Sport Management Review

What four components must be present in a definition of tourists?
a) Tourists
b) Businesses that provide goods and services for tourists
c) The government in a tourist destination
d) The host community, or the people who live in the tourist destination
Name the three prongs of sustainability.
a) Social Dimensions
b) Economic Dimensions
c) Environmental Dimensions
True or False: Scuba Diving can harm the environment via water pollution, anchor damage, and specimen collecting.
TRUE
What type of events does Higham (1999) suggest provide communities with more benefits and fewer burdens?
a. hallmark events
b. small-scale events
c. nostalgia events
d. active tourism
b. small-scale events
A sport tourist who plays the Old Course at St. Andrews would be considered …
a. an active sport tourist
b. a nostalgia sport tourist
c. an event sport tourist
d. a grassroots sport tourist
a. an active sport tourist
Define active sport tourism:
A sport that is centered around its location/traveling to see it/traveling while doing it
Active sport tourism is TAKING PART
Define event sport tourism:
A sport that is centered around an occasion
Event sport tourism involves WATCHING
Define nostalgia sport tourism:
Sport theme vacations, visiting halls of fame, etc.
Nostalgia sport tourism involves VISITING
What three seasons do most destinations have?
a) peak season
b) shoulder season
c) off season
Define shoulder season:
The slower time between seasons (after peak season and before off season).
An organization that is responsible for attracting and organizing sport events to help communities capitalize on the potential benefits of sport tourism is called a……
sports commission
When people have pride in their community as a result of hosting a sport event, this is referred to as…..
psychic income
…..are people who were planning to visit a destination but switched the dates of their time to coincide with an event in the city.
Time switchers
True or False: A study by Hall and Hodges (1996) found that low-income residents suffered the most from their city hosting a mega-event.
TRUE
True or False: The displacement effect refers to someone whose primary motivation was not to attend a sporting event, but they ended up going because they were in the vicinity of the event when it was taking place.
FALSE (this is casual effect)
True or False: Research shows that as many as 70% of spectators at a sporting event come from within the metropolitan area.
TRUE
When ski resorts extend their ski seasons, it leaves little time for grass and plan regeneration. This is an example of which type of sustainability issue?
a. environmental
b. economic
c. social
d. societal
a. environmental
Define sport marketing.
The process of designing and implementing activities for the production, pricing, promotion, and distribution of a sport product or sport business product to satisfy the needs or desires of consumers and to achieve the company’s objectives.
List five examples of how sport as a product differs from other goods and services.
a) Sport products are INTANGIBLE- ie: You cannot touch the competition taking place between teams
b) Sport products INVOLVE EMOTIONS- ie: Some spectators are emotionally attached to their team and are referred to as fans or fanatics.
c) Sport products are SUBJECTIVE & VARY from person to person- ie: It’s almost impossible to ensure everyone at a football game will enjoy their time since one team will lose.
d) Sport products are INCONSISTENT & UNPREDICTABLE- ie: Many variables of sport rely on things like the attitudes of the players, the weather, or other uncontrollable factors.
e) Sport products are PERISHABLE- ie: A fan buys a ticket, but once the game is over, the ticket has no value except the memories the person made at the game.
List three examples of sport product extensions.
a) The Mascot
b) The Music/Band
c) The Concession Stands
d) The Cheerleaders
True or False: Sport products are ancillary items such as the mascot and halftime entertainment.
FALSE
What does SWOT stand for?
Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats
In what four areas do market researchers obtain information about sport consumers?
