge crowds of fans. Many of those fans come from out-of-town, stay at nearby hotels, and eat at local restaurants. In the unlikely event that a professional team chose to endorse a specific political candidate, it would be a benefit to the political candidate, not the surrounding community. Athletes only hurt themselves and their team by behaving poorly. And because the surrounding community is not responsible for the actions of athletes, hiring a handler is not a benefit to the community. Seat licenses are beneficial to season ticket holders because they provide a specific place to sit at home games, but they do not benefit the surrounding community as a whole
A person responsible for matching up corporations with events that reach their target market has a career in
Sponsorship management. A person responsible for matching up corporations with events that reach their target market has a career in sponsorship management. Promotions, hospitality, and advertising sales are all event marketing activities, but they do not deal directly with sponsorships.
Which of the following positions is not a sport marketing position
Chief Financial Officer. Advertising Director is a sport marketing position responsible for design, layout, and media selection of advertising materials. Ticket Manager is a sport marketing position responsible for the efforts of the ticket-office sales staff. Promotions Coordinator is a sport marketing position responsible for generating, planning, and implementing sales and advertising promotions. The position of Chief Financial Officer falls into a separate business division from marketing
Which of the following marketing activities involves responsibility for a sport organization’s licensing activities
Merchandising. The merchandising activity involves responsibility for a sport organization’s licensing activities. Public relations and community relations are activities that involve working with the media and the public. The sales department handles all advertising and ticket sales. All are marketing activities, and while sales somewhat relates to merchandising, the sales staff is not responsible for licensing
3.01 An important part of target marketing in the sports and entertainment industry involves appealing to potential customers who have
Disposable income. Disposable income is the amount of money people have to spend, or dispose of, after they have paid their taxes; also called discretionary income. Appealing to customers who have disposable income is an important part of target marketing in the sports and entertainment industry because the products associated with this industry are not necessary for life. They are the types of goods and services that people buy after they pay for the necessities. For example, people pay for housing and food before they consider whether they can afford to attend a professional baseball game, play a round of golf, or buy a new tennis racquet. If people do not have the money to spend on these products, they will not buy them. Therefore, target marketing should include appealing to potential customers who have disposable income as well as an interest and desire to buy sports and entertainment products. Many potential customers do not have athletic ability, although they have an interest in watching sports events. Most people have a certain amount of leisure time, either after work or on the weekends. Customers who have past experience are part of the target market if they also have disposable income to buy the goods and services
3.01 Which of the following is a factor that sports and entertainment marketers consider when targeting customers for a specific event:
Demographics. Demographics are the physical and social characteristics of the populations and includes information such as age, gender, income, education, etc. Demographics is an important factor to consider when targeting customers for a specific event because different types of events appeal to different people. Certain groups of people are more likely to attend one type of event than another. For example, an event that appeals to senior citizens might not appeal to teenagers, or an event that appeals to women might not appeal to men. For an event to be successful, the right demographic group needs to be targeted. Affiliations refer to the organizations or groups to which people belong. Personality is an individual’s qualities or traits and behavior. Expectations are hoped-for outcomes.
To know what web sites and advertisements visitors see, sports and event e-marketers would check
Clickstream data. Clickstream data provide information about what web sites are accessed, thereby telling e-marketers what advertisements viewers have seen. Clickstream data are stored in cookies on the viewers’ hard drives. Direct delivery programs involve writing viewers’ own Internet service provider systems, which require knowledge of multiple computer language systems. Text files are developed through the use of word-processing programs and are stored on computer networks, hard drives, and/or software. The use of Internet service providers (ISPs) enables visitors to access the World Wide Web directory or to use a search engine to find company information
How is primary research different now than it was in the past?
It is more affordable. One advantage of primary research is that it is more affordable to conduct now than it has been in years past, thanks to advances in technology such as the Internet. It is not more difficult or time-consuming. It may or may not be more enjoyable for marketers
Which of the following help create the excitement and enthusiasm that make the games what they are:
Spectators. These participants are the observers, or fans, of the sporting event. They are as important a part of the event as the athletes themselves. The fans who attend games help create the excitement and enthusiasm that make the games what they are. These fans also contribute to the overall experience of those who watch or listen to the games by way of television or radio. Trainers and coaches work with the athletes. They are not the ones who create excitement and enthusiasm. The team owners do not create excitement and enthusiasm
Businesses that place ads in college football programs are using the sport as a
Marketing tool. Many businesses market other goods or services through the use of sport. An example is placing ads in football programs. The businesses and their products are not related to football but are using football as a marketing tool. They are counting on you to remember them the next time you buy. Businesses do not use the sport to deliver their products. Advertising is paid, whereas publicity is any nonpersonal presentation of ideas, goods, or services that is not paid for by the company that benefits from it. The ad might contain pricing information, but that is not considered a technique.
What internal records do many businesses monitor in order to obtain useful marketing information?
Sales reports. Businesses maintain and monitor sales records that contain information related to the goods that a business stocks and sells. This type of data helps a business to analyze what types of products are selling quickly and should be reordered to meet the wants and needs of its target market. Businesses also use the information in sales reports to identify slow-moving goods and make decisions about lowering prices or conducting special sales. Trade journals and industry projections are external sources of marketing information. Businesses often use marketing information to develop print advertisements that will appeal to their customers
Mass marketing is not as precise as _____________ marketing
Segment. Mass marketing is not as precise as segment marketing. Event marketing and promotional marketing may involve segments or mass audiences. Direct marketing typically involves segments. But segment marketing is more precise than marketing to the masses.
Which of the following is an example of quantitative data:
“Sales of this particular model have fallen 13 percent in the past year.” This is an example of quantitative data—it is specific, measurable, and expressed numerically. The other alternatives are examples of qualitative data; they are based on emotions, feelings, experiences, thoughts, etc.
The businesses that make the sporting events available to those who cannot attend in person are
Corporate consumers. Corporate consumers are the businesses that have a financial interest in the sport. They include the businesses that make the events available to those who cannot attend in person by purchasing the right to broadcast the event. These businesses often spend millions of dollars for the right to air popular sports because they attract a large viewing audience. Radio announcers work for one of the media that broadcast sporting events. Team owners and stadium managers do not make the sporting events available to those who cannot attend in person.
A target market can be described as the
group of customers the business seeks to attract
Which of the following is an advantage of secondary research
It is quick. One of the advantages of secondary research is that it is quick to conduct. The data already exist—marketers just need to access them. However, secondary data can be out of date, and they are not specific to the needs of the particular research study. Also, conducting secondary research gives marketers less control over the study
Which of the following is an advantage of secondary research
Identify trends. Marketing information helps a sporting-goods business make decisions about its marketing efforts. A trend is a general direction in which people and events are moving. Sporting-goods businesses identify trends to determine what changes are occurring in the market. For example, if trends indicate that more people are participating in biking, then the sporting-goods business might decide to add bicycles and biking accessories to its product mix. Marketing information does not help a sporting-goods business obtain licensing contracts or adjust credit ratings. Marketing information might help a sporting-goods business determine ways that it can take action to neutralize its competitors or keep them from gaining market share. A sporting-goods business would not care if it had the respect of its competitors.
The Thompson Company decided it would be more successful if it divided the total market for its products into smaller, more specific groups of consumers. This business is engaged in
Market segmentation. Rather than trying to direct marketing activities toward the whole market, marketers plan their activities for specific, well-defined groups of consumers. They tailor their product, price, place, and promotion activities to the segments with which they wish to work. With mass marketing, sellers design products that will appeal to most buyers and direct marketing activities to the whole market. Industrial marketing is marketing to customers who purchase items for use in the operation of a business, for resale, or for making other goods. Market domination targets the entire market instead of a segment.
Which of the following is a true statement about qualitative research:
It is conducted during a short timeframe. Qualitative research is conducted during a short timeframe. It uses small samples of the population and is based on subjective data—thoughts, feeling, experiences, emotions, etc. Quantitative research uses experiments as a method; qualitative research relies more on questionnaires, focus groups, informal interview, etc
Sorting customers by their physical and social characteristics is called ________ segmentation
Demographic. Sorting customers by their physical and social characteristics is called demographic segmentation. Psychographic and behavioral segmentation are about sorting customers by their lifestyles and responses. Statistical segmentation is not a marketing term
Liza has always wanted a horse, and she has finally saved enough money to buy one. In marketing terms, Liza is a
Market. A market is a customer or potential customer who has an unfulfilled desire and is financially able and willing to satisfy that desire. Liza is a market because she not only wants a horse but also has the money to buy one. A resource is an item that is used to produce goods and services. A target group is a particular segment of the market. A market segment is one of the groups into which the total market is divided
According to the definition of event marketing in this module, which of the following is not an event:
A wedding. According to the definition of event marketing in this module, a wedding is not an event. A wedding is a private function that does not use marketing. Fund-raisers, committee meetings, and restaurant openings are all events that use marketing.
Which of the following is a disadvantage of secondary research
It is not customized to the research needs. One of the disadvantages of secondary research is that because it already exists, it is not customized to the specific research needs at hand. Secondary data are not difficult to find, nor is secondary research time-consuming or expensive to conduct
You’re in charge of hospitality for a play opening on Broadway. Which of the following would be your responsibility:
Reserving hotel rooms for special guests. This would be your responsibility in hospitality. Designing posters is an advertising activity. Allocating press passes is a ticket management or media relations activity. Identifying a target audience is a market research and development activity
A professional soccer league is considering an expansion team in a certain city. What is the best online secondary source to obtain current demographic information about the location?
Government census. The Internet can be a good information source for sport/event marketers. A league that considers locating an expansion team in a specific area wants to look at certain data, such as population, age ranges, and business and economic indicators to determine if the area residents and businesses would support a new team. Sources such as the government census or the local chamber of commerce are reliable sources for this type of information. Online youth magazines, national news outlets, and a sporting-goods association web site will not usually have the desired information
What often transfers from a sport team to the city it calls home?
Image. Image is the way in which a team or city is viewed by others. The image of a sport team often has an impact on a city’s image. If a team has a good reputation, that reputation usually transfers to the city. However, if a team is not doing well or has an image problem, that often carries over to the city. The goals or objectives of a team usually do not become the goals of the city. A team’s logo, or symbol, is the distinctive design or group of letters that establish its identity. Cities often have their own distinctive symbols and logos that are not related to the local sport team.
Which of the following is a reason that marketers conduct qualitative research
To create hypotheses for further testing. One of the reasons that marketers conduct primary qualitative research is to create hypotheses for further testing. Testing hypotheses, making accurate predictions, and analyzing relationships between market factors are all reasons that marketers conduct quantitative research.
3.01 What should a sports or entertainment event do in order to be successful?
Satisfy consumer wants. Wants are desires for something. Sports or entertainment events must satisfy the wants of consumers in order to be successful. If consumers are not interested in the event, are not willing to pay the price of admission, or do not like the location, they will not attend. Event marketers must make sure that they understand what consumers want in order to plan sports or entertainment events that will be successful. If events are successful, they usually earn profits and generate favorable press. Events do not need to promote popular causes in order to be successful because consumers usually attend events to be entertained
Secondary research is cost-effective for marketers because the data
Already exist. Secondary research is cost-effective for marketers because the data already exist. The organization does not need to pay the costs of undertaking original research. Secondary data are not necessarily cheap to purchase, nor are they specific to the research project at hand. Secondary data may be incomplete; however, this is not a reason that secondary research is cost-effective
Marketers divide their markets by grouping customers according to their
similarities
Which of the following is an example of external data:
An article written by an industry expert. An article written by an industry expert is an example of external data—it exists outside the organization’s “in-house” information system. A retail “loyalty” card, a sales report, and a profit-and-loss statement are all examples of internal data
One way that sport benefits society in general is by opening up additional opportunities for
Businesses in related industries. Sport has an important impact on society in general. The growth of the industry opens up additional opportunities for businesses in related industries. As more people participate in sports, there is a need for more equipment and clothing, training facilities, larger stadiums and arenas, concession stands, public transportation, and media coverage. This growth creates more jobs that generate more revenue that helps the industry to grow more, which causes the cycle to continue. Being entertained and feeling healthy are personal benefits. Opening up additional opportunities for communities in rural areas is alocal benefit.
Which of the following is a secondary source of sport/event information
Demographic reports. Secondary information is information that has been collected by others for purposes other than the project at hand. There are many types of secondary information available that are useful to the sport/event industry. One type includes demographic reports which indicate population data as well as the physical and social characteristics of the population. The sport/event industry uses this information to identify locations of target markets. Computerized surveys, accounting records, and personal interviews are sources of primary information often collected by the industry
3.01 The promoters of an extreme-sports weekend event would most likely target which of the following markets:
Young men, ages 12 to 34. Extreme sports are most popular among young men, ages 12 to 34. Those events would appeal to that age group and bring in revenue from a coveted market segment. Promoters of an extreme-sports weekend event would develop promotions to appeal to young men in that age group. Professional athletes, older men, and business executives are less likely to be interested in participating in extreme sports.
1.01 When a professional football expansion team is established in a community, the economic impact might result in:
Increased job creation and more consumer spending. When a sport/event organization comes to town, it needs employees to conduct the tasks that keep the business going. For example, the organization needs sales personnel to sell the venue to fans, and facility maintenance personnel to keep the building in proper working condition. Therefore, job creation usually increases. When more people are employed, they tend to spend more money. A new sport/event venue often impacts the sales of businesses (e.g., restaurants) located near the facility. Therefore, increases in consumer spending often occur. In addition, tourism often increases because more visitors are likely to come to the area as sport/event spectators. The economic impact of a new sport/event venue does not usually result in business closures, job layoffs, high inflation, or high interest rates. With an increase in business, it is possible that the area experiences higher financial opportunities rather than fewer. Tax rate changes are dependent on the community’s tax initiatives
Which of the following marketing activities involves selling the verbal messages broadcast over the public-address system at games
Advertising sales. The advertising sales activity involves selling the verbal messages broadcast over the public-address system at games. Group sales, ticket sales, and corporate sales are all sales activities within the marketing division, but they are responsible for the sales of tickets and luxury boxes rather than for the sale of advertisements
Assigning workers to their proper posts at a charity run/walk is the responsibility of a
Volunteer coordinator. Assigning workers to their proper posts at a charity run/walk is the responsibility of a volunteer coordinator. Vendor coordinators are responsible for organizing the set-up of food and beverage stands, souvenir tables, and games. Sales promotion coordinators are responsible for such activities as passing out literature or conducting product demonstrations. Public relations directors are responsible for getting the word out about the event to the media and the community. All are important positions in event marketing, but they do not deal directly with volunteer workers as a volunteer coordinator does.
3.01 A new extreme water sport wants to go after only males between the ages of 18-35 who are daring and sports-minded and live in Orlando, Florida. This is an example of a
Niche market. A niche market is a smaller group of the target market that a business can select to market goods and services. Demographics are characteristics such as age, gender, income, and education. They do not include being daring, sports-minded or living in Orlando. A marketing mix is a combination of product, place, price, and promotion decisions. Sponsors are usually businesses
1.01 The core benefits to customers who purchase sport products include entertainment, health, and
Achievement. The sport industry is unique because it appeals to a variety of people for many different reasons. The core benefits to customers who purchase sport products include entertainment, health, and achievement. For example, athletes perform in games to achieve wins and entertain fans. Some leisure athletes play certain sports for fun (entertainment), while others play sports to maintain or achieve good health. And some athletes play professional sports to earn an income. Fans watch sports for entertainment and to see their favorite players and teams achieve wins. Because different sports appeal to many people in a variety of ways, the sport/event industry develops a wide variety of products that satisfy the customers’ various needs and wants—whether it’s an experience, such as the Super Bowl, or manufacturing footballs for little league teams. The core benefits to customers of sport products do not include independence, promotion, or adaptability
When the total market is divided, one of its groups is called a market
Segment. When the total market is divided, one of its groups is called a market segment. Other words for segment might be share, slice, or subdivision. (Market share has a different meaning, altogether.)
Which of the following is a true statement about quantitative research
Its questions are highly structured. Quantitative research uses carefully-crafted and highly-structured questions. It is usually performed after qualitative research, to follow up and confirm the findings. Quantitative research is objective (based on facts) rather than subjective (based on feelings). It is gathered through methods such as surveys and field tests; informal interviews are a method used for qualitative research
Marketers look for internal data in
The organization’s information system. Marketers look for internal data in the organization’s information system. Internal data are secondary data that already exist within the company. Trade-association reports and government databases are examples of places marketers might look for external secondary data. Informal interviews are sources of primary data
To buy a product, customers in a market must first
be willing to buy the product.
Geographic segmentation is dividing a market by where customers are
living
One reason that marketers conduct secondary research is to
Learn more about a specific industry. One reason that marketers conduct secondary research is to learn more about a specific industry. Clarifying research questions, creating hypotheses, and making accurate predictions are reasons that marketers conduct primary, or original, research
In a news release information that does not need to be announced immediately because it will be of as much interest to the public later as it is now
soft news
Using data wisely can help a company save money by
Running more efficiently. In addition to making money, using data wisely can also save companies money and help them to run more efficiently. Looking at data can often help marketers to make more cost-effective decisions. Saving money on even one product can affect the entire company’s bottom line and contribute to its overall profitability. Using data wisely should help a company spend less, not more. Using data wisely will not necessarily result in the hiring of fewer employees or the elimination of the competition
(M) The management phase of a project usually begins when the group
Selects a manager. During the planning stages of a project, the group usually selects the project manager. That is when the management phase of the project typically begins. From that time on, the manager guides the group through the completion of the project. Before the planning stages of a project, the group often chooses a project and agrees to meet. The group usually identifies the goal of the project after selecting a manager
Why is it important to define your project precisely?
So you can achieve your objectives. Knowing exactly what it is you want to do (precise project definition) helps you achieve your objectives. It does not help you create something tangible, though your project may involve tangible items or a tangible outcome. It does not help you involve other people, though you may want or need to do that. And, unfortunately, it does not help you spend less money because—by detailing what you want to do—you might discover that your project will be more expensive than you realize.
What is not a typical item given to the media during a media day?
Free Tickets for Family
A sport/event company wants to promote bobble-head dolls to men in their thirties who love basketball. This groupis known as a __________ segment.
Market. Groups of people who share common characteristics are known as market segments. Men in their thirties who love basketball is a market segment defined by both demographic and psychographic characteristics. Customer segments, distribution segments, and demand segments may describe market segments, but they are not the correct terms.
When a business considers developing a newsletter which is not a “who” they typically consider?
Develop plan

