Sport Marketing

A written document outlining an organization’s strategy and the course of action necessary to implement that strategy is called a
marketing plan
2. Economy, environment, legal issues and competition are just some of the potential influences of the _________________ environment.
external
3. Goals, objectives, and resources of an organization are just some of the potential influences of the _________________ environment
internal
4. _________________ competitors consist of organizations that produce products or services that are not similar but may offer comparable benefits to the consumer.
indirect
5. Increased attendance, sales, market sales and enhance customer service are examples of sport marketing _________________.
Goals
Effective sport marketing does not happen by accident.
true
Marketing decisions DO NOT need to be consistent with the mission of the organization.
false
Positioning refers to the process in which marketers try to create an image for their organization, goods, or services in the mind of their target markets.
true
The target market portion of the marketing plan must also include information on market size, market trends, customer profiles, AND purchase patterns.
true
The value of sport is often quite subjective thus NOT complicating pricing decisions.
false
differentiates the organization from other organizations by declaring what business the organization performs to and whom the organization serves.
mission statement
is the shared values, beliefs, and assumptions of organizational members that guide and establish preferred behaviors with an organization
organization culture
organizations identify factors to capitalize on (strengths & opportunities) and factors needing to be controlled or eliminated (weaknesses & threats).
swot anaylsis
marketing goals vs marketing objectives
provide direction for the marketing program; they assist in defining the purpose of your plan, guide the planning process, and define what is to be accomplished.
vs
represent specific performance targets necessary to achieve each designated goal.
are the segments for which marketers feel they will have the most success pursuing.
target markets
the process in which marketers try to create an image for their organization, goods, or services in the minds of their target markets
positioning
Three factors of implementation-
Three factors: 1. each task necessary to implement the tactic; 2. people responsible for executing each task; 3. the time frame for each task
The Ansoff Product-Market Growth Matrix
1.Market Penetration
2.Market Development
3.Product Development
4.Diversification
1.offer an existing product to an existing market.
2.offer an existing product to a new market.
3.offer a new product to an existing market.
4.Offer a new product to a new market.
Porter’s (1980) Generic Strategies
Three basic strategies related to gaining a competitive advantage
Differentiation Strategy – offer a product with unique attributes or benefits competitors do not offer.
Focus Strategy – offer a product to a narrow market.
Cost Leadership Strategy – offer a product with a price lower than that of your competitors.
the activity focusing on satisfying needs and wants through exchange processes
Marketing
coined by Advertising Age in 1978 to define the activities of product and service marketers using sport as a promotional vehicle or sponsorship platform
sport marketing
psychologically what makes consumers think & act the way they do
internal factors
– the driving force behind our
actions; the needs & desires of potential fans,
participants, and other sport consumers.
motivation
categories of internal factors/motivations
1. group affiliation, 2. family time, 3. aesthetic appreciation, 4. self-esteem,
5. economic, 6. eustress, 7. escape, 8.
entertainment
BIRGing
vs CORFing
basking in reflected glory
vs
cutting of reflected failure
positive stress associated with high levels of stimulation & excitement that is prevalent in sport due to uncertain outcomes.
eustress
the people closest to us, the groups that we belong to or admire, and the larger culture that influences our consumption behavior.
external factors
Direct vs indirect reference groups
family & friends from a young age directly influence what sports and events are played, watched, & attended.
Groups to which a person aspires to, subcultures, & institutions (media, religious, education, ethnic) that influence attitudes and behaviors related to sport consumption.
Decision Making Process (5 stages)
Stage 1: Need Recognition
Stage 2: Information Search
Stage 3: Evaluation of Alternatives
Stage 4: Purchase
Stage 5: Post-purchase Evaluation
is a systematic process approach involving the collection, organization, examination, and presentation of information on a defined area of study to enhance decisions throughout the strategic marketing process.
marketing research
helps sport marketers stay abreast in the constantly changing landscape of sport and consumer behaviors/preferences.
descriptive research
efforts aim to answer the critical question of how and why, associated with sport consumption, to help predict future trends, behaviors, and preferences.
explanatory research
flexible and dynamic aimed at gaining a deeper understanding about a problem, idea and/or issue that has not been clearly identified.
exploratory research
– emerges directly from those involved with the events or activities associated with the specific research question related to the study.
primary data
the information is generally collected at a previous point in time, but can still be relevant to the current research question.
secondary data
– is the use of customer and client-orientated database/information to enhance the marketing productivity to obtain new customers, as well as to retain satisfied customers
database management
Steps of Marketing Research process
Identify and Define Area of Need or Opportunity
a. Refine area through establishing research objectives.