Demographics, Psychographics, Media Preferences, Purchasing Behavior
One of the most important roles of sport marketing is carrying out the ……….. of an organization.
a. mission
b. interests
c. ideas
d. profit
a. Mission
Because sport is …………, marketing often sell items such as t-shirts that serve as lasting reminders of the overall sport experience.
a. exciting
b. momentous
c. perishable
d. forgettable
c. Perishable
Players, owners, and team management are ………. factors that affect the market climate.
a. internal
b. midlevel
c. top-level
d. external
a. Internal
The media, corporate sponsors, and spectators are ……….. factors that affect the market climate.
a. internal
b. midlevel
c. top-level
d. external
d. External
Presenting the product in the best possible manner to encourage selected target audiences to purchase it is called ……….
a. propaganda
b. packaging
c. promoting
d. publicity
e. market share
b. Packaging
“To some fans, a high-scoring game is exciting. To other fans, it is boring.” This statement illustrates which of the following aspects of sport?
a. Sport experience is intangible
b. Sport is subjective
c. Sports are inconsistent and unpredictable
d. Sport is perishable
b. Sport is subjective
Which of the following is the correct list of the four elements of the marketing mix?
a. product, price, place, promotion
b. product, price, promotion, sales
c. product, place, promotion, sales
d. price, promotion, sales, Internet
a. product, price, place, promotion
Officials, trainers, and sport psychologist are examples of……
a. tangible goods
b. support services
c. game personnel
d. event planners
b. support services
When a sport organization develops a pricing strategy and analyses laws pertaining to government regulations and the economic situation, it is taking into account which factor?
a. consumer
b. competitor
c. company
d. climate
d. climate
Giveaways, coupons, and free samples are examples of …….
a. advertising
b. publicity
c. activities and inducements
d. personal selling
c. activities and inducements
Assessing the sport climate requires examining …….. and …….. factors as they affect marketing efforts.
Internal, external
Define sport public relations.
A managerial communication-based function designed to identify a sport organization’s key publics, evaluate its relationships with those publics, and foster desirable relationships between the sport organization and those key publics.
Explain the difference between intrapersonal and interpersonal communication.
Inter means “between” so Interpersonal communication is the exchange of messages between two people. This is face-to-face interactions, can be verbal or sent by body language or facial expressions.
Intra means “within” so Intrapersonal communication is the internal communication that each of us experiences. By definition this type of communication is private but some people choose to share their thoughts in forums like internet blogs.
Explain the difference between intraorganizational and interorganizational communication.
Intra means “within”, so intraorganizational communication occurs within a particular sport organization setting.
Inter means “between”, so interorganizational communications occurs when members of a sport organization interact with those outside the organization.
List the three duties of media relations specialists.
a) Writing News Releases
b) Planning News Conferences
c) Managing the Press Box
In professional sport, the employees who create, organize, and execute charitable initiatives and other programs are called ………………….. professionals.
community relations
The most basic and personal organizational communication skills that you need to develop are your ………. and ……… skills.
writing, speaking
An organizational function that fosters the development of positive relationships between the organization and its most important publics is called ……… relations.
a. community
b. public
c. business
d. human
b. public
…….. refers to elements that interfere with reception of the message.
a. Static
b. Noise
c. Selection
d. Retention
b. Noise
A communication model that focuses exclusively on the flow of information from the sport organization to its publics is an example of the ……… model of public relations.
a. one-way
b. two-way
c. three-way
d. four-way
a. one-way
The ………… communication model focuses on communication give and take between a sport organization and its key publics.
a. one-way
b. two-way
c. three-way
d. four-way
b. two-way
Reporters covering the news and writing articles for a newspaper or magazine are members or the ……. media.
a. broadcast
b. electronic
c. virtual
d. print
d. print
Reporters covering news for a radio or television outlet are members of the ………… media.
a. broadcast
b. electronic
c. virtual
d. print
b. electronic
One of the most sensitive ethical issues that media relations prrofessionals must deal with is ……….
a. privacy
b. personality
c. protests
d. principles
a. Privacy
Organizational activity designed to build relationships with residents and civic organizations in the geographic area in which the sport organization is located is called ……….
a. human
b. community
c. mass
d. public
b. community
Community relations professional frequently are responsible for creating, organizing, and executing ……….. initiatives.