• WHO will write it, WHO will read it, WHO will distribute it?
• WHAT are the publication’s goals?
• WHEN will it be published?
• WHERE will it be distributed?
• HOW will it be produced and printed

Which pricing strategy groups a sport/event product into different segments for customers?
Smoothing. Smoothing groups a sport/event product into different segments for customers. Most sport/event marketers can divide their products by either time or place. Time smoothing usually involves determining “prime times” and “nonprime times” for services. Place smoothing is the process of dividing a sport/event venue into “sections” and pricing them accordingly. Penetration pricing refers to setting prices lower than those of the competition. Price skimming refers to setting prices higher than those of the competition.Stretching is not a pricing strategy.
Data obtained from negative outcomes can help marketers to
Avoid making the same mistakes in the future. Even negative outcomes can be helpful for marketers. By using what they’ve learned, they can avoid making the same mistakes in the future. The data from negative outcomes won’t necessarily help marketers to increase profits, create SMART goals, or analyze sales reports effectively
Which of the following types of media should an event planner use to promote an upcoming local charity event to the general public (Note: I bolded the word general to help with choice)
Local television. The most effective way to reach the public to promote a local event (e.g., charity fundraiser) is by running local television commercials. Oftentimes, the television station will help sponsor the event by providing low cost or free airtime to run the commercials. The advantage to running local television commercials is that they reach a lot of people for a low cost per exposure. Direct mail is sent to consumers’ homes and businesses and is often very expensive. It is possible that many members of the local target market do not read national newspapers or consumer magazines.
Which of the following is an advantage to a sport organization that develops an interactive relationship with the broadcast and print media:
Builds mutually favorable relationships. An interactive relationship requires open, two-way communication. To build an ongoing relationship, both parties (the sport organization and the media) must get something out it—it must be favorable for both sides. For example, the sport organization might pitch story ideas, provide press kits, and distribute press releases to media outlets. The media, on the other hand, might develop stories and print press releases. This benefits both parties because the media has something to report, and the sport organization is obtaining publicity. Having an interactive relationship with the media does not mean that the sport organization should not develop a public-relations plan nor does it ensure that all information exchanges are kept confidential. Additionally, interactive relationships with the media do not necessarily reduce crisis risks for the sport organization.
A hockey team raises prices for soft drinks at its arena by 25 cents per cup. They sell half as many soft drinks as they did before the price change. The small price change had a big impact on sales. This is an example of __________ demand.
Elastic. An elastic demand means that small price changes have a big impact on product sales. The demand for soft drinks at hockey games is elastic because when the prices rose slightly, sales dropped sharply. An inelastic demand means that price changes have little to no impact on product sales. A unitary demand means that changes in price create proportionate changes in product sales. Smoothing is the process of dividing a product into different segments for customers.
To develop long-term relationships with fans, professional sport teams should
Build emotional connections with them. Spectators who attend professional sporting events are driven by the emotions associated with all of the experiences that surround the event. Fans’ experiences are influenced by tradition, attitude, and team performance—all of which spark emotional responses, and have the capacity to create ongoing, loyal relationships with the fans. When a sport team has a loyal fan base, ticket and licensed merchandise sales tend to increase, as does the team’s profits. Inflexible sales policies are barriers to long-term relationships. High licensing fees do not build long-term relationships with fans. Branding elements such as the team logo and mascot build emotional connections with fans; however, redesigning these branding elements does not guarantee fan loyalty because many other factors (e.g., team’s record) affect the relationship
(M) Which of the following skills does a project manager need to be able to guide or direct the
actions of others in a desired manner
Answer
Leadership. For a project manager, one of the most important skills is the ability to guide or direct the actions of others in a desired manner. One of the project manager’s main roles is to lead the group to achieve the project’s goal. Managers who have good leadership skills are able to motivate group members and persuade members to follow their directions. Project managers also need to have decision-making skills and communication skills. However, leadership skills enable managers to guide or direct the actions of others. The group usually sets the goals of the project, although the manager guides the discussion.
What is the most ineffective way to address a piece of direct mail?
To the company. According to research, between 60-80% of people read a letter addressed to them by name. However, fewer than 40% read one addressed to them by title, and just over 20% read it when it is addressed to the company alone. Consequently, it is ineffective to address direct mail to a company
When sport/event marketers use ongoing, two-way communication to build trust and goodwill with the media, they are creating a(n) __________ relationship
Interactive. An interactive relationship occurs when both parties exchange information with one another in a truthful, direct manner. When both parties engage in interactive communication over time, the trust and goodwill grow. Exclusive relationships involve limited communication with outside parties. Sport/Event marketers who exhibit preferential treatment to specific members of the media can destroy trust and reduce the feelings of goodwill with other members of the media. Comprehensive is a general term that is defined as complete or absolute. Reactive means to respond to a question or allegation
What do professional sports teams design for use during games that often become promotional tools because fans take them home?
Programs. The program contains information about the players, coaches, statistics, rules, etc. Fans use the program during the game and often take it home, particularly if it contains special features or is the program for a special event such as the Super Bowl. When fans take home programs, they become promotional tools because they remind fans of the team and encourage them to attend more games. Therefore, teams usually include information in programs that tell fans how to order tickets or become season ticket-holders. The ticket is the printed piece that fans need to gain entry to the game but is not used during the game. Posters are another type of promotional tool; however, they are not used during games. Samples are not commonly associated with professional sports teams
Pricing sport/event products is unique because of the
Extremely high demand. Pricing sport/event products is unique because of the extremely high demand. The widespread popularity of sports (particularly professional sports) and entertainment has created this high demand for sport/event products. It has pushed ticket prices for sports and events sky-high in recent years.Wide variety and tangible and intangible benefits are not unique to sport/event pricing. They are elements that can be found in any type of pricing.
A press release is used for all of the following except:
Advertising a last minute sale
(F) Which of the following is not a factor that affects project planning
Readable sign. Whether or not you have a readable sign for your project does not affect your project planning. Past success, the information available to you, and personal experience, however, do affect project planning
When writing direct-mail advertising letters, the account executive responsible for promoting a team in the National Hockey League should
Develop copy that is in more detail than that in print advertisements. Since direct-mail advertisements are sent to specific market segments, more information can be provided because the audience will be interested in reading the mailing. Direct-mail advertisements are being personalized so that readers feel that the letters are written specifically for them. In addition, advertisers who use direct mail are able to obtain immediate, measurable results
Which of the following is an example of a business using a celebrity’s appearance to attract customers to an event
A rock star signs copies of his/her latest CD at a store’s grand opening. A celebrity is a well-known person. Celebrities include athletes, politicians, business leaders, community leaders, musicians, actors, etc. Businesses often include celebrity appearances as a way to attract a target market to a particular event. An example of a business capitalizing on a celebrity’s appearance at an event would be a rock star agreeing to sign copies of her/his latest CD at a store’s grand opening. The business (store) benefits because the celebrity (rock star) is appearing at an event (grand opening). An athlete announcing his/her retirement does not benefit a particular business in any way. An athletic-shoe company is a business; however, the press release’s content does not indicate that an event is taking place. An actor starring in a film is doing her/his job
What is the advantage to a business of placing signage on the outfield stadium wall during a televised professional baseball game?
Increases brand awareness. Placing signage in an area that will receive a lot of exposure is more likely to make an impact on viewers. Because television cameras show the baseball outfield each time a baseball player hits a ball in that direction, stadium spectators and television fans are more likely to see the signage on the outfield wall many times. The repeated message helps increase brand awareness in the minds of the fans. The signage does not necessarily lower promotional expenses or ensure higher sales. Publicity is a message not paid for by the organization that benefits from or is harmed by it. Businesses often pay a lot of money to place signs in prominent areas of the stadium, so the signs are not generating free publicity
(F) In relation to unexpected events, which of the following is a true statement about project planning
Plans should change if necessary. Because events sometimes surprise us, we should change our plans when necessary. Plans aren’t set in stone. They should not always stay the same. Projects are monitored, not plans. And, planning early is much more helpful than planning right before the project starts
Marketers must use data to estimate costs for projects and allocate funds appropriately. This is known as
Budgeting. Estimating costs for projects and allocating funds appropriately is called budgeting, and it is an important use of data for marketers. Distributing means getting the product to customers. Promoting means sending customers a message about the product. Pricing means determining how much to charge for the product
One of the advantages of direct-mail advertising is that the advertiser can
Aim the message to specific customers. For example, a local retailer can send special invitations to its important customers and exclude everyone else. The direct-mail advertiser does not compete with other advertisers. Direct mail must comply with the postal regulations. Direct mail usually targets a specific market rather than focusing on a mass market.
Which of the following is an example of a prediction
Sales will be up four percent next quarter. This is an example of a sales forecast, or a prediction. A prediction is a statement made about the future. About half the business’s customers are female—this is an estimate, or an approximation of data. The business’s owing $200,000 in taxes and a report on sales from last quarter are facts, or true and verifiable statements
Quinn is getting ready to start college. Though she knows that the figure could change over time, she guesses that her four years in school will cost her around $65,000. This is an example of a(n)
Estimate. Quinn’s educated guess at the total cost of her education is an estimate, or an approximation of data. It isn’t a fact because it can’t be verified. It isn’t a quote because she is figuring it on her own, not getting a “bid” from someone else. It has nothing to do with sales or sales reports
What do businesses need to remember after they send a news release to the media?
The editor decides whether to publish or broadcast the release. Space and time are limited, so the editor determines what will be interesting to the medium’s audience. The business should not continuously contact media outlets until they agree to publish or broadcast the release. Receiving such calls may be annoying and hinder the business’s ability to obtain press coverage in the future. Publishing or broadcasting only the releases from businesses that purchase advertising from the media outlet is unfair and unethical
(F) When you look at whether or not your project is “do-able,” what should you examine?
How long you have to complete the project. When you look at whether or not your project is “do-able,” you should examine if your time frame is appropriate, if your expected costs are reasonable, and if the quality mark you’ve set is reachable. The feasibility of the project is not related to the amount of money the stakeholders invest because you may not need any investors for your project. It is not related to the project’s definition (what it is exactly), and it is not related to what could happen on another project—similar or not.
(M) When project managers ask members of the group to give short status reports, the managers are
Monitoring progress. An important part of project management involves monitoring the progress of the project. Managers monitor the progress to make sure all the members are doing their job. One way they do this is by asking members of the group to give short status reports that explain the progress they are making in completing their assignments. Managers also answer questions and organize activities as part of project management, but these tasks do not involve asking members to give short status reports. Asking for status reports is an example of obtaining information rather than providing information
When creating tickets for a sport/event, organizations often embed special watermarks into the ticket design to
Discourage counterfeiting activities. Popular events, such as the Super Bowl, often create a high demand for tickets. Since the stadium can only hold a certain amount of people, the demand is often much higher than supply. Some people take advantage of the situation by printing and selling counterfeit tickets. To reduce the risk of counterfeiting, some organizations include special markings on the tickets that are difficult for counterfeiters to reproduce. Adding watermarks or special printing processes tend to increase printing costs, rather than reduce them. The use of watermarks is not intended to boost attendance rates or communicate purchase terms
Having appropriate data helps marketers to set goals that are
Realistic. Having appropriate data helps marketers to set realistic goals. Looking at the available data helps marketers to create SMART goals—specific (rather than general), measurable, achievable, realistic, and time-bounded (rather than open-ended). Having appropriate data does not necessarily mean that marketers will set difficult goals
(M) So all the members know what their jobs are and what activities they are to perform, the
project manager communicates the plan’s
Assigned responsibilities. An important step before project management begins is assigning specific responsibilities to members of the group. All members should know what their jobs are and what activities they are to perform. If they are not sure of what they are to do, they will not be able to do their jobs effectively. Goals are established before deciding the jobs and activities that need to be performed. One of the jobs that might be assigned is locating resources. Managers often review suggestions throughout the project; however, reviewing suggestions does not make it clear to members what their jobs are and what activities they are to perform
One reason it is important for professional sport/event organizations to develop advance ticket sales plans is because the generated revenue helps organizations to
Cover pre-event expenses. By selling tickets for sport/events in advance (e.g., season ticket holders, groups), sport/event organizations obtain revenues before the sport/event occurs. These revenues can be used to cover pre-event or preseason expenses such as purchasing supplies, printing costs, and personnel salaries. Not all sport/event organizations sell general admission tickets. Advance ticket sales do not necessarily reduce ticket scalping activities or decrease operational costs to run the organization
Which of the following is not a common type of data used by marketers
Quote The three main types of data are facts (true statements), estimates (approximations), and predictions (forecasts). Although someone’s quote may be a type of data, it is not a common type of data used by marketers
(M) An important benefit of project management is that it allows the manager to
Identify and correct problems. An important benefit of project management is that it allows the manager to identify problems and make corrections. By monitoring the project, it is usually possible to detect problems early and save the project from failure. When the manager notices that the project is not going as planned or is encountering difficulties, there is time to take action to correct the problem. Benefits of project management do not include allowing the manager to make all of the decisions, have power and authority, or work with interesting people
Which of the following is a consideration when implementing a ticket sales campaign:
Immediate accessibility. When implementing a ticket sales campaign, it is important to consider how customers will access the tickets. Today, many customers expect the convenience of being able to order and pay for tickets as soon as they find out about an upcoming event. Instead of going to a ticket office, they want to buy tickets over the telephone or on the Internet. Making this option available is one way to increase sales because the tickets are instantly accessible from the comfort of a person’s home. It is not necessary to consider the seating arrangement, name recognition, or organized hospitality when implementing a ticket sales campaign
A piece of easily observable data about a competitor is its
Current promotional campaign. A competitor’s current promotional campaign is shown to the public and is, therefore, easy to observe. However, the products a competitor has in development, along with its sales reports and future plans may not be public information. This makes them difficult for marketers from competing businesses to learn about
Which of the following is a company-focused pricing objective for sport/event products:
Enhancing image. Pricing products in a way that will enhance their image is a company-focused pricing objective because it is concerned only with what the company is trying to achieve for itself. Other companyfocused pricing objectives include covering costs and creating profits. Achieving prices that customers consider “fair” and offering the most discounts are customer-focused pricing objectives. Offering the lowest prices is a competition-focused pricing objective.
Customers are more likely to buy sport/event products at lower prices rather than higher ones. This is a general rule of
Market demand. Market demand is the amount of a product that customers are willing to purchase at a certain price. As a general rule, customers are more likely to buy products at lower prices rather than at higher ones. Market segmentation is the process of dividing the market into groups of people who share common characteristics. Promotion is a marketing function used to communicate information about products. Competition is the rivalry between businesses to attract customer dollars.
Which pricing strategy sets prices higher than those of the competition?
Skimming. Price skimming refers to setting prices higher than those of the competition. Sport/Event marketers use it to keep competitors from entering the market or to promote a prestigious image of their product. Penetration pricing refers to setting prices lower than those of the competition. Smoothing groups a sport/event product into different segments for customers. Stretching is not a pricing strategy
Which of the following is a true statement about the wise use of available data
It creates more satisfied customers. Using data wisely helps marketers to create more competitive and successful products for their companies. To do so, they pay close attention to data that show how to best meet customer needs and wants. This creates satisfied customers who will make purchases from the business again and again. Although it might help, using data wisely will not necessarily increase market share (it would depend on the industry), double a business’s profits, or increase employee satisfaction
To write effective body copy you should do all except
Only facts should be included in a press release. Opinions – important or not should not be part of the information,
Technology affects sport/event product prices by
Both raising and lowering them. In some cases, technology raises the price of a sport/event product because the product is more technologically advanced than similar products. In other cases, technology lowers the price of a sport/event product by allowing customers to order it online and skip members of the distribution channel. Technology has an effect on prices but does not make them unstable.
One reason sport/event organizers often plan a day to give the media an opportunity to visit the site in advance is to encourage the media to
Publicize the preparations. The more publicity sport/event organizers can obtain, the better the chances for increasing ticket sales as well as attendance. That is one reason why they often plan a day to give the media an opportunity to visit the site in advance. While touring the site, the media might video or photograph the preparations and show the video on television news or print the photos in the newspaper. The media might write stories about the upcoming sport/event. Furthermore, during media day, organizers usually provide additional information and may make arrangements for the media to interview athletes or performers. The goal is to encourage the media to publicize the preparations, which also generates publicity for the sport/event. Media day is not the time when the media pick up their credentials or set up broadcast equipment. The sport/event organizers, rather than the media, hold press conferences