2. Develop and Design Proper Approach/Research Design
a. Identify and select information sources/resources.
b. Determine method/tactic to access data.
c. Design data collection forms.
d. Establishing sampling method and size.
e. Decide on budget and set timeframe.
3. Collect and Organize the Data
4. Perform Data Analysis
5. Prepare and Present Final Research Findings/Report
Datebase management process (4 steps)
Step 1: Locate Quality Information
Step 2: Collect Information
Step 3: Record Information
Step 4: Monitor and Manage
acheive market orientation (3stepS)
three steps: a)be aware of and sensitive to consumer needs; b) be knowledgeable about competitor product offerings and strategic moves; c) be responsive to those needs and market conditions in providing a timely manner.
– the process of dividing a large, heterogeneous market into smaller groups of more homogenous groups with similar wants, needs, and/or demands.
market segmentation
the emphasis on the consumer’s mindset, takes place when organizations make decisions based on the lifestyles of the individuals being targeted
Psychographics
two challenges of market segmentation
1. creation of a competitive marketplace
2. constant evolution of customers.
four bases for segmentation
demographics, psychographics, behavorial, hybrid
criteria considerations for segmentation
identifiability, accessibility, substantiality, responsiveness, retention potential
determine potential target markets in the area.
identifiability
can the consumer market be reached through traditional communication mediums (advertisments, cold calls)
accessibility
is a potential target segment large enough to justify the investment in a segmentation process.
substantiality
determine whether or not a potential target market will be interested in the product(s).
responsiveness
will the segment market be repeat purchasers.
retention potential
the various elements involved in marketing the sport product: product, price, promotion, place, and public relations (5 P’s).
marketing mix
refers to the location from which the product can be purchased
place/distribution
is the method used by the sport marketer to create awareness of the sport product in the minds of the consumers.
promotion
the sport organization’s relationship with all of its publics, and those publics’ relationship with the organization.
public relations
refers to the sport contest or game itself, can be tangible or intangible
product
along with the core product, sport organizations will offer product extensions, which help make the intangible product more tangible for those consuming it.. paper tickets, programs, souveniers
product extensions
Price Characteristics
highly visible, easiest to change, associated with quality and value
place characteristics
several different places where sport can be purchased, difficult to change
is a paid form of non-personal communication in which the sport organization controls the message.
advertising
involves any face-to-face communication between the seller and a potential consumer.
personal selling
– is the media exposure for the sport organization that the organization does not actually pay for.
publicity
are paid forms of communication, as the name suggests, this communication typically centers on information regarding the purchase of a product or service (coupons)
sales promotions
Sport organizations attempt to maintain as positive relationship with their publics as possible, and public relations, or PR, efforts seek to enhance this relationship.
public relations (media/community)
often refers to the sport contest or the game itself.
sport products
all components surrounding the product of sport and the design through which fans experience the product.
sportscape
tangible products with physical features that offer benefits to customers.
goods
intangible products, less standardized, perishable from a time perspective, heterogeneous, and often inseparable from the provider.
services
elements of sport products
Sport accessories- memorabilia, fantasy leagues/camps, licensed products.
Sport league/event- game form, players/coaches, venue, apparel/equipment.
Sport participation- venue, equipment, competition, social interaction.
Sport sponsorship- signage, engagement with fans, promotional tie-ins, broadcast exposure.
similar in terms of use, distribution, type of need satisfied, and/or type of customers reached.
product line
total assortment of product lines.
product mix
The number of product lines in the mix is described as the
width/breadth
the number of variations in the product line is referred to as the
depth
a verbal or visual way of identifying the sport product distinguished from other sport products, such as a name, design, symbol, or some combination of the three. Branding is a vital element of the sport product, as it sets it apart from similar products.
brand
a relatively stable set of consumer perceptions of a brand in relation to competitive alternatives
brand positioning
product life cycle
intro stage, growth stage, maturity, decline
factors influencing the sport pricing
Company- factors that include the mission, objectives, and business philosophies of the organization.