a. charitable
b. public
c. human
d. media
a. charitable
The primary motive of a community relations program should be ……… , not ………
a. service, publicity
b. packaging, promotions
c. program, community
d. publicity, service
a. service, publicity
Which of the following terms means “assigning meaning to the communicated message”?
a. message
b. channel
c. encoding and decoding
d. noise
c. encoding and decoding
List five sources of revenue for intercollegiate athletics programs.
a) Parking
b) Concessions
c) Personal Seat Licenses
d) Luxury Suites or Club Seating
e) Donations
What are the two functions of financial management.
a) Determining what to do with current financial resources (money)
b) Determining how to procure additional financial resources.
What are the two categories of entries on an income statement?
a) Balance Sheets
b) Income Statement
Why is it important for professional teams to share revenues generated by the league?
Because teams that are located in smaller markets or that have older stadia would have a harder time acquiring players if revenues were not split, which would then lead to a decrease in overall fan interest in the MLB, particularly for fans of teams that are particularly poor.
Briefly explain what economic impact studies represent.
They are the estimate of change in the net economic activity in a community that occurs because of the spending attributed to a specific sport event or facility.
It’s the analysis of how expenditures on sport teams, events, or facilities economically affect a specific geographic region.
Total revenues minus total cost equals ………
profit
The economics of sport is the study of how people in the sport industry deal with …………
scarcity
The study of the behavior of individual businesses and households is called …………………
microeconomics
The law of ……….. states that consumers will demand less of a product as its price increases and more as its price falls.
demand
Market ……………. is the price at which the quantity demanded equals the quantity supplied.
equilibrium
What economic concern might lead to a decrease in fan interest in Major League Baseball?
a. the widening gap between high- and low-revenue teams
b. the increase in TV revenues for some teams
c. the increase in merchandise sales for some teams
d. the practice of revenue sharing
a. the widening gap between high- and low-revenue teams
What is the definition of profit?
a. money generated by high-profile college teams
b. total revenues minus total costs
c. revenues minus expenses after taxes
d. money left over after coaches’ and players’ salaries are paid
b. total revenues minus total costs
What process helps control salaries in the NFL and the NBA?
a. free agency
b. collective bargaining
c. reserve clause
d. economic interaction
b. collective bargaining
The increase in production of a product as its price increases and the decrease in production as its price falls in known as:
a. law of demand
b. law of supply
c. market equilibrium
d. market shortage
b. law of supply
Professional teams within a single league both …….. and ………. to ensure financial success for all teams.
compete, corporate
Write out the equation that is used to calculate the profit level for a sport organization.
Revenue – Cost
What is the largest single source of revenue in collegiate athletics?
NCAA Men’s Basketball Championship
What is festival seating? Why is it controversial?
Festival seating is a type of GA seating, but is a misnomer because no actual seats exist. Festival seating allows stectators to crowd together standing shoulder to shoulder in open floor spaces. Although promoters can sell more tickets, it is a potentially deadly arrangement and continues to be a controversial topic in event management.
What are the four general categories of sport facilities?
a) Single-Purpose Facilities
b) Multipurpose Facilities
c) Entertainment Facilities
d) Intercollegiate Facilities
Moving from public to private management is called ………
privatization
A generic document that uses standard language and a fill-in-the-blanks format is called a ………….
boilerplate
A dangerous form of seating in which there are actually no seats is called ……………..
festival seating
Who is directly responsible for creating the facility’s standard operating procedures and ensuring that these procedures are administered correctly?
a. facility manager
b. facility director
c. operations manager
d. event coordinator
e. a and b
e. a. facility manager
b. facility director
Who reports directly to the head administrator and is responsible for all personnel, procedures and activities related to the facility?
a. facility manager
b. facility director
c. operations manager
d. event coordinator
e. a and b
b. operations manager
Who is directly responsible for managing ice shows, political rallies, and athletic events?
a. facility manager
b. facility director
c. operations manager
d. event coordinator
e. a and b
d. event coordinator
For large events, how much time is usually allowed for load-in and setup?
a. 3 hours
b. 6 hours
c. 1 days
d. 2 days
c. 1 days
The legislation that provides civil rights for citizens with disabilities by prohibiting discrimination in places of public accommodation in called the ………………………………
ADA – Americans with Disabilities Act
What type of seating assures spectators a specific seat, in a specific row, in a specific section at the event?
