Sport management chapter 3 and 4

According to Kotler (2003), the marketer’s job boils down to one action:
A. advertising.
B. pricing.
C. creating demand.
D. maximizing revenues.
C. creating demand.
The group of consumers to whom a product is marketed is the
A. audience.
B. demographic.
C. target market.
D. sports fan.
C. target market.
The earliest evolutionary change in sports broadcasting from factual reporting to sports entertainment was seen within
A. ABC’s Monday Night Football broadcast.
B. the Internet.
C. 1950 World Series radio broadcasts.
D. the NCAA basketball tournament.
B. the Internet.
Roone Arledge’s influence upon sports broadcasting included all of the following except
A. innovations such as instant replay, sideline reporters, multiple cameras, and crowd microphones.
B. efforts to “take the fan to the game, not take the game to the fan.”
C. refusing to allow leagues commissioners and team owners to approve announcers.
D. significant progressions in the way that sport marketers research the demands of the fan.
D. significant progressions in the way that sport marketers research the demands of the fan.
The first company to capitalize on the term “official” with regard to a professional sport product was
A. Rawlings.
B. Spalding.
C. Wilson.
D. Diamond.
B. Spalding.
Mark McCormack’s sports marketing agency, IMG, began through a relationship with players of this sport
A. baseball.
B. golf.
C. tennis.
D. football.
B. golf.
Nike’s huge success since 1972 has come primarily as a result of all of the following except
A. brand strength.
B. advertising.
C. league sponsorships.
D. athlete endorsements.
C. league sponsorships.
By turning a parking garage in proximity to the 1996 Atlanta Olympic Village into a mini-Niketown, Nike was engaged in
A. target marketing.
B. athlete endorsements.
C. sponsorship.
D. ambush marketing.
D. ambush marketing.
The emphasis on product extensions and the development of team sport promotional strategy can be attributed to
A. Roone Arledge.
B. Bill Veeck.
C. Branch Rickey.
D. David Stern.
B. Bill Veeck.
Bill Veeck believed and operated under the philosophy that fans came to the ballpark to
A. be entertained.
B. analyze baseball strategy.
C. study player development.
D. watch a baseball game.
A. be entertained.
When working for the Golden State Warriors, Matt Levine developed an “audience audit” which advanced the practices of
A. sport sales.
B. sport accounting practices.
C. sponsorship awareness.
D. sport marketing research.
D. sport marketing research.
The purposes of sport marketing research include all of the following except
A. profiling the sport consumer demographically.
B. analyzing purchasing behavior.
C. allowing fans direct input into team personnel decisions.
D. offering two-way communication with target market.
C. allowing fans direct input into team personnel decisions.
In 1992, the San Jose Sharks utilized _____________ in heavily traveled areas to help gain information about fan reaction to proposed logo and uniform designs.
A. exit polling
B. focus groups
C. “pass-by interviews”
D. random sampling
C. “pass-by interviews”
The controllable variables the company puts together to satisfy a target group are referred to as the
A. promotional mix.
B. target market.
C. marketing mix.
D. product orientation.
C. marketing mix.
Because a sport marketer has very little control over their core product it has led entrepreneurs like Bill Veeck to focus on
A. team winning percentage.
B. product extensions.
C. efficient operational systems.
D. sponsorship revenues.
B. product extensions.
All of the following are functions of promotion except
A. advertising.
B. pricing research.
C. personal selling.
D. publicity.
B. pricing research.
Sports marketers define ______ as the personal commitment and emotional involvement customers have with a sport organization.
A. target marketing
B. customer promotion
C. fan identification
D. the winner’s curse
C. fan identification
“______ has the aim of building mutually satisfying long-term relations with key parties—customers, suppliers, distributors—in order to earn and retain their business” (Kotler 2003).
A. Fan identification
B. Sponsorship sales
C. Sport marketing
D. Relationship marketing
D. Relationship marketing
Customer retention activities demonstrating care and concern for the customer following a purchase is considered by marketers as
A. telemarketing.
B. target marketing.
C. relationship marketing.
D. aftermarketing.
D. aftermarketing.
Beyond teams, recent research suggests that fans may also identify with an array of elements including
A. coaches.
B. individual players.
C. smaller subgroups of fans.
D. All of these are correct.
D. All of these are correct.
While at a sporting event it is common for a sponsor company to offer free merchandise in exchange for filling out personal information, such as name, address, and demographics, on a specialized index card. This is an example of
A. pass-by interviews.
B. database marketing.
C. focus groups.
D. relationship marketing.
B. database marketing.
Which of the following companies had early roles (early 1900s) in exploiting our country’s interest in sport through sponsorship except
A. Nike.
B. Coca-Cola.
C. Gillette.
D. American Tobacco Company.
A. Nike.
Nike has successfully used each of the following as athlete endorsers except
A. Tiger Woods.
B. Michael Jordan.
C. LeBron James.
D. Yao Ming.
D. Yao Ming.
Sports marketing includes the marketing of ______.
A. leagues and teams
B. products, services, entities, and recruitment
C. sponsorships, outfield billboards, and ticket packages
D. leagues, individuals, and events
B. products, services, entities, and recruitment
The NFL’s current TV contract calls for the league to be paid more than ______ per year.