When writing a professional news release which would not indicate you have come to the end
-DONE-
(F) Which of the following is a true statement about project planning:
With a project plan, you can mentally walk through your project from start to finish. A true statement about project planning is that you can mentally walk through your project from start to finish—in a make-believe way. In your mind, you see each part of the project. Sometimes, it is helpful to develop a custom-made plan for your project, especially if it is a one-time event. Project planning does not help you evaluate what you have accomplished because, during the planning stage, you haven’t accomplished it yet. And, when others need to be involved in a project (stakeholders, participants, experts, etc.), you should involve them
What information should a business obtain to get its news releases used?
Media deadlines. All media have deadlines for the material they use. It is important to find out what these deadlines are to get news releases to each medium on time. Sending news releases reasonably close to the deadline often helps to get the news releases used. Sending them too far in advance of the deadlines may cause the releases to be lost or misplaced. It is not important to obtain the publisher’s name, advertising rates, or network affiliation in order to get news releases used
Which of the following is a way that marketers can use data to “follow up” on any problems or issues with a product
Providing salespeople with additional training. Data may show that salespeople need additional training for a certain product. This is something marketers want to provide so sales and profits can be as high as possible. Determining what new products to offer, deciding which wholesalers to use for distribution, and budgeting for product development are all activities that should take place before a product hits the market
Which of the following is an intangible benefit of purchasing a sport watch:
Your friends will be impressed by it. Impressing friends is an intangible benefit of purchasing the sport watch because it cannot be measured by the five senses. One can look at the sport watch and see its color and its capability to time a daily run. One can also wear the sport watch and feel how comfortable it is. These are all tangible benefits of purchasing the watch
Which of the following is a tangible benefit of purchasing a surfboard:
It has a wrist strap to keep it connected to you in the water. The wrist strap is a tangible benefit of purchasing the surfboard because it can be measured by the five senses. Owning a popular board, spending time with friends at the beach, and joining a surfing club are all intangible benefits because they are measured by the way one feels
To develop positive relationships with the media, an advertising agency’s public-relations director must be
Honest and professional. Positive relationships are built on trust. Trust is cultivated by being honest. Therefore, to develop positive relationships with the media, public-relations professionals should present themselves in a professional and honest manner. Being professional includes being diplomatic, approachable, organized, and sensitive to others’ motives; however, it does not mean that the public-relations director should be impressionable or distant, show aggression, or exhibit hostile suspicion
Why might a sport/event organization price entry fees for a marathon below the normal rate?
To encourage maximum participation. A sport/event organization might price entry fees for a marathon below the normal rate to encourage maximum participation in the race. Lower fees would not meet competitors’ prices since the fees would be less expensive than for other marathons. Also, lower fees would not establish the event as “luxury” or create profits. Only higher fees would do that
Which of the following is a requirement for good decision making
Data. Good decision making requires data. One cannot make a wise choice without having input that gives some insight into the potential outcomes. Good decision making does not necessarily require a college degree or money. Sometimes, there are only two options from which to choose—but it is still possible to make a good decision
Which of the following is an effect of distribution on the price of a sport/event product:
Prices are higher at retail stores. Prices are higher at retail stores because retailers mark up prices before selling sport/event products to customers. Prices are lower in nontraditional channels of distribution that skip retailers because customers do not have to pay the final retail markup. Prices are also higher for convenience and for better facilities because customers value those benefits
Ticket prices for the World Series increase dramatically, but all the games still sell out. The price change had little to no impact on sales. This is an example of __________ demand.
Inelastic. An inelastic demand means that price changes have little to no impact on product sales. The demand for World Series tickets is inelastic because it doesn’t change according to price. An elastic demand means that small price changes have a big impact on product sales. A unitary demand means that changes in price create proportionate changes in product sales. Smoothing is the process of dividing a product into different segments for customers
Which of the following is a disadvantage of using direct-mail letters as a form of promotion:
Many people think of the letters as “junk mail” to be discarded without opening. Direct mail includes promotional pieces such as coupons, catalogs, newsletters, reply cards, etc. Because many people receive large amounts of direct mail on a regular basis, they often do not read it carefully or they immediately discard it. The advantages of using direct mail is that the advertiser can be selective about who receives it and can choose from a wide variety of letter formats. People do not expect direct-mail letters to arrive at specific times
(F) Why is it important to think ahead about how you will monitor your project?
To make sure the project’s quality doesn’t suffer. It’s important to think ahead about how you will monitor your project so that you will know how you will keep the quality level, the schedule, and the budget intact. You will not be practicing any monitoring during the planning stage. Monitoring occurs during project management. And, project management is also the time when you carry out the project. Picking the right helpers is beneficial, but it is not why you need to think ahead about monitoring your project
When a sport organization employee creates a promotional script for a sport announcer to read during a pregame award ceremony, the employee should
Identify name pronunciations that might be difficult to read. So the announcer can read the script in a professional, smooth manner, s/he should be given the script in advance to review. The script writer and the announcer should review words or names that have unusual or difficult pronunciations, to make sure the announcer says the word or name correctly during the ceremony. To make it easy for the announcer to read the script, the text should be double-spaced, and key points should be bold. It is not always appropriate to include a joke when writing the script for an award ceremony. Copy pages are usually numbered in chronological order rather than reverse chronological order.
Which of the following is a product strategy that marketers devise using available data
What level of customer service to provide. There are many decisions that marketers must make about products, including choosing what products to offer, what new products to develop, and what level of customer service to provide with each product. Where to sell the product is a “place” decision. What advertisements to run is a promotional decision. How much to charge is a pricing decision.
When prices go up or down, the change can affect how much of the sport/event product customers purchase. This is the general principle of
Elasticity. Price elasticity is a measure of how sensitive customers are to changes in price. It gauges the relationship between market demand and price. Market segmentation is the process of dividing the market into groups of people who share common characteristics. “Total cost” is a concept that customers’ perception of overall value is linked to all the expenses involved in attending an event, including expenses that are not under marketers’ control. Smoothing is the process of dividing a product into different segments for customers.
Which member of the distribution channel has the biggest impact on the price of a sport/event product?
Retailer. Retailers have the biggest impact on the final price of a sport/event product because they control the final markup. All prices are set to cover costs for each member of the distribution channel, including manufacturers and wholesalers, but retailers have a bigger impact since they have the final say on price. Customers have an effect on pricing as well, but not as much as retailers do.
Which of the following is a “place” strategy that marketers devise using available data
How much of the product to create. Determining how much of the product to create is a “place” or distribution strategy that marketers use available data to determine. Determining what level of customer service to provide is a product decision. Determining when to change the product’s price is a pricing decision. Determining what market segment to target is a promotional decision
A press release is also commonly known as
news releases
When developing a direct mail offer for sport/event products, it is important that the mailing piece be
Designed to attract attention. Direct mail offers are extremely common today. Consequently, many people consider them to be junk mail, and either throw them away or never open them. To avoid this problem, it is important that the mailing piece be designed to attract attention and stand out from all the other offers. The mailing pieces should be unique and interesting enough that recipients are encouraged to open and read them. Using a team’s logo on the envelope is one way to attract attention. It is not important to print the mailing piece on expensive paper. Direct mail offers should be personalized and addressed to specific individuals. It is usually more effective to target a specific market rather than send the piece to everyone in the area.
Which of the following is an example of a trade journal
Autoparts Report. This is a trade journal because it publishes information specific to a certain industry—in this case, the auto parts industry. Newsweek and USA Today are general-interest news publications. People is a general-interest entertainment publication
Sport/event organizations develop and generate newsletters to
Communicate with the public. Sport/event organizations need to communicate with the public to promote themselves and attract customers. Developing and generating newsletters is an effective way to communicate because newsletters contain valuable information about the organizations and their activities. For example, sending newsletters to current ticket holders to explain next year’s schedule will encourage those consumers to buy more tickets and attend the events.
Which of the following is an example of data that marketers could gather from the company’s sales team
How actual sales compare to sales goals. The data in sales reports from a company’s sales team can allow marketers to view how actual sales compare to sales goals. The latest market-research studies would not come from the sales team, but from trade journals or market-research firms. The prices of raw materials are data that come from a company’s vendors. Data regarding competitors’ products come from observing what competitors are doing
Ms. Johnson did not proofread a news release before it was mailed to the media, and several errors were found later. In order to minimize the damage that may result, Ms. Johnson should
Call the media to give the correct information. This action helps to protect the reputation of your business and your relationship with the media. Not saying a word to the media, assigning another employee to correct the problem, or waiting for a media staff person to contact the business is not good business practice. These actions would make the media less likely to present future releases
(F) Who is usually responsible for planning a project?
Project manager. The person responsible for planning a project is usually the same person who is responsible for carrying it out: the project manager. Under the project manager, project assistants, coordinators, and schedulers may work on parts of the planning or information related to the planning. But they are not responsible for planning the entire project
Which of the following are the most important considerations when designing a basketball team’s logo:
Team colors and team name. A well-designed logo should be bold, distinctive, and create instant recognition among fan bases. The logo should support the focus of the organization, such as the type of sport and other elements that create team recognition. When designing the logo, a graphic designer should consider the team name, team colors, and the team mascot. For example, a graphic designer would not incorporate the image of a blue and red hawk for a basketball team that adopts black and gold as the team colors and is named the Smithville Cougars. The team size and the team location are usually not the primary considerations when designing a basketball team’s logo
When writing news releases, businesses should avoid including their
Opinions. When writing news releases, businesses should stick to the facts and avoid including their opinions or expressing their feelings. Because news releases are supposed to be objective, they should not include the opinions of a business. However, a news release may include someone else’s opinion if it adds credibility to the story. Businesses often write news releases that include statistics and information about their goals and locations, because these data are factual
Which of the following is an example of a fact
Valentine’s Day is on February 14. This is a fact—looking at a calendar confirms it. The economy improving during the next decade and junior year being more difficult than sophomore year are both predictions or forecasts about the future. A product’s costing up to 20 million dollars to launch is an estimate, or an approximation of data
(F) What do project-planning tools show you about the project?
Who is doing what. Project-planning tools show you what has to be done and when, who is responsible for doing it, and how the work will be monitored. Project-planning tools do not show how pleased the stakeholders are, why you want to complete the project, or when you will do a similar project
Information in a news release that should be announced right away because the public will want to know about it immediately
hard news
What does it mean to “hang the release on a peg”?
Hang the release on a peg.
o A peg is an angle or focus around which the release is centered.
o When you hang your release on a good peg, the media are more likely to use it because they can see why or how the release will appeal to their audience.
What do businesses often include with a news release to attract an editor’s attention:
Captioned photograph. A captioned photograph is a picture that is accompanied by written text called a caption. Including a photograph with a print news release can help to get information presented. The print media will sometimes use a news release simply because they like the photograph, or they think it will add interest to a particular page. Businesses should send a thank-you note to the editor after the release is used. Businesses do not include promotional souvenirs or reference lists with a news release
Which of the following is a psychographic characteristic:
Opinions. Customer opinions is a psychographic characteristic. Psychographics are variables such as customers’ needs, motives, lifestyle choices, perceptions, attitudes, opinions, and interests. Occupation, age, and gender are all demographic characteristics
A customer’s opinion of the value of a sport/event product is based on
Perceived benefits. A customer’s opinion of the value of a sport/event product is based on perceived benefits.Value is subjective. The same product can have varying values to different people. The reason that value is unique to each customer is that the benefits of purchasing the product are based on that individual’s perception. Advertising, education, and price may contribute to a customer’s perception of benefits, but none is the basis for deciding value
Which type of newsletter is a public relations/low key advertising device sent to customers
Consumer newsletter
Rent, equipment, salaries, and maintenance are expenses known as __________ costs
Fixed. Expenses that stay the same no matter how much of a sport/event product is being produced are called fixed costs. These costs include expenses such as rent, equipment, salaries, and maintenance. Variable costs are expenses that change along with the amount of production. Total costs are the sum of fixed and variable costs. Stable costs accurately describes fixed costs, but it is not the correct term
Materials, packaging, and advertising are expenses known as __________ costs.
Variable. Expenses that change along with the amount of production are called variable costs. These costs include expenses such as materials, packaging, and advertising. Fixed costs are expenses that stay the same no matter how much of a sport/event product is being produced. Total costs are the sum of fixed and variable costs. Unstable costs accurately describes variable costs, but it is not the correct term.
Which of the following pieces of data give a wealth of information about a customer
A sales invoice. A single sales invoice (itemized statement of money owed for a good or service) can tell marketers who a customer is, what industry the customer is in, how much the customer has spent with the business this year, what method of payment the customer prefers, and much more. A trade journal gives general information about the industry. Expense reports and sales reports give data about the sales team—how much it is spending and how much it is selling
One advantage of writing direct-mail letters that include coupons or reply cards is that the result of the advertising effort is
Measurable. Many types of direct-mail advertising efforts include coupons, reply cards, or other ways for consumers to respond. The advantage of this is that the results of the effort are measurable and advertisers find out exactly how effective the effort was. For example, if a direct-mail letter that includes a coupon is sent to 100,000 consumers and 70,000 consumers redeem the coupon, the advertiser knows that 70% responded. This level of response indicates that the effort was effective in reaching the target audience. Direct-mail campaigns are often expensive because of the costs of printing and mailing. Direct-mail advertising is now considered a traditional method that is competitive. However, including coupons or reply cards does not make the direct-mail advertising traditional or competitive.
Which of the following is not a reason that pricing is the most critical element of the marketing mix:
It is the least visible element of the mix. Pricing is the most critical element of the marketing mix for marketers because it is the most visible element of the marketing mix for customers. Price communicates to customers even more than advertising does. And unlike advertising campaigns, which can take weeks or months to alter, price can be changed instantly. To customers, price is always a top concern
The best source for data about the goods and services a company needs to buy for its own operation is its
Vendors. The best source for data about the goods and services a company needs to buy for its own operation is its vendors. Vendors are the businesses from which companies buy these products. The sales team, customers, and competitors would not be good sources of data about these products
(M) Why do managers continually evaluate the progress of a project?
To stay on target. Managers should evaluate the progress throughout the life of the project. This means reviewing the project goals to make sure the project is on target. If the project starts to get off track, the manager needs to react and get the project refocused so all the members are working for the same goal. Coordinating the project often involves developing charts that list each project activity, who is responsible for the activity, and when the activity should be completed. The first step in project management involves organizing the group. Sending a message is a communication function
Charging different prices to different people is not illegal if the product is a
Service. Charging different prices to different people is not illegal if the product is a service. For example, at college football games, tickets are priced lower for students and faculty members. Swimming lessons may be less expensive for three-year-olds than for twelve-year-olds. However, this pricing strategy is considered price discrimination if used for pricing goods, including sport/event goods and sale items.
A press release is written by:
Public Relation Specialists
Pricing objectives are important because they determine
Pricing strategies. Pricing objectives are important because they determine pricing strategies. When pricing their products, sport/event marketers must keep in mind exactly what they are trying to achieve. Before determining price, they must ask themselves, “What result can the organization expect to achieve because of this price?” Pricing objectives may have an effect on perceived benefits, “total cost,” and market demand, but they are not a determining factor.
(M) What should managers do to prevent the project from falling behind schedule?
Track deadlines. Tracking deadlines is important during the planning stages and while the project is being completed. Managers should keep track of due dates and not let the project fall behind schedule. If the deadlines are not met, the project cannot proceed as planned. Managers also review goals, but that will not prevent the project from falling behind schedule. Managers usually assign the task of locating resources to a group member. Once tasks are assigned, managers monitor the progress and track deadlines
Developing positive relationships with people who work for local television stations and newspaper publishers is a way for an advertising agency to generate __________ for its clients.