Reserved
What type of seating is a first-come, first-serves process?
General Admission
True or False: Customer service is important in event management because it can lead to repeat customers if done properly.
TRUE
True or False: Effective signage is a component of crowd control.
TRUE
Define consumer behavior.
The process involved in the search, selection, purchase, and use of products, services, and experiences that fulfill consumers’ needs or desires. Consumer behavior helps you understand how personal and group factors influence consumer decisions and how people make purchase decisions.
Researchers have identified three key motives for participating in sport. List them.
a) Achievement
b) Social
c) Mastery Motives
What is the key to the success of a sport organization?
The ability to attract consumers
What three components work together to form an attitude?
a) Cognitive
b) Affective
c) Behavioral
A positive level of arousal is called …………..
eu-stress
If you are BIRGing, what are you doing?
Basking In Reflective Glory
A …………….. is the focus of an organization’s marketing efforts.
target market
When we buy a product and then question our judgment about it, we are experiencing cognitive ……………
dissonance
The belief that only women should attend soccer games represents which component of attitude?
a. cognitive
b. behavioral
c. affective
d. extrinsic
a. cognitive
What is a group to which a person wishes to belong?
Aspirational Group
What are the three steps in the decision process?
a) Gather Information
b) Interpret the Facts
c) Look at the Opportunity/Options & Decide
Under the Americans with Disabilities Act, what three conditions define a person as having a disability?
a) a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities
b) a record of a disability
c) a perception of possessing a disability
In what three areas are schools generally evaluated for Title IX compliance?
a) The schools distribution of financial aid among women’s and men’s athletic teams
b) Benefits, opportunities, and treatments within men’s and women’s sports programs
c) Whether the interest and abilities of the underrepresented group have been accommodated.
List at least five of the ten areas evaluated for the second evaluation area of Title IX.
a) Provision of equipment and supplies
b) Provision of locker rooms, practice facilities, and competitive facilities
c) Provision of medical and training facilities and services
d) Publicity and recruitment procedures
e) Provision of housing and dining facilities and services
The purpose of ……… law is to remedy a wrong done to a single injured plaintiff.
tort
…………… is the failure to act as another reasonable, prudent professional would have acted in a like or similar circumstance.
Negligence
Title IX of the Education Amendments Act of 1972 was originally intended to provide equal opportunity for both sexes in what area?
Prevents discrimination in any program that receives federal financial assistance
What law prohibits discrimination against people with disabilities?
Americans with Disabilities Act
………. relieve a business and its employees of a responsibility for their acts of ordinary negligence.
Waivers
……………….. represents a negative false statement, negligently made, that results in damage to a person’s reputation, pride, and integrity.
Defamation
Invasion of privacy and defamation are examples of what?
a. tort law
b. negligence
c. intentional torts
d. ADA
c. intentional torts
The doctrine of precedent works together with another concept to the provide predictability and consistency. What is that other concept?
Stare Decisis
What is the purpose of tort law?
Remedy to a wrong
Define negligence.
The failure to act as another reasonably prudent person would act in the same situation.
To prove negligence, what four elements must plaintiff prove?
a) duty
b) a breach of duty
c) a proximate cause
d) injury
Title IX compliance employs a three-prong test to examine the extent to which the interest and abilities of the underrepresented group have been represented. What are the prongs in this three-prong test?
