Sport Management Exam 1 (Chapters 1-4) Key Terms

Associated Spending
money spent by sport participants, spectators, and sponsors
Extreme sports
a general term for a collection of action sports involving adrenaline-inducing exploit. They often feature a combination of speed, height, danger, and spectacular stunts.
Discretionary funds
money left over after necessary expenditures (rent, food, car payment, insurance) have been made
Underrepresented groups
people who traditionally have not been hired in sport management positions (women, people of color, people with disabilities)
Networking
the building up or maintaining of informal relationships, especially with people who could bring advantages such as job or business opportunities
Workforce diversity
people of different ages, genders, religions, physical abilities, social classes, sexual orientations, races, ethnicities, and cultures working together in an organization
Organizational culture
workplace values, norms, and behaviors that produce patterns of behavior unique to an organization
Principled decision making
basing decisions on the six pillar character-trustworthiness, respect, responsibility, fairness, caring, and good citizenship (responsible participation in society)
Descriptive
Concerns about the way the world is, was, or is going to be
Prescriptive
Concerns about the way the world should or ought to be
Extracurricular activities
opportunities for involvement with clubs, organizations, and sports in which students in a school may participate that are not part of the regular academic curriculum
Field experience
hands-on learning opportunity in which students gain professional experience in an organization while receiving class credit
mock interview
a practice interview in which you can rehearse your responses to questions that interviewers are likely to ask you
Explicit norms
formally communicated rules that govern behavior or group members
Implicit norms
unstated or informal rules understood and practiced bu members of an organization
Etiquette
a system of rules and conventions that regulate social and professional behavior
Work ethic
a set of values based on desirable workplace characteristics that include accountability, dependability, initiative taking, and accomplishment
Values
indications of what you consider most important or desirable
Job content skills
the specialized knowledge or abilities needed to fulfill specific job duties
Entrepreneur
someone who demonstrates initiative, creates and innovates, and new ideas into effect
Vertical integration
a company’s expansion by moving forward or backward within an industry; expansion along a product or service value chain
Horizontal intergration
occurs when a company adds new products and services to its organizational structure
Diversification
the act of adding new products to the company’s product mix, this diversifying the company’s product offerings
Decentralized organization
the act of developing a separate divisions, sub-companies, or departments that focus on certain tasks or products of the company and can be run automatically
Watershed events
events or developments in an industry that cause significant changes throughout the industry
Reason-why advertisements
advertising that tells consumers why they should buy a certain product
Market share
ranked position in a market determined by the percentage of a company’s product sales in that market. For instance, if only 3 companies produce and sell basketball shoes, the company that sells the most shoes to the most customers is considered to hold the number one spot in that product market.
Emotive advertising
advertising that attempts to appeal to consumers’ emotions
Age of organization
a period of time, the 1880’s and 1890’s, during which companies began to organize and market sport to specific markets, such as youth
Distribution
the manner in which a sport industry product or service moves from the producer or manufacturer to the consumer; distribution channels or outlets are the individual people (jobbers, dealers, salespeople, brokers) and companies (wholesalers, retailers) involved in the process of getting the product to the end user
Battle of the Sexes
a tennis match in 1973 between Billie Jean King and Bobby Riggs. King’s much-heralded victory over Riggs represented a key triumph over the sexism and provided a significant historical lesson on exceeding sexist expectations and assumptions
Organization
social entity created to coordinate the efforts of individuals with the intent to achieve goals
Economies of scale
savings originating from the mass production of goods and services
Economies of scope
maximization of resources used throughout an organization
Environment
all elements outside the boundary of the organization that have the potential to affect all or part of the organization
Deomgraphy
involves the examination of populations including such elements as size, births, deaths, migration, and aging
Effectiveness
the extent to which goals are achieved
Efficiency
the extent to which goals are achieved using the fewest possible resources
Organizational structure
a formal system of task and authority relationships that control how people coordinate their actions and used resources to achieve organizational goals
Organizational design
process bu which leaders select and manage aspects of structure and culture of the organization
Organizational culture
set of shared values and norms that controls organizational members interactions with each other and with people outside the organization