A. $4.95 billion
B. $3 million
C. $100 million
D. $100 billion
B. $3 million
Plunkett Research estimates that total spending across the entire sports industry amounted to approximately ______ in 2012.
A. $435 billion
B. $214 billion
C. $1 billion
D. $1 trillion
A. $435 billion
. The concept of ______ is probably the best single measure of an industry’s impact.
A. total output
B. total spending
C. aggregate market value of firms in industry
D. value added
D. value added
Which of the following most accurately defines the managerial discipline of finance?
A. How an organization generates the funds that flow into the organization
B. How an organization allocates its funds once they are in the organization
C. Any decision relating to money
D. A and B are correct.
E. All of these are correct.
D. A and B are correct.
In a basic sense, the financial success of an organization is ultimately dependent on
A. revenues
B. sales
C. profits
D. expenses
E. A and B are correct.
C. profits
______ is/are anything that an organization owns that can be used to generate future revenues.
A. Assets
B. Liabilities
C. Owners’ equity
D. Bonds
E. A and C are correct.
A. Assets
All of the following are examples of publicly traded sport companies except
A. Electronic Art.
B. Nike.
C. University of Notre Dame athletic department.
D. Callaway Golf.
E. All of these are publicly traded sport companies.
C. University of Notre Dame athletic department.
As chronicled in the book Moneyball, the strategy employed by the small-market Oakland A’s general manager Billy Beane to better compete with large-market teams by identifying and acquiring undervalued players is an example of an organization maximizing its ______.
A. revenues
B. tax breaks
C. athlete endorsements
D. return on investment
D. return on investment
Which statement concerning the tradeoff between financing through debt or equity is true?
A. Generally, financing with debt is more expensive than equity.
B. Generally, financing with debt carries more risk than equity.
C. A and B are correct.
D. Neither A nor B are correct.
C. A and B are correct.
Which financial statement measures the financial performance of an organization over a specified time period, usually a year?
A. Statement of cash flows
B. Income statement
C. Balance sheet
D. Financial ledger
B. Income statement
In which American major league sport has a rival league NOT emerged since World War II?
A. Baseball
B. Basketball
C. Football
D. Hockey
A. Baseball
Why have no rival leagues to the major American sport leagues emerged in more than 20 years?
A. Players today have much less incentive to jump to a rival league, as the emergence of stronger players associations and free agency means that players are much less often “underpaid.”
B. There is a lack of viable cities and markets in which to play as the major professional leagues have gone through successive rounds of expansion to the point where all four currently have 30 or more franchises.
C. A and B are correct.
D. Neither A nor B are correct.
C. A and B are correct.
The increase in ticket prices in all leagues in recent years reflects
A. consumers’ increased affluence.
B. decreased regulation on ticket scalping.
C. the growing popularity of sport.
D. A and C are correct.
E. All of these are correct.
D. A and C are correct.
Increased revenue in spectator sports has come from
A. gate receipts.
B. broadcast contracts.
C. stadium naming rights.
D. B and C are correct.
E. All of these are correct.
E. All of these are correct.
Which of the following leagues uses a “soft” salary cap?
A. NBA
B. MLB
C. NHL
D. NFL
A. NBA
The philosophy behind a “hard” salary cap is to
A. change the behavior of high-payroll teams.
B. constrain all franchises to spend the same amount on payroll.
C. share certain types of revenue amongst all franchises.
D. All of these are correct.
B. constrain all franchises to spend the same amount on payroll.
Why do economists suggest that revenue sharing, in and of itself, will do little to improve competitive balance?
A. Teams receiving revenue-sharing transfers do not receive enough money for it to make a difference.
B. Teams receiving revenue-sharing transfers may have little incentive to use the money to increase payroll, simply choosing to retain the transfer as added profit.
C. Teams receiving revenue-sharing transfers are already the highest payroll teams.
D. Both B and C are correct.
B. Teams receiving revenue-sharing transfers may have little incentive to use the money to increase payroll, simply choosing to retain the transfer as added profit.
Where revenue sharing may be effective as a tool to improve competitive balance is when it is used in conjunction with a ______.
A. luxury tax
B. soft salary cap
C. “reverse-order” draft
D. hard salary cap
D. hard salary cap
Leagues such as the NFL, NBA, and MLB all maintain “credit facilities” because
A. the leagues do not trust the financial markets.
B. the leagues can borrow less expensively than can individual teams.
C. the leagues use them to administer revenue sharing.
D. A and B are correct.
E. B and C are correct.
B. the leagues can borrow less expensively than can individual teams.
Which league has the highest credit rating in sports?
A. MLB
B. NFL
C. NBA
D. NHL
B. NFL
The average player salary in the NBA is now approximately ______.
A. $800 thousand
B. $1.4 million
C. $5.15 million
D. $10.3 million
C. $5.15 million
What is the term given to the amount of their own money owners have invested in the firm?
A. Debt
B. Assets
C. Liabilities
D. Equity
D. Equity
In spectator sports, stadium construction projects are often financed with ______.
A. equity
B. interest
C. bonds
D. expenses
C. bonds
Increased revenue in spectator sports has come from
A. gate receipts.
B. broadcast contracts.
C. sponsorship sales.
D. stadium naming rights.
E. All of these are correct.
E. All of these are correct.