Proportionality
History
Accommodation
Enactments made by a legislature and expressed in a formal document are considered …………..
statutes
A legal case establishing a principle or rule that a court may need to adopt when deciding subsequent cases with similar issues or facts is referred to as …………..
precedent
As is it embodied in the 5th and 14th amendments to the United States constitution, ……………. ensures that a law shall not be unreasonable, arbitrary, or capricious and that the means selected for enforcing a law shall have a reasonable and substantial relation t the objective government sought.
due process
The law of ………. is also known as the law of private agreements.
contracts
In what four areas have sport sociologists identified racial myths and prejudices about African Americans and other ethnic minorities in sport?
a) Assumptions about race and athletic ability
b) Sport leadership
c) Sport media coverage
d) The role of sport in racially connected upward mobility
Why is it important for sport managers to know about people?
Because the sport manager must understand the social context of sport and the meaning attached to that context in order to get people involved with and stay committed to a certain activity.
Sport sociology examines which of the following?
a. behavior of specific individuals
b. social patterns of individuals
c. organizations of groups
d. structures of individuals
c. organizations of groups
True or False: Since the passage of title IX, the number of female coaches of women’s coaches has decreased.
TRUE
How do young children learn to think and behave in accordance with the multiplicity ofsocial roles available to them?
a. role learning
b. collective social learning
c. hypothetical situations
d. social deviance
a. role learning
In bringing people together by giving them a sense of personal identity, group membership, and social identification, sport serves as a ……………… .
a. bright side of life
b. collector of people
c. unifier of people
d. leader of people
c. unifier of people
Before Title IX, most administrators and coaches of women’s intercollegiate sports teams were:
a. former athletes
b. team members
c. men
d. women
d. women
The irrational fear or intolerance of homosexuality, gay men, or lesbians is called:
a. hemophilia
b. homogeneity
c. homophobia
d. homomania
c. homophobia
Steering minority players away from the quarterback position is a form of
a. strutting
b. stacking
c. stomping
d. strapping
b. stacking
Define ambush marketing.
A tactic whereby a company attampts to undermine the sponsorship activities of a rival that owns the legal rights to a sponsor an event; intended to create the sense that the ambusher is officially associated with the event. (McDonalds/Subway/Olympics)
Define blood doping.
The practice of illicitly boosting the number of red blood cells, which transport oxygen, to enhance athletic performance
List four current issues associated with international sport governance.
a) Corporate Sponsorship
b) Drug Testing and Arbitration
c) The Use of Assistive Devices
d) Concerns Associated with the Paralympic Games
During the Summer Olympics of ……… in Munich, terrorists murdered 11 Israeli athletes and coaches.
1972
In …….. , the International Olympic Committee eliminated all references to the term amateur in the Olympic governance documents.
1985
The city that hosts the Olympic Games is also required to host the ………… Games, which occur 2 weeks later.
Paralympic
Athletes with physical or visual disabilities compete in the …………………
Paralympic Games
What event marked the birth of a new international sport revolution?
a. 2002 FIFA Men’s World Championship
b. 1994 Men’s FIFA World Cup
c. 1972 Summer Olympics
d. 1999 Women’s FIFA World Cup
c. 1972 Summer Olympics
Who was the official US Olympic outerwear sponsor for the 1992 Olympics?
a. Nike
b. Reebok
c. Puma
d. addidas
b. Reebok
Why did some members of the 1992 US men’s basketball team that won the Olympic gold medal cover the logo of the official outerwear sponsor with the American flag?
a. They were opposed to corporate sponsorship on ethical groungs.
b. They had endorsement contracts with other companies and didn’t want to be seem implicitly endorsing a competitor’s product.
c. They wanted to make the statement that they were participated in the Olympics for their country.
d. It was an honest mistake, and they did not realize they covered the logo.
b. They had endorsement contracts with other companies and didn’t want to be seem implicitly endorsing a competitor’s product.