Publicity. Publicity is any non-personal presentation of ideas, goods, or services that is not paid for by the company or individual that benefits from or is harmed by it. When an advertising agency has good relationships with the media, media outlets are more likely to print or broadcast a story pitch or news release about the agency’s client. Publicity may help generate sales, which generates a monetary reward, but it is the publicity that initially generates sales. Sales promotions are activities other than advertising, personal selling, and publicity that stimulate customer purchases. Positive relationships with the media do not usually generate new markets for the advertising agency’s client.
Following a rash of newspaper criticism for being overpaid, a multimillion-dollar athlete signed up to be a volunteer spokesperson for Special Olympics. What was the athlete attempting to accomplish by promoting this move to the press?
Overcome negative publicity. Many people are critical of the millions of dollars that today’s athletes are paid to perform. To overcome the perception of being greedy, athletes sometimes donate their time and their talents to charitable causes such as Special Olympics, Race for the Cure, and The March of Dimes. To attract a new sponsor, it would be necessary to find an alternative business, individual, or organization that is willing to pay the cost of promoting the athlete. Since the athlete is working as a spokesperson on a volunteer basis, s/he will not add more income to the millions of dollars received for athletic performance. Certain aspects related to charity such as cash donations can be deducted from an individual’s tax liabilities. However, the athlete’s motives for becoming a spokesperson were in reaction to criticism for his/her multimillion-dollar income
Which pricing strategy sets prices lower than those of the competition?
Penetration. Penetration pricing refers to setting prices lower than those of the competition. Sport/Event marketers mainly use it to introduce a new product or to gain a greater share of the market. Price skimming refers to setting prices higher than those of the competition. Smoothing groups a sport/event product into different segments for customers. Stretching is not a pricing strategy
Which of the following is a demographic characteristic:
Ethnicity. Ethnicity is a demographic characteristic. Demographics are variables such as age, ethnicity, gender, religion, family size, education, income, or occupation. Area of residence is a geographic characteristic. Motives and interests are psychographic characteristics.
(M) When project managers prepare to-do lists and schedule activities, they are using __________ skills.
Time-management. Time management is the process of controlling events in order to accomplish priorities. Time-management skills are techniques that can be applied to aid in the wise use of time. These techniques include preparing to-do lists and scheduling activities. By developing time-management skills, project managers will be able to plan and control activities to do the required work in the amount of time that is available. Creative thinking is a process that generates new ideas, approaches, and solutions. Managers use information to prepare to-do lists and schedule activities, but the process is not considered to be information-based. Problem-solving skills involve the ability to find solutions to obstacles or problems
To obtain the most exposure during a sporting event, the best logo placement opportunity for businesses is on:
Race cars. Taking advantage of logo placement opportunity means that a business strives to expose its logo in the best place in order to maximize repeat or long-term logo exposure. By placing a logo on the hood or door of a race car, the business is maximizing logo exposure to the race car audience, both inside the racetrack and on television broadcasts of the racing event. Repetitive or long-term exposure increases the business’s chances of making associations with the sport or team and itself. Sponsors often place logos on golf balls, swimsuits, and footwear; however, these logos are usually too small for most spectators to see
What marketing tool explains the sport/event in extreme detail and provides information about participants, location, price, history, etc
Media Guides
(F)Which of the following is a benefit of project planning:
Coordinating all of the parts of the project. Benefits of project planning include coordination of all of the parts of the project, direction for making decisions and for keeping yourself on track, a standard for completion, clarification of misunderstandings, and motivation. Asking yourself important questions and setting an appropriate time frame are things you might do while you’re planning, but they are not benefits. Monitoring the project is part of project management, not project planning
What do some professional sport teams do to promote renewed interest in a team that is losing support from fans?
Redesign logos. A logo is a distinctive symbol, design, or group of letters. Professional sport teams have distinctive logos that set them apart from other teams. If teams are losing support from fans, they often redesign their logos to make them new and more appealing to fans. This often promotes renewed interest in a team because fans are attracted to the new logo and buy merchandise that carries the logo. The redesigned logo sends a message that the team is updated and revitalized. Increasing prices might discourage even more fans from supporting the team. Sending newsletters and changing sponsors will probably not promote renewed interest in a team
At the end of the season, a ski lodge drops the prices for ski rentals by a few dollars. They see a slight increase in the number of ski rentals during that time. The change in price created a proportionate change in sales. This is an example of __________ demand.
Unitary. A unitary demand means that changes in price create proportionate changes in product sales. The demand for ski rentals is unitary because when the prices dropped slightly, rentals increased slightly. An elastic demand means that small price changes have a big impact on product sales. An inelastic demand means that price changes have little to no impact on product sales. Smoothing is the process of dividing a product into different segments for customers.
What do sport/event planners often develop to encourage television and newspaper coverage?
Media guides. Sport/event planners often develop media guides to encourage television and newspaper coverage of the sport or event. Media guides explain the sport/event in detail and provide information about participants, location, price, etc. The goal is to generate interest so the media will provide coverage, which in turn will encourage spectators to buy tickets to attend. Sport/event planners do not develop local contests, sales promotions, or creative themes to encourage television and newspaper coverage
Marketers use data to determine that they want to create messages that appeal to a younger target market. This is part of an overall
Promotional strategy. Determining what target market to appeal to and what messages to send are part of a company’s promotional strategy. “Place” strategy refers to distributing the product. Product strategy includes determining what products to offer or develop. Pricing strategy refers to determining what to charge for the product
(F) Which of the following is not something you need to complete your project:
Sponsors. You do not need sponsors to complete your project. Sponsors are not a necessary resource. You do need tools, money, and permission (if required).
Marketers use data to determine pricing strategies such as
When to offer a discount on the product. Pricing strategies include determining what to charge for a product and also determining when to adjust the product’s price by either raising it or offering a discount. Determining how much to spend on advertising is a promotional decision. Determining how much of the product to create is a distribution or “place” decision. Determining what products to offer is a product decision.
(M) When unforeseen events change the project entirely, it is helpful to have
A back-up plan. A back-up plan is an alternate way to carry out a project. When unforeseen events change the project, if you have a back-up plan, the project can still be completed. The back-up plan might call for doing the project on another day or asking for help from people outside the project. Having self-control and patience will help the project manager deal effectively when unforeseen events occur. However, a back-up plan is still needed for the project to proceed. One aspect of a back-up plan might involve asking volunteers to help
(M) What do managers often do after the project has been successfully completed?
Prepare a report. When the project has been successfully completed, it’s a good idea to have a final meeting. Group members often will have suggestions for improvement that the manager can include in a report. Managers usually prepare some type of brief report that explains the project, what worked, and what didn’t work. This is particularly helpful if the project is one that will be completed again. The information in the report will make next year’s project much easier to plan and manage. In many cases, there is no office to close. Managers do not actually give up power or authority. The project they were in charge of is simply over. After the project has been completed, managers often obtain feedback from the group to include in a report
Why is it important for professional sport organizations to develop positive relationships with the media?
To maximize favorable news and event coverage. Magazines, newspapers, radio, television, and the Internet are primary forms of sports information and event coverage. To maximize game coverage and favorable news, sport organizations must work to develop positive relationships with the media. To create favorable relationships with the media, sport organizations pitch story ideas, hold news conferences, provide office equipment and space for traveling news reporters, and negotiate broadcasting rights for various games and events. Favorable media relations do not reduce an organization’s need to obtain income from a variety of sources because income is necessary for the organization to operate. Endorsement deals are negotiated between the athlete and the business seeking the endorsement agreement. Sport organizations cannot prevent information leaks to the public; however, sport organizations that have positive relationships with the media are more likely to receive balanced media coverage of events, whether they are favorable or unfavorable
When developing a newsletter a company must consider:
cost, time, resources
If the terms of the sponsorship proposal are not acceptable, a business may try to __________ with the sport/event entity.
Negotiate. Negotiations or open communications involving compromise between prospective sponsors and sport/event entities are quite common. It is the best way to reach a mutually beneficial solution for all concerned. To collaborate would involve the two parties working together to complete or produce a project. Arbitration takes place when communications between parties have broken down to the point where an outside mediator is needed to resolve the issues at hand. Contemplation should be included in the process of negotiation, collaboration, or arbitration
The body of an e-mail that reads, “Dear Sue, we hope you are enjoying the newsletter,” is an example of a/an __________ message.
Personalized. Personalized involves using an individual’s name. When possible, the e-mail address, subject line, and body of the message are personalized. This helps recipients to feel as if they are the only ones receiving the e-mail. An e-mail that sets a deadline might be compelling. An e-mail that pertains to one main topic may be focused. An e-mail message that is short and simple is usually understandable.
Which of the following is an example of a sales promotion:
A 50-percent-off coupon. A 50-percent-off coupon is an example of a sales promotion. Sales promotion is any promotional activity (other than advertising, personal selling, and publicity) that stimulates customer purchases. Common forms of sales promotion include coupons, rebates, contests, and product samples. A television commercial is a form of advertising, not sales promotion. A personalized sales presentation is a form of personal selling, not sales promotion. A press release is involved in publicity, not sales promotion
CPC stands for:
Cost per Click
When you ask, “What does this sales promotion offer to customers?” which step in the process of generating “out-of-the-box” sales promotion ideas are you completing?
Determine incentive. When you ask, “What does this sales promotion offer to customers?” you are determining the incentive of your sales promotion. What does it offer? A chance to save money? A free sample or gift? An opportunity to experience something they can’t unless they attend your game or event? Your sales promotion must satisfy a need or desire of your target customer. Determining creativity is not one of the final three steps in the process of identifying “out-of-the-box” sales promotion ideas. Determining delivery means deciding how to “package” the incentive. Determining how to get the news out means deciding how you will let your customers know about the sales promotion. When asking this question, you are not determining creativity, determining delivery, or determining how to get the news out.
Which of the following is a characteristic of most online banner advertisements:
Interactive. Most banner advertisements are interactive, which means that they involve two-way communication. Users are able to click on the ad and be linked to the advertiser’s home page. Users also may click on a portion of the ad to obtain additional information, download coupons or other specials, or link to related sites. The banner advertisements interact with users by providing information and allowing users to respond to the information by linking to other information or sites. Banner advertisements are not restrictive or selective because they are available to all users who access the site on which they appear. The advertisements may, or may not, be productive depending on whether they appeal to consumers
When an advertising agency develops content for a client’s web site, the writer should format the text so it is easy for the web site’s visitors to
Locate relevant information. An advertising agency may be asked to develop text for a client’s web site, so the agency’s copywriter must understand the ways in which visitors use the web site to obtain information. A general rule of thumb is that the web site’s text should be as concise as possible because web surfers do not want to spend a lot of time clicking through several pages or screens to obtain the information they want. If the information they want is difficult to locate, the web surfer is likely to go to another web site where it is easier to scan the text and obtain the information that s/he wants. To develop concise text, the copywriter might use bullet points, lists, and short paragraphs with headings. The tagline, the ordering information, and the promotional copy that translates product features into benefits are types of relevant information that web surfers might want to locate on the web site.
Sport/event industries often use the electronic media to
Motivate consumers to buy. The electronic media include television, radio, and the Internet. Many sport and entertainment events appear on the electronic media and are viewed by consumers throughout the world. This benefits the sport/event industries because the coverage motivates consumers to buy tickets to events as well as related merchandise. Sport/event industries often advertise on the electronic media. Sport/event industries do not use the electronic media to encourage athletes to participate or to conduct worldwide research
What is the first thing you should understand when setting out to develop “out-of-the-box” sales promotion ideas for your game/event?
There is no particular source or technique. The first thing you should understand when setting out to develop “out-of-the-box” sales promotion ideas for your game/event is that there is no particular source or technique for doing so. After all, if there were a proven method, you’d be back inside the box! Inspiration can strike anywhere, anytime, and there are several ways that you can be prepared for inspiration. You do not need a certain amount of education or experience to develop “out-of-thebox” sales promotion ideas.
Why is sport/event sponsorship one of the fastest growing promotional activities today?
People are receptive to companies that sponsor their teams/events. Companies are in business to turn a profit, and promotion through sponsorship has proven to be a profitable avenue. There are many risks associated with sponsoring sport/event entities, but a fan’s not patronizing the sponsoring company is not one of them. It is true that many sport teams/events would not be able to survive without business sponsors, but sponsors ultimately look for return on investment and not as much at survival of the game
What is a guideline for businesses to follow when creating mailing lists?
Choose individuals who want the e-mail. When creating mailing lists, a good guideline for businesses to follow is to only choose individuals who have opted to receive e-mail from the business. These individuals have indicated an interest in the business and its products and make up the market that is most likely to respond to the e-mail. Identifying all people in a certain area, obtaining names from local competitors, and asking employees for names of relatives are not effective methods of creating mailing lists.
What mailing technique do businesses often use if they do not have mailing-list software?
Blind Carbon Copy. Blind Carbon Copy (BCC) is a mailing technique used to keep e-mail addresses private by preventing recipients from seeing who else is receiving the e-mail. This method is good for businesses that can’t afford mailing-list software or that are just starting out with a small list of subscribers. Autoresponder is a computer program that automatically returns a specified message to anyone who e-mailed a particular address. An Internet Service Provider provides access to the Internet. Bookmark feature is an application within Microsoft Word that can be used to create hyperlinks to other places within an e-mail
Arrangement of ad elements on the page is referred to as:
layout
Brian needs to generate some “out-of-the-box” sales promotion ideas for an upcoming tennis tournament. He’s not sure how to start, but he does know that the tournament’s marketers want to reach the 18-to-35-year-old crowd. How is Brian prepared for inspiration?
He knows his target market. Brian is prepared for inspiration because he knows his target market—18-to-35-year-olds. Keeping that target group in mind, Brian will be better able to know which ideas will work and which won’t. Knowing your competition means taking their ideas and improving on them. Putting a new twist on an old idea means taking something that’s already been done and making it “out of the box.” Brainstorming is a creative-thinking technique involving the identification of as many different ideas as possible during a certain time frame. In this situation, Brian is not prepared for inspiration by knowing his competition, putting a new twist on an old idea, or brainstorming
The easiest and least expensive e-mail to put together is ______
Plain text e-mail Are the easiest and least expensive to put together. Are the most common form for e-mails
HTML e-mails Often look like web pages. Are designed so that multiple e-mails will support them. Due to their size, can take longer to download and take up more space in the recipient’s inbox
Rich media e-mails Are the most expensive and complicated e-mail format Include video, graphics, and sound
Simple text is not a real term
Computers are complex products and have features that need to be explained. Which of the following elements would be crucial to include in an advertisement for a new computer:
Copy. Copy is the text of an advertisement that delivers the sales message. Because the product is so complex, its features should be described in the advertisement’s copy. A slogan is a phrase that is easy to remember. An illustration is a photograph, drawing, painting, or graphic. The headline is the text set in large type and is usually positioned at the top of an ad
When developing your e-mail try and create a catchy _________ to capture attention and encourage them to read on.
Response Feedback: Create a catchy “subject” line that will capture the reader’s attention and make her/him want to read on for more information.
4.06 A soft-drink manufacturer is a sponsor for a professional baseball team. Which of the following signage placement options would provide the most exposure to the manufacturer’s products:
Interior wall of the outfield. Sponsors want their products in the most visible place possible. By placing a sign on the wall in the outfield, the sponsor gets maximum exposure. All fans in the stadium can see the sign from their seats, and if the baseball game is nationally televised, television viewers see the signage, too. Signs placed at the rear entrance of the stadium or near concession stands will be seen only by the attendees who use that particular entrance or purchase food at concession stands. Depending the scoreboard’s design and placement, signs placed on the back of the scoreboard may not be seen by anyone
What should businesses do to detect any problems before sending an e-mail to everyone on their list?
Conduct a test run. Before businesses send an e-mail to everyone on their list, they should conduct a test run. Sending it to several different e-mail clients will allow the business to look for any problems with broken links, formatting, spacing, slow loading videos, etc. Then, the businesses can make any necessary corrections before sending the e-mail to everyone. Formatting the message, finalizing a signature, and preparing a response will not allow a business to detect problems with an e-mail.
Preferred type of online ad if contains large graphics, streaming media, or applets due to it loading in the background
Because interstitials load in the background, they are a preferred way of delivering ads that contain large graphics, streaming media, or applets
Online ads that appear and block your current view of the page are:
Floating: These are ads appear when you first go to a webpage, and they “float” over the page for five to 30 seconds. While they are on the screen, they obscure your view of the page you are trying to read, and they often block mouse input as well. These ads appear each time that page is refreshed
Most charge a monthly service fee, usually based on volume of e-mails sent:
hosting services
Two key e-mail concerns are:
Two key e-mail concerns are privacy and trustworthiness. Without them, recipients are likely to feel violated or threatened.