Costs- factor that analyzes revenues in light of various types of cost for both the business and the consumer.
Customers- determine what the market will bear and what is the value of the ticket price.
Competition- same sport, same level that may influence pricing of nearest competitors.
Conditions- any aspect of the external marketing environment that could have an effect on costs or pricing perceptions.
based on a competitors price, a stated regular price, or a price someone expects based on previous experience or value judgment.
reference price
used to communicate a distinct image, i.e., Red Sox or courtside at the Lakers game
prestige pricing
prices just below a whole number ($49.95 instead of $50.00).
odd-even prices
customers expect a certain traditional price, such as $5 “cheap seats.”
customary pricing
involves multiple price points, based on prime/non-prime schedules.
variable ticket pricing
are broad based or general statements designed to provide programmatic direction and typically focus on ends rather than means
goals
are then developed from the organization’s respective goals and outline details or strategies for meeting each goal.
objectives
identify the end result or outcome for the users of the organization’s products and services as a result of their participation.
outcome objectives
serve to specify a tactic, action, or means to achieve outcome objectives
process objetives
C.L.A.S.S
-consistency-coordinating the managerial functions of planning, organizing, implementing, and controlling
-location- critical
-aesthetics
-safety
-service
appears futuristic and helps minimize potential problems.
planning
helps guarantee everyone involved with operations management works or learns together toward common goals and objectives.
organizing
must use the proper employees and culture of personnel to implement policies and strategies that benefit the achievement of the organizations operational goals and objectives.
implementing
serves to make sure everyone learns and performs at the appropriate place and that the organization is functioning in a manner that will maximize efforts to meet organizational goals and objectives.
controlling
location attractivenes
accessibility, transportation issues, design, amenities, staffing
Fans are able to experience the five sense while at the stadium: sound, sight, touch, taste, and smell.
aesthetics
or entertainment experience allows fans to experience each of the five senses while at the stadium.
sportscape
collectively these elements and special structures, edifices, and displays also possess the ability evoke _____, offering structures which mythologize the past through promotion.
nostalgia
allows participants, employees, and fans to experience events and activities inside and outside of the venue under safe conditions.
risk management
safety components
security, staff size, law enforcement, alcohol and crowd management, technology, fan education
great customer services focuses on interaction through out the venue. According to Fried (2009), the operations manager serves three audiences: a) customers, b)internal constituents, and c)external constituents.
guest services
provide much of the revenue needed to operate the facility. They can be a very demanding group who knows what they want, when they want it, and how they want it served.
customers
anyone working at the facility.
internal constituents
any entity that a facility operator must reach out to those who can exert influence on the sport venue.
external constituents
the combination of tools available for sport marketers to communicate with the public
promotional mix
the strategic utilization and integration of communication channels designed to achieve sport marketing objectives and reinforce brand image.
sport promotional mix
have provided marketers with a direct and interactive communication channel for reaching customers and enhancing the promotional mix.
social media
focus on the dissemination of information about an organization to its publics, functioning like a monologue
one way model
focus attention on the interaction and dialogue between organizations and their publics.
two way model
used to classify groups of individuals to which the organization may wish or need to communicate.
stakeholder/public
-Some scholars don’t use the terms interchangeably in sport public relations, suggesting that stakeholders are used to describe large groups of people who hold similar standing to the organization, while publics are specific groups of people within stakeholder groups
Multiple ____ groups make up a larger stakeholder group
public
Publics compartmentalized as
Customers- individuals who receive the products or services and organization distributes (ticket holders, donors, etc.).
Producers- provide inputs needed for the organization to function (employees or volunteers, suppliers of raw materials).
Enablers- serve as regulators or agencies which establish norms and standards for the organization, as well as groups which can hold influence over potential consumers.
Limiters- those which can somehow adversely affect the operations of the organization.
Designed to enhance the sport organization’s ability to develop those long-term two-way relationships with key publics.
community relations
behavior by sport organization that is considered to be involved in “cause-related marketing”, such as forms of event programming, environmental sustainability, and corporate citizenry.