What does the acronym WADA stand for?
World Anti-Doping Agency
What does the acronym CAS stand for?
Court of Arbitration for Sport
In 2008, double-amputee Oscar Pistorius brought about controversy in his efforts to qualify as a South American Olympic runner in the 400 meters because of his prosthetic legs. This is an example of while international sport governance issue?
a. corporate sponsorship of major international sporting events
b. drug testing and arbitration
c. assistive devices
d. Paralympic governance concerns
c. assistive devices
True or False: Assessing the degree to which an organization is engaged in international sport is more difficult than assessing the context in which an organization operates.
TRUE
Which or the following has greatly contributed to the growth of women’s sports in the United States and, indirectly, around the world?
a. Title IX
b. WADA
c. CAS
d. BALCO
a. Title IX
The USOC Revised its code of conduct to include language requiring all US Olympic athletes to wear apparel provided by the official US Olympic sponsors as a result of which international sport governance issue?
a. corporate sponsorship of major international sporting events
b. drug testing and arbitration
c. assistive devices
d. Paralympic governance concerns
a. corporate sponsorship of major international sporting events
The World Anti-Doping Agency was formed as a response to which of the following international sport governance issues?
a. corporate sponsorship of major international sporting events
b. drug testing and arbitration
c. assistive devices
d. Paralympic governance concerns
b. drug testing and arbitration
True or False: Sport is often seen as a universal product that bridges cultural differences, customs, and belief systems and, thus, is a vital part of the growing international business exchange.
TRUE
Whenever a non-TOP company links images of sports or athletes to the Olympic host city without using the term Olympic or Olympic Games in its ads, this is referred to as
a. sponsorship
b. ambush marketing
c. international marketing
d media relations
b. ambush marketing
List three common methods used to collect quantitative data.
a) Content Analyses
b) Secondary Data Analysis
c) Questionnaires
List three common methods used to collect qualitative data.
a) Focus Groups
b) Interviews
c) Observations
True or False: Qualitative and quantitative data both involve numbers.
FALSE
Research instruments must be both ……… (captures the meaning of abstract concepts) and ……….. (consistent).
validity, reliability
Sport managers face considerable challenges when they interpret research if they lack adequate ………..
training
True or False: Trial and error is an efficient method of sport management.
FALSE
True or False: Sport management research is a systematic way of examining the hunches, assumptions, and questions about a wide range of sport management phenomena.
TRUE
True or False: Although several commercial research firms exist, the uniqueness of the issues facing today’s professional sports leagues has driven many of them to take responsibility for their own research undertakings.
TRUE
What was the second most successful Nike marketing campaign featuring Bo Jackson?
Elite Cross Training Shoes
What was the nickname for the NC State 1983 basketball team?
Cardiac Pack
In the early 1990’s, what player speculated that 30% of major league baseball players were taking PEDs?
Tony Gwynn
What is Nick Saban’s Record in championship games? (Conference and National)?
8-1
AT&T Stadium uses more energy on game day than what country uses in a year?
Liberia
What two sports did Andrew Lummus play in college?
Football and Baseball
Which player from the Fab Five made it to the NBA?
Ray Jackson
Who won the 2013 Masters?
Adam Scott
Who did the Springboks beat in the World Cup Championship?
New Zealand
How many league titles did Sir Alex win at Manchester?
13
How many professional tennis players have won a career grand slam?
16
Where is the next Olympics going to be held?
Sochi, Russia
What is the name of the player recently acquired by FC Barcelona?
Neymar
What two teams played the first game of football in the United States?
The Ruckers and Princeton
Who offered to sign Billy Beane to a five year, $12.5 million deal?
The Boston Red Sox
Who spoke the famous quote against the USSR at the end of the game?
Al Michaels
What building did madison Square garden take over in 1968?
Penn Station
What stadium has a similar layout to bush stadium?
Wrigley Field