· Privacy
o E-mail recipients want to be told about the types of information that are collected about them and how the information will be used.
o Privacy information is commonly located in a business’s privacy policy.
· Trustworthiness
o Without trust, there can be no lasting relationship between business and customer.The best way to establish trust is to be honest and nonthreatening

Which of the following is not a benefit of “out-of-the-box” sales promotions:
You will break all previous ticket sales records. Breaking all previous ticket sales records is not a benefit of “out-of-the-box” sales promotions because there is no guarantee that those records will be broken. “Out-of-the-box” sales promotions will make your game/event stand out from the competition, get people excited about attending your game/event, and create positive publicity for your game/event
Marcus needs to generate some “out-of-the-box” sales promotion ideas for the WNBA team he works for. Last year, they placed coupons in the local paper, but Marcus is afraid that promotion might be ineffective if they try it again. Instead, he’s thinking of creating a “coupon scavenger hunt” that sends fans all over town searching for free and discounted tickets. How was Marcus prepared for inspiration?
He’s putting a new twist on an old idea. Marcus prepared for inspiration by putting a new twist on an old idea. Coupons are popular, but a “coupon scavenger hunt” is “out-of-the-box.” Knowing your target market means understanding what incentives will and will not work for them. Knowing your competition means taking their ideas and improving on them. Brainstorming is a creative-thinking technique involving the identification of as many different ideas as possible during a certain time frame. In this situation, Marcus did not prepare for inspiration by knowing his target market, knowing his competition, or brainstorming
One of the advantages of using e-mail marketing is that it is
Cost effective. The average cost of an e-mail campaign is around $1,000, whereas the average cost of a direct-mail campaign is $20,000. The difference in price exists because the printed materials needed for a direct-mail campaign are very expensive to produce. With e-mail, individuals can be pointed to a web site where the same product descriptions, images, and other information can be found. There is no need to print materials or buy postage. Businesses often personalize e-mail messages and always identify themselves because they are trying to sell products. E-mail marketing is not necessarily profit oriented, although earning a profit is often the goal of businesses that use this technique
Guilt by association, a striking team, and a team having a losing season are examples of sponsorship
Risks. Any time a sport entity does not perform as expected, it can harm the image of the sponsor and is considered a sponsorship risk. A goal of the sponsor is to reduce or eliminate these risks. Exclusivity means that no competing sponsors are representing the sport entity, while clutter is due to having too many sponsors
What must smaller businesses have in order to compete with larger businesses for a sponsorship opportunity?
Budget. To be competitive with large businesses for sponsorship opportunities, a small business must have the budget (money). Publicity, brand awareness, and exclusivity are results of a properly exploited sponsorship
The best e-mail recipients are those who have opted to receive e-mails from the business. These individuals make up what is known as an ____________
The best e-mail recipients are those who have opted to receive e-mails from the business. These individuals make up what is known as an in-house list
Online ad where viewers visiting the website will see a large ad when they first come, and then the continuity is maintained by reiterating the same message throughout the site in the form of banners, side bars or buttons
Takeover online ads allow viewers visiting the website will see a large ad when they first come, and then the continuity is maintained by reiterating the same message throughout the site in the form of banners, side bars or buttons
When writing information to post on web sites, Internet businesses should
Break the text into short, manageable sections with many headlines. Because the Internet is a fast-paced informational tool, users generally want to obtain the information they need as quickly as possible. Therefore, when writing information for the Internet, developers must make the content easy to read. One way of managing the content is breaking the text into small sections and using headlines. Bullet points are also used to create content that is quick and easy to read. Long sentences and jargon are not usually recommended because they often make the information more difficult to read and understand. As a result, many customers leave the web site without obtaining the information. Although stories and humor are often used to create interest in content, they are not always appropriate
What section of the ad often times makes a claim or offers to solve a problem?
Approaches that businesses use in headlines are:

To offer something new or improved
To solve a problem
To make a claim
To promise a benefit
To arouse curiosity

When you ask, “How will my customers receive this sales promotion?” which step in the process of generating “out-of-the-box” sales promotion ideas are you completing?
Determine delivery. When you ask, “How will my customers receive this sales promotion?” you are determining the delivery of your sales promotion. Will it be in the form of a coupon? A contest? A special event? Your incentive is a present and the delivery method is the way you decide to wrap it. Determining creativity is not one of the final three steps in the process of identifying “out-of-the-box” sales promotion ideas. Determining the incentive means deciding exactly what your sales promotion offers to customers. Determining how to get the news out means deciding how you will let your customers know about the sales promotion. When asking this question, you are not determining creativity, determining the incentive, or determining how to get the news out.
3.04 How does a professional sport team earn revenue when it permits its games to appear on television?
Selling broadcasting rights. One way that professional sport teams earn money for their organizations is by selling broadcasting rights to television networks, which air the games on television. Sponsoring charitable events, participating in merchandising programs, and promoting the games on its web site are not revenue sources that involve broadcasting sport events on television
A costing method for online advertising that is based on the number of times a particular web page has been requested from the server
Click-through rate: the number of visitors who clicked on the banner ad linking to your web site. Some sites sell banner ad space on a cost-per-click (CPC) basis.

Page impressions: this is the number of times a particular web page has been requested from the server. Advertisers are interested in page views because they indicate the number of visitors who could have seen the banner ad, this tells them how many visitors were exposed to it. The most common way to sell banner ad space is cost per thousand impressions, or CPM.

Cost per sale: this is the measure of how much advertising money is spent on making one sale. Many advertisers keep track of visitor activity using Internet cookies. This technology allows the site to combine shopping history with information about how the visitor originally came to the site

Page turnover is not a an actual measurement

Advertising copy that states “Only 3 days left” is trying to:
Encourage action. Advertisers use statements such as “Only 3 days left” in their copy to encourage readers to take action. Copy that makes a general or specific statement about the product is making a claim. Copy that identifies benefits focuses on benefits of the product to the consumer, and copy that describes features gives factual information about the product
Which of the following types of sport/event businesses would be most likely to place a banner advertisement on a ski resort’s web site:
Snowboard retailer. Many types of businesses in the sport/event industry, including retailers, use online advertisements to promote their products. For example, ski and snowboard enthusiasts are likely to spend their leisure or vacation time on the ski and snowboard slopes, which often have lodging facilities. A snowboard retailer might place a banner ad on a nearby ski resort’s web site to promote its snowboarding products with the goal of attracting the snowboard enthusiasts to the store. A shoe manufacturer, a cross-training equipment distributor, and a rock-climbing boot retailer are less likely to advertise on a ski resort’s web site than a snowboard retailer
Which of the following is an example of a business’s using e-mail in a timely manner
Sending customers a notice of tomorrow’s sale. E-mail can be very timely because it does not require as much advance planning as conventional advertising does. A business can look at its inventory today and see what products should go on sale tomorrow. Then, it can put together an e-mail and immediately send it to its customer list. Addressing messages to individual customers is an example of personalizing e-mail. Targeting specific groups and describing features of products are not examples of using e-mail in a timely manner.
Upon completing the subscription process, individuals receive an e-mail that they must respond to in order to be added to the list of subscribers is considered
Double opt-in

o Double opt-in takes the opt-in approach one step further by requiring recipients to confirm that they really do want to be a registered subscriber.

o Upon completing the subscription process, individuals receive an e-mail that they must respond to in order to be added to the list of subscribers.