-investor/employee realtions
CSR- Corporate Social Responsibility
a merging of traditional media forms (audio, video, and written word) with INTERACTIVE digital technology, frequently through the moderating factor of the Internet.
new media
is one of a market orientation where the organization strives to focus on customer wants and needs in an effort to satisfy them.
marketing management philosophy
fundamental to the process, management is making certain the strategy is in line with the staffing and financial resources available.
process management
implementation of a marketing plan
communication, detailed budgets, job assignments and timelines, customer relationship management
is a business strategy designed to maximize profitability and customer satisfaction through the coordination of initiatives to build, nurture, and sustain fan identity and/or customer loyalty.
CRM- customer relationship management
Kotter’s Eight step change model
Step One: Create urgency
Step Two: Form a powerful Coalition
Step Three: Create a vision for change
Step Four: Communicate the vision
Step Five: Remove obstacles
Step Six: Create short-term wins
Step Seven: Build on the change
Step Eight: Anchor the changes in corporate culture
80% of a company’s revenue is generated from 20% of its customers, it is important to be able to identify these customers. T/F
TRUE
this practice the sport marketer strives to cater individualized products, promotions, and avenues of communication unique to each buyer.
one-to-one marketing
that consumers will reward “good” organizations through sustained relations
relational assets
building a positive and consistent reputation among customers.
reputational assets
grounded in cause related marketing (CRM) paradigm, partnership between the sport firm and a cause.
partnership assets
an investment, in cash or in kind, in an activity, in return for access to the exploitable commercial potential associated with that activity
sponsorship
the basis of sponsorship that is the idea that a successful exchange between two or more parties is dependent on both parties feeling what they receive for their services or goods is equal to their offerings
exchange thoery
suggests people try to maintain a sense of balance in their lives and their actions and judgments are often influenced by the need to preserve such balance; used to better understand the consumer-team-sponsor relationship
balance theory
a list of items that a sport entity has available to include as elements of a sponsorship. The inventory also includes the number of each item available and the market value of the item, i.e., season tickets, luxury suite, signage, on-field promotions, etc.
sponsorship inventory
steps in sponsor aquisition
-understand sponsor motives and objectives (develope inventory, asses market value of inventory)
-prospect for sponsors ( segment market, research goals, face to face meeting)
-develope sponsorship(align inventory, activation)
-evaluate (effectiveness, open communication, assess return)
is the process of communicating and marketing a sponsorship to consumers (connection with consumers)
leveraging
focuses on creating a connection with consumers, while leveraging is focused on creating brand awareness for the sponsor.
activation
this type of sponsorship pricing is determined by calculating the total actual expenses in providing a sponsorship package plus the organization’s desired profit
cost-plus method
this type of sponsorship pricing involves sport organizations examining other similar sponsorships either in the respective geographic market or in other similar markets in order to ascertain appropriate pricing.
competitive
this type of sporsorship pricing utilizes market research and published data to assess sponsorship value.
relative value
suggests consumers store information in association sets containing information that is similar or connected in a particular way, i.e., when consumers think of a beach vacation, they may think of products such as sunscreen, beach towels, etc.
associative learning theory
illustrates the importance of “fit” between the endorser and product. The more natural the fit, the more likely the effectiveness of the endorsement.
ALT the matchup hypothesis
the degree of confidence in the endorser’s aim to communicate the statements he/she considers most valid
trustworthiness
the extent to which an endorser is perceived to be a source of valid statements, i.e., Jordan clearly has basketball _____ and also understands the role of quality shoes.
expertise
physical looks of an endorser is an essential signal in an individual consumer’s original judgment of a person .
attractiveness
are products or services that communicate and interact with consumers through identifiable and unique experiences.
brands
is the strategic craft of developing an identity in the marketplace, creating valuable emotional connections through experiences, and determining characteristics that attract loyal customers.
brand management
describes consumer ability to recognize a given brand in a variety of settings and the identification of brand with a particular category
brand awareness
factors as unique connections linking the individual to characteristics of the sport consumption.
brand associations
appeal to the emotional essence of the brand and the individual characteristics linked to the preference of consumption.
brand attributes
represents the actual or relative value of the company related to its ability to generate profit, and refers to the elevated price a consumer will pay for a well-established brand compared to its generic equivalent.
brand equity
represents a variety of products across a range of targeted customers to maximize potential growth.
brand architecture
by individual athletes influences sport consumption when the consumer identifies with an athlete and the respective sport product.