To generate excitement about its newly remodeled facilities, Wilmer’s Hotel plans to send advertising messages to past guests via their cell phones. Each message will contain a brief video showcasing new features and services that the hotel offers. Which type of mobile messaging service should Wilmer’s use?
Multimedia messaging services (MMS). Multimedia messaging services allow individuals and businesses to send rich-media messages to cell phones. These messages may contain text, graphics, sound, and video. Short messaging services also allow individuals and businesses to send messages via cell phones

SMS messages only contain text—not images or graphics. Since Willmer’s Hotel wants to send brief videos in these messages to customers’ cell phones, it needs to use the more sophisticated of the two types of mobile messaging services—MMS. Complex messaging services and digitized messaging services are fictitious terms

Sales promotion is a major part of sport/event marketing because
The industry is so highly competitive. Sales promotion is a major part of sport/event marketing because the industry is so highly competitive. Smart sport/event marketers know that their potential customers have an endless list of possibilities for how to spend their time and money. A good sales promotion can help customers decide to spend that money with them rather than with the competition. There are many, many potential customers out there for games and events, so lack of customers is not the reason that sales promotion is so important in sport/event marketing. Ticket sales is not necessarily the most important part of sport/event marketing. The sport/event field is a very exciting one, not a boring one
Similar in style to a tv commercial but offers the ability to click on ad for more information
A unicast ad is basically a TV commercial that runs in a pop-up window. It has enriched audio/video content. The ads can last anywhere from 10 to 30 seconds. These ads have similar branding power as a TV commercial. However, a unicast ad offers something that TV ads cannot — the ability to click on the ad for more information. These ads are getting very effective, as the average click-through rate is 5%.
______________ e-mailings may be necessary to provide small pieces of information that are of immediate value to individuals.
Frequency refers to how often the e-mail is sent out (e.g., daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly, yearly, etc.). A daily or weekly e-mailing might be difficult to put together, yet frequent e-mailings may be necessary to provide small pieces of information that are of immediate value to individuals.
One of the disadvantages to marketers of using streaming video e-mail is that it requires the recipient to have a(n)
High-speed Internet connection. Streaming media are sound, video, or animations that play in real time. E-mail is capable of delivering streaming media such as videos when the recipient opens the message or clicks on a “play” button. For streaming video to work properly, the recipient needs a high-speed Internet connection. Streaming media do not require the recipient to have cloud-computing capabilities, a sophisticated computer keyboard, or a complicated operating system.
Josh works in marketing for a senior citizens’ golf league. He suggests an “out-of-the-box” sales promotion in which league participants receive discount coupons to the local water park, but his boss doesn’t think that’s such a good idea. What question did Josh fail to ask himself about his idea?
Does this sales promotion reach my target audience? Josh failed to ask himself, “Does this sales promotion reach my target audience?” when he came up with his “out-of-the-box” idea. He knows the incentive he wants to offer, but senior citizens would not likely be attracted to coupons for a water park. In this situation, Josh did not need to ask whether or not the sales promotion was creative or if it fit with the overall marketing plan
Currently, which of the following mobile advertising strategies has been most successful:
Text message with coupon. Currently, the mobile market is accustomed to receiving text messages on their phones. That’s what they expect. Attaching a coupon or discount to the text message has been shown to get greater response than text messages without coupons. Rich media may be the future for mobile advertising, but it’s not there, yet. Cross-platform campaigns indicate that the message/advertisement will be used in multiple media. Research indicates that mobile ads are more effective when they are designed specifically for that medium, rather than for multiple media. Banner ads have been boring for mobile users.
Conventional thinking, tried-and-true ways of doing things can be described as
“Inside the box.” Conventional thinking, tried-and-true ways of doing things can be described as “inside the box.” Everything “inside the box” has been done before. Even though “inside-the-box” methods may have proven to be effective in the past, they can get boring over time. “Out-of-the-box”thinking is creative, fresh ideas that haven’t been tried before
4.08 Which of the following is one of the main features of a sport product:
Athletes. The athletes are the stars, the main features, of a sport product such as a basketball game or a tennis match. Without the athletes, there wouldn’t be a sports product. Fans attend the game or match to see the athletes participate and compete against each other. Fans often attend specific events because they want to watch certain athletes perform. A franchise is a type of business ownership, and many professional sports teams are franchises. Tickets provide admission to sporting events. Extensions are products that are related to the main event, such as team T-shirts and ball caps.
Why is it important for Internet businesses to write content for their web-site home pages that is interesting as well as concise?
Space is limited. The content of a web site has a significant effect on the success of the site. Content that is well written, interesting, and to the point is easier for users to read and understand. Also, it is important for the content to be concise because space on the home page is often limited. For example, a home page should not go on forever, but contain important information to attract attention and lead users to more specific content on other pages. Furthermore, these pages should provide interesting and relevant information and guide users to more detailed pages if users want more information. Users will lose interest if a home page is unnecessarily long and includes lengthy content. Not all messages are complex; some are very simple and straightforward. Access to most web sites is not restricted unless the site requires registration or membership. The design of a web page may be simple or complex, but the content should be both interesting and concise
This technology allows the site to combine shopping history with information about how the visitor originally came to the site:
Many advertisers keep track of visitor activity using Internet cookies. This technology allows the site to combine shopping history with information about how the visitor originally came to the site.
Information about sponsorship, cost, marketing opportunities, and audience demographics are examples of information
Included in a sponsorship proposal. This is the type of information included in a proposal. Ambush marketers are not voluntarily provided any special data. Event programs do not need to include this type of information.The city hosting the event has probably provided some of the information included in the sponsorship proposal
The number of visitors who clicked on the banner ad linking to your web site is referred to as:
click-through rate
Which of the following is the most common use of opt-in e-mail marketing:
Subscriptions. Subscriptions are the most common use of opt-in e-mail marketing, which is sometimes referred to as permission-based marketing. In a good subscription system, web-site visitors enter their name and e-mail address into an electronic form, select the type of information they wish to receive, and click on the submit button. By submitting their personal data, they are giving the business permission to send them promotional e-mails or other information.

In the double opt-in e-mail marketing system, customers subscribe and then receive an e-mail from the business asking them to confirm that they want to receive the information.

Announcements are messages that serve to notify the public of special events.

Attachments are computer files that are sent with e-mail messages

3.03 What form of advertising involves a company paying an athlete to appear in a television commercial or newspaper ad?
An endorsement is approval by a reputable external source. If a company pays an athlete to appear in an advertisement, it is a celebrity endorsement. Endorsements are a form of advertising because the celebrity is promoting a product. Endorsements are a common form of advertising in the sport/event industry. For example, an ad for American Express featuring Tiger Woods is an endorsement. Broadcast is promotional media such as radio and television. A testimonial is a statement by an identified user of a product proclaiming the benefits received from the use of a product. Promotion is a marketing function needed to communicate information about goods, services, images, and/or ideas to achieve a desired outcome
When Arm and Hammer advertises that its baking soda gets rid of odors in refrigerators, its ad copy is pointing out the product’s
Uses. Copy that tells readers different ways they can use the product is focusing on the product’s uses. If an advertiser gives factual information about the product, the copy is focusing on the product’s features. The producer of the product is found in the identification element. Price was not mentioned
4.06 A stadium deciding to place messages and team logos on electronic boards is an example of selecting
Event signage. A stadium uses signage to promote events and activities. The purpose of signage is to communicate messages such as names of teams or sponsors. Electronic boards are a popular type of signage because messages and logos can be changed quickly throughout the event. Also, this type of signage is graphically appealing and encourages spectators to read the messages. Deciding to place messages and team logos on electronic boards is not an example of selecting media usage, sponsorships, or network support
How is sponsorship success measured?
Return on investment. To measure the success of a sponsorship activity, businesses typically divide net profit by the cost of investment to arrive at the return on investment. The greater the return, the greater the success rate of the sponsorship. Dollars spent or invested in the sponsorship do not guarantee that the business will achieve the results expected from that sponsorship. Ticket sales bring revenue to the sport/event entity but not to the event sponsor. Increased ticket sales do provide an increase in target reach, or the number of individuals
Which of the following best enables marketers to target specific groups of customers so that the marketers can focus their promotional efforts to get the best results:
Direct marketing. Direct marketing can be targeted to those customers who are most likely to buy. Examples of direct marketing include: e-mail marketing, telemarketing, mailshots, SMS, and social media. Advertising, publicity, and sales promotion cannot be targeted to the extent of direct marketing
Which of the following is an advantage to a business of using an in-house system to send bulk e-mailings
Last-minute changes are possible. The in-house e-mail method allows businesses to have more control over the presentation and delivery of e-mails. They can make last-minute changes to content and add recipients immediately prior to sending the e-mailing. However, the up-front costs are high because the in-house system requires the business to purchase, install, and maintain the equipment. The costs are not tied to the volume of e-mails sent.
Why do small, local businesses typically sponsor local or regional teams and events rather than national or international events?
They want to reach the people who buy their products. Small, local businesses invest their promotion dollars where they can reach their target market. If the business operates in one locality, they should put their dollars where they will do the most good for the company. Local event sponsorship will provide a greater return on investment for the company. A large company may be able to afford the fees associated with sponsoring a national or international event, but if it will not increase the client base, the money may be wasted
Which of the following is an example of online advertising method:
Sponsoring a web site. Advertising online is very similar to traditional advertising and is intended to serve the same purpose. The most common forms of online advertising are banner ads, button, and pop-ups; however, sponsorships are gaining in popularity. When a business sponsors a web site, it pays for its name, and often a message, to appear on the site. Every time someone visits the site, they see the name and are reminded of the business. Giving away gifts is a type of sales promotion. Providing information is one of the functions of advertising. Hosting chat rooms is not an example of online advertising
This area of the ad is typically where a company has features, uses, benefits, and action.
Copy
When you ask, “How will my customers know about this sales promotion?” which step in the process of generating “out-of-the-box” sales promotion ideas are you completing?
Determine how to get the news out. When you ask, “How will my customers know about this sales promotion?” you are determining how to get the news out. It can’t work unless your potential customers know about it! Getting the word out might involve something as big as a full-fledged advertising campaign, or it might be as simple as printing a coupon to appear in the Sunday paper. Determining creativity is not one of the final three steps in the process of identifying “out-of-the-box” sales promotion ideas. Determining the incentive means deciding exactly what your sales promotion offers to customers. Determining delivery means deciding how to “package” the incentive. When asking this question, you are not determining creativity, determining the incentive, or determining delivery
Which of the following would NOT be a business’s sponsorship goal:
Encouraging competition. Goals of sponsorship include increasing sales and gaining and keeping customers. The intent is not to encourage the competition
4.04 The purpose of designing an event program that contains space for advertisements is to
Generate more revenue. Advertisers pay a certain dollar amount based on how large of an ad they put into the event program. Sometimes, this money is far beyond what the organization needs to break even on the cost of publishing the program. People are not motivated to buy a program because of the advertisements that appear on the inside. However, this could be accomplished by including sweepstakes numbers for prize drawings. The team is promoted through the athlete profiles, statistics, rules, and photographs that appear in the program. Because a program that contains advertisements usually has more pages, it will actually cost more money to print. However, the revenue generated from the advertisements can help to cover the printing costs
The part of a print advertisement that is often noticed first by readers is the
Illustration. When the illustration is eye-catching, it attracts the reader’s attention to the headline and copy. White space is the blank space between the elements of an ad. Business identification is the part of an advertisement that identifies the advertiser and may include additional information about the business
When a person sends a message to a specified e-mail address, the _____________ replies with a certain message and thus can save valuable time in a company.
Autoresponders

o Use of autoresponders results in less time spent on routine tasks and more time to grow a business.
o When a person sends a message to a specified e-mail address, the autoresponder replies with a certain message.
o Common uses of autoresponders are to:
o Confirm orders and newsletter subscriptions
o Answer frequently asked questions
Make customers aware that the business person is unavailable until a certain date