brand endorsments
perceptions about a brand formed by consumers’ memory.
brand image
Three Factors that have primarily helped grow licensing in the sport industry
1. Increased Fan Interest
2. More Pointed and Sophisticated Marketing
3. Better Quality Products
is federal law used to protect officially licensed products from infringement.
lanham act
…of major sporting events and the large sums of money involved have necessitated a better understand of the law.
marketing
a limited monopoly that gives the ____holder the exclusive right to make, use, and sell the ___ innovation (invention) for a limited period of time.
patent
a word, symbol, or phrase, used to identify a particular manufacturer or seller’s products and distinguish them from the products of another.
trademark
work of authorship that is deemed original and fixed in a tangible medium of expression is said to be _______.
copyright
which is a marketing campaign that takes place around an event but does not involve payment of a sponsorship fee for such exposure. Ex. Other beverage companies find ways (often illegal) to connect themselves with the Olympics.
ambush marketing
a legally binding agreement between two or more parties that is enforceable by law.
contract
elements of an enforceable express contract
offer, acceptance, meeting of the minds, consideration
a demonstration of a desire to enter into an agreement and represents the first element of the formation process (usually in writing).
offer
the manifestation of assent to the terms of an offer in the manner invited or required by the same (can be an action, abstaining from an action or something else).
acceptance
a benefit to the promisor, which is the party making the promise or offer. Also, the form of a detriment to the offeree (the party accepting the offer). The most common type of consideration is the payment of money, i.e., Nike paying Lebron to wear its products.
consideration
often referred to as agreeing to definite terms, where very specific terms of the offer, acceptance, and consideration are spelled out in fine detail.
meeting of the minds
one that potentially could be rescinded by one of the parties involved in the contract.
voidable contact
a party attempting to enter in an agreement has reached the age of majority (usually 18 in the US) or is mentally infirm, the contract is voidable.
incapacity
a party has been induced by an improper threat that forces no other choice but to enter into the contract.
duress
an assertion that is not in accord with the facts involving a person or the material of a particular contract.
misrepresentation/ fraud
a belief that is not in accord with the fact, which renders a contract voidable when, at the time the contract is formed, a basic erroneous assumption on which such agreement was based materially affects the exchange of performances.
mistake
a contract involves an unfair surprise or oppressive terms.
unconscionability
the promised performance by a party has become impossible to fulfill.
impossibility
a civil harm committed between two parties, which occur: intentional/unintentional but causes harm
tort
related to modern law of invasion of privacy that encompasses four torts dealing with 1. intrusion upon one’s solitude, 2. public disclosure of embarrassing private facts about a person, publicity which places a person in false light in the public eye, and 4. appropriation for using a person’s name, likeness, voice, etc.
right of publicity
provides that no person engaged in the business of betting or wagering may knowingly accept directly or indirectly virtually any type of payment from a participant in unlawful Internet gambling (i.e., bets that are unlawful under other state or federal laws).
UIGEA- uniform internet gambling enforcement act 2006
intended to regular agents who may give money or other improper benefits to current NCAA athletes. Requires agents to register with the state prior to contacting an athlete and makes the agent subject to prosecution for violating any laws related to their interaction with athletes and/or the athlete’s family.
UAAA- uniform athlete agent act
serves a federal backstop to the UAAA, where its primary focus is on regulation and enforcement. Makes it unlawful for an agent to provide student-athletes with false or misleading information or promises, or the giving of anything of any value.
SPARTA- sports agent responsibility and trust act
choosing the right career path : HIRED..
homework
getting in the door
right place at the right time
experience
dedication
is an opportunity to make yourself known. More importantly it’s a time where others get to know you.
networking
30 seconds to sell yourself.
elevator interview/pitch
is relevant to professional networking to meet people and maintain relationships.
social network
working for free for hands-on experience and to learn job-related skills allows you to gain valuable real-world experience and increasing your network base.
volunteering
they are academic accredited work experiences obtained by students before graduating from a sport management academic program. They provide practical on-the-job experience in a sport organization, rather than classroom, where problem solving opportunities are more prevalent and realistic.
internships
Which vets gory of publics is best represented by the individuals needed to provide input for the organization to function?
Producers
The entertainment experience also know as ___ allows fans to experience the five senses at stadium
Sportscape