Sponsorship opportunities are only available to large businesses in major cities
False, opportunities exist everywhere and in all sizes. Sponsors can find sport/event entities that meet their marketing goals in all parts of the world and with unlimited methods of sponsorship. Fees can be paid or goods or services can be exchanged for the opportunity to have the business name associated with a sport/event entity
An athlete, a team, or a league are examples of
Sport entities. They are athletes, teams, and leagues. Television documents games, etc., but also documents many other programs. Sponsorships help provide financial and other support for the sport entities. Private enterprise is an economic system in which individuals and groups, rather than government, own or control the means of production
A formal contract is the preferred form of written agreement between a sponsor and a sport/event entity because it
Is legally binding. Contracts, letters of agreement, and confirmation letters can be negotiated. They spell out the terms of the agreement and carry signatures of all parties. Formal contracts are also legally binding, and therefore, they are most often the preferred method of agreement between sponsors and sport/event entities. This is especially true when dealing with large sums of money. Letters of agreement and confirmation letters are most often utilized on small scale events such as a local charity 5k run where the possibility of default is less and the cost associated with the sponsorship is small. Disagreements in these instances are usually handled outside court
1.10 One of the features of sports events such as football games is that they are
Unpredictable. Many sports events, such as football and baseball games, are unpredictable. The games change each time they are played, and the outcomes are different. The unpredictability of the event is one of its main features and the one that is often the most exciting to fans. Speculating on the outcome of a game is a favorite pastime of many sports enthusiasts. Football games are intangible sports products that are also inconsistent because the outcome cannot be predicted. Organized games are not impulsive because a great deal of planning and practicing are involved.
If Coca-Cola is the only soft-drink sponsor of your favorite team, Coca-Cola is considered a(n) __________ sponsor.
Exclusive. When a business purchases the rights to be the only one of its kind to sponsor a sport entity, it is said to be an exclusive sponsor or have sponsorship exclusivity. A business can be a dynamic sponsor or a large-business sponsor and not have exclusivity. Coke can have exclusivity in the soft-drink arena and not be the sole sponsor of the event
Which of the following is an example of ambush marketing:
Nonsponsoring business broadcasting commercials during an event. This is a typical way a business has of cutting into the real sponsor’s action and sometimes being perceived by the fans as a true sponsor. Paying a fee or donating goods or services in exchange for sponsorship privileges makes a business a true sponsor
A business that asks customers to forward an e-mail to their friends or associates is engaged in
Viral marketing. Viral marketing is word-of-mail information that is passed on to others. For example, a customer forwards a message to a friend who sends it to a family member who sends it to a coworker and so forth. It enables information to be spread quickly. A business that sends an e-mail to customers and asks them to forward the e-mail to their friends or associates is engaged in viral marketing. A business that asks customers to forward an e-mail is not engaged in image building, direct advertising, or suggestion selling
What do sponsors want to accomplish by putting their company logos on NASCAR automobiles?
Brand recognition. One of the goals of sponsorship is to create brand recognition and increase brandawareness. Entertaining as it is, NASCAR sponsors want to improve brand recognition. Contracts and leads may develop as a result of sponsorship of a NASCAR automobile, but the company logos are used to increase company brand recognition
When a sponsor gives away logo hats, T-shirts, pennants, and other specialty advertising products during a sponsored event, the sponsor is
Exploiting the sponsorship. When a business pays a fee to sponsor a sport/event entity, it often hands out specialty advertising products. This is considered exploitation. If the business is not a sponsor but tries to create the impression that it is, the business is using ambush marketing. If a business creates an event, then it “owns the event.” An exclusive sponsor is the only sponsor of its kind
3.02 When a performer expands into international markets, an important consideration for his/her promotional efforts is that it is often necessary to
Adapt promotional messages for each market. When a performer enters a foreign market, s/he must understand the culture and customs of the market. Because the performer wants to sell his/her services to these untapped markets, s/he does not want to offend potential customers with inappropriate language or translations, symbols, attire, etc. Therefore, the performer needs to make sure that the promotional messages do not offend each market that the performer is trying to attract, which may involve adapting or changing those messages. The performer would not use the same advertising strategies with all markets, develop different brands for each market, or assume that literal language translations are acceptable
What a user elects to enter or exit a website this type of online ad will appear between web pages.
Interstitial pages are a form of advertisement on the web that appears between web pages that the user requests. Thus when a user elects to enter or exit a website, a page appears with its advertisement, in place of the requested page, the user then needs to select from that page to receive the page requested (or the advertisement page will disappear after a fixed time). This is a form of interruption advertising but as the user had a certain set of expectation when making the page selection he will hang on to watch the ad, as he is waiting for his desired page to load.

Because interstitials load in the background, they are a preferred way of delivering ads that contain large graphics, streaming media, or applets

A business places a matrix on a promotional sign that potential customers can scan with their smartphones. After scanning the matrix, potential customers have digital “coupons” in their smartphones, which they use to obtain discounted products at the point of purchase. This form of mobile advertising involves the use of
Quick-response codes. The evolution of the smartphone has provided businesses with another way to connect with their customers. Quick-response codes are similar to bar codes but look like a matrix of boxes or squares. Businesses often place quick-response codes in newspaper and magazine ads and on signs or other printed materials. Individuals use applications on their smartphones to scan the code. The code might contain a URL to the business’s web site or a coupon for discounted merchandise or services. Reverse-messaging features, receipt-verification applications, and cable-network tags are not mobile advertising strategies
Shannon needs to generate some “out-of-the-box” sales promotion ideas for the concert tour she works on. She’s not sure how to start, but she knows that a competitor’s concert tour had great success last year with ticket contests on local radio stations. How is Shannon prepared for inspiration?
She knows her competition. Shannon is prepared for inspiration because she knows her competition and what is working well for them. She might be able to take their ideas “out-of-the-box” for her own team. Knowing your target market means understanding what incentives will and will not work for them. Putting a new twist on an old idea means taking something that’s already been done and making it “out of the box.” Brainstorming is a creative-thinking technique involving the identification of as many different ideas as possible during a certain time frame. In this situation, Shannon is not prepared for inspiration by knowing her target market, putting a new twist on an old idea, or brainstorming.
A tire producer is most likely to advertise its products on a website that interests
Auto racing enthusiasts. Businesses are most likely to advertise on web sites that have an interest in their products. A tire producer would likely advertise its products (tires) on auto-racing web sites such as NASCAR or the Sports Car Driving Association. Because of their common interest in cars, auto-racing enthusiasts are more likely to pay attention to automobile tire advertisements than are marathon runners, fitness trainers, and tennis fans
For higher response rates, businesses should develop marketing e-mail messages that are
Short, simple, and understandable. Most e-mail recipients do not have the time or willingness to read long and difficult messages. Therefore, the message should be constructed so that the vocabulary is understandable for the average person and that the content is structured in short, simple sentences and paragraphs. Marketing e-mail messages should also be interesting, unique, appealing, and relevant. The messages should not be long or complex
What form of online advertising is least likely now to be used due to blockers?
Pop-up Ads: It’s the thing of the past now. With a variety of pop-up blockers available freely, it makes no sense in investing in this form of advertising as it irritates the viewer
Chelsea needs to generate some “out-of-the-box” sales promotion ideas for a charity walk/run event, but she’s stuck. So she gathers all her colleagues together for a 30-minute meeting, and asks them to share as many ideas as they can during that time frame. How is Chelsea prepared for inspiration?
She’s brainstorming. Chelsea is prepared for inspiration because she is brainstorming, gathering her coworkers together to generate as many ideas as possible during a certain timeframe. Knowing your target market means understanding what incentives will and will not work for them. Knowing your competition means taking their ideas and improving on them. Putting a new twist on an old idea means taking something that’s already been done and making it “out of the box.” In this situation, Chelsea is not prepared for inspiration by knowing her target market, knowing her competition, or putting a new twist on an old idea.
What part of an ad is designed to contain principal sales message and invite action?
Copy: Is the text of the advertisement

Contains the principal sales message

Includes whatever the advertiser wishes to say about the product

Is intended to sustain the attention and interest created by the headline and/or illustration, to build desire, and to invite action

The logo of a company is considered what part of the print ad
signature
The football team that Kandace works for is in desperate need of some positive publicity. Kandace comes up with an “out-of-the-box” sales promotion idea that involves offering discount tickets through local grocery stores. Her boss tells her that while the promotion may work, it doesn’t generate the excitement they need for better public relations. What question did Kandace fail to ask herself about her idea?
Does this sales promotion fit with the overall marketing plan? Kandace failed to ask herself, “Does this sales promotion fit with the overall marketing plan?” when she came up with her “out-of-the-box” idea. She knows the creative incentive she wants to offer, and it may work just fine with her target market, but it just doesn’t create the kind of excitement her team needs to create positive publicity. Therefore, her promotion does not fit with the team’s overall marketing plan.
Research has found that the two days customers are least likely to read an e-mail and should be avoided if possible is:
When possible, e-mails should not be sent out on Mondays and Fridays, when recipients are less likely to read the messages
Something that will fulfill a customer’s specific desire or need is a(n)
Incentive. Something that will fulfill a customer’s specific desire or need is an incentive. A rebate is a return of part of the price a customer pays for a good or service, so a rebate could be used as an incentive, but is only one of many things that could be used. An “out-of-the-box” idea could fulfill a customer’s desire or need, but the idea doesn’t necessarily have to be “out of the box.” An advertisement doesn’t fulfill a customer’s specific desire or need
Who benefits from an effective sport/event entity sponsorship?
Sponsor, sport/event entity, and fans. Sponsors benefit with increased sales. Sport/Event entities benefit with financial support. Fans benefit with being able to see their teams or attend events. Competitors do not benefit from an effective sponsorship
What factor should receive the most attention when choosing a sport/event entity to represent the business?
The interests of the business’s target market. The ultimate purpose of an effective sponsorship is to reach the business’s target market. Sponsoring a sport/event entity that is popular with that target market is more effective than the CEO’s favorite team. Exploitation possibilities and impact on the promotional budget should be secondary concerns
3.02 A business wants to create or emphasize positive associations between a specific sport and itself. What type of advertising media should the business consider using?
Stadium signage. Businesses that want to create associations with certain sports often place advertising messages on stadium scoreboards, dasher-boards, and banners. These forms of advertising are highly visible to spectators attending the sporting event. By placing large banners in the stadium, advertisers not only have event-long spectator exposure to their names and products, but exposure to a broadcast audience if the game is televised. For example, if a business pays to place a banner on an outfield fence during a televised baseball game, the television audience has an opportunity to see the banner several times. Repetitive or long-term exposure increases the business’s chances of making associations with the sport or team and itself. Opt-in e-mail contains messages sent over the Internet. Contests are sales promotions. A newspaper is a form of print advertising. These options may create positive associations; however, they often reach a smaller audience and with limited exposure opportunities
To attract fans to their web sites, professional sport organizations, media outlets, and entrepreneurs offer online simulations that allow fans to build their own sport teams and compete against other fans’ sport teams. This growing industry is referred to as
Fantasy sports. Many professional sport organizations (e.g., NASCAR) and media outlets (e.g., ESPN) are using fantasy sport games to attract fans to their web sites. Because fantasy sports are so popular, they have evolved into a growing industry. Many entrepreneurs have started their own businesses by offering different versions of fantasy sport games and information sites that help the “owners” build their dream teams. Data interchange, game works, and online exchange are not terms that are commonly used to describe this online sports phenomenon
The relationship between a sponsor and a sport/event entity is often described as a
Partnership. Partnership is the term typically used to describe the relationship between a sponsor and the sport/event entity being sponsored. Both mutually benefit. The terms merger, buyout, and takeover refer to ways a business can combine with another business or entity.
Which of the following is most likely to be visible to search engine spiders:
HTML text. To be indexed and included in search-engine results, web sites must be search-friendly. That is, they must be visible to search engine spiders that travel the Internet and store data about different web sites. Search engine spiders are most likely to see and index web sites consisting of HTML text properly. HTML, which stands for Hypertext Markup Language, is the language generally used for encoding documents posted to the World Wide Web. Although some spiders can see non-HTML content, most do not see Java applets, Flash files, or images accurately. Web sites that consist mainly of non-HTML files are unlikely to be ranked highly in search-engine results—if they are included in the search-engine results at all
When too many sponsors are involved with an event, fans may tune out all advertising as a result of all the
Sponsorship clutter. Too many sponsors can really “spoil the broth,” causing the overwhelmed spectators to tune out all promotional attempts made to reach the audience. Mass-media advertising is a method of advertising available to marketers and is not unique to event sponsorship. Ambush marketing can add to sponsorship clutter. Guilt by association refers to a sport/event entity tarnishing the sponsor’s reputation because of a less than desirable action on the entity’s part.
Proper exploitation of sport/event sponsorships encourages
People to buy products. This is accomplished by reinforcing company image, brand recognition, and fan loyalty. If properly implemented, sponsorship exploitation can practically eliminate ambush marketing, competition, and sponsorship clutter
Which of the following statements regarding direct-mail marketing campaigns is true
They should include a call to action. Effective direct-mail marketing campaigns typically include a call to action, which is essentially an incentive that encourages customers to respond and take some action. Unless the direct-mail marketing campaign is extremely well planned and targeted at exactly the right customers, it is likely not to be highly cost-efficient. Direct mail is difficult to track unless customers are required to bring the ad or coupon to the business to take advantage of a special offer or discount. Even then, it is often difficult to determine all pertinent demographics regarding the respondents. To be successful, direct mail should be brief, not detailed. Customers should not have to spend a lot of time reading or studying the mail. Instead, the mailer should get its message across to customers as simply and quickly as possible
3.08 Which of the following media vehicles might a sport/event marketer choose to promote a celebrity baseball game to many people throughout a metropolitan area:
Movable billboard. Sport/Event marketers choose the media vehicles that will most effectively reach their target audiences. One vehicle is a movable billboard that drives throughout the area promoting a specific event. These billboards are large and attract attention. As a result, they have proven to be a good promotional tool because they are seen by a lot of people. Airplane banners are often used to promote other products during an event rather than to promote an upcoming event. Internet advertising is not as effective because people must have access to the Internet in order to see the advertising. Stadium posters reach only those people who visit the stadium
One of the biggest mistakes that can be made when sending e-mails is not having an adequate __________
One of the biggest mistakes that can be made when sending e-mails is not having an adequate customer service staff to respond to requests, questions, and complaints