Sport Management Chapter 12

Introduction to Sport Marketing
Marketing is a complex function: includes elements of selling, advertising, public relations, and community relations

Sport marketing: designing and implementing activities for the production, pricing, promotion, and distribution of a sport product to satisfy customers

Unique characteristics of sport
-Demands unique approach to marketing.
-Provides marketers with challenges and opportunities

Unique Characteristics of Sport
-Aspects of sport are intangible.
-Sport involves emotions.
-Sport is subjective and heterogeneous.
-Sport is generally socially consumed.
-Sport experiences are inconsistent and unpredictable.
-Sport is perishable.
Developing a Sport Marketing Plan
Marketing plans:
-Strategy (increase interest) & Tactics (halftime promo)

Marketing mix (four Ps)
-Product
-Price
-Place
-Promotion

What Are the 4 P’s
-Product: tangible good, a service, or an intangible quality that satisfies consumers’ wants or needs

-Price: value of the product and the costs that the consumer must accept to obtain the product

-Place: distribution channels that allow consumers to access or obtain the product

-Promotion: integrated communication and PR activities that promote it to try to get the consumer to buy the product

Developing a Sport Marketing Plan: Four Ps
-Central to the sport marketing plan.
-Manipulated by sport marketers’ strategic and tactical plans.
-Integrated with other elements for optimal success.

10 steps to developing a sport marketing plan: purpose, product, projecting the market, positioning, players, packaging, pricing, promotion, place, promise

Process for Developing a Sport Marketing Plan: Step 1
1. Identify the purpose of the sport marketing plan.
-Mission Statement = purpose
-Goals = general statements of expected outcomes
-Objectives = specific activities enabling the sport marketer to reach expected outcomes
Process for Developing a Sport Marketing Plan: Step 2
2. Analyze the sport product.
*Dynamic and complex nature of the sport product
*Dimensions of the sport product:
-tangible goods (clothing or equipment)
-support services (activities that help the sport but aren’t a necessity)
-the game or event itself: Core product (actual competition) & Product extensions (mascots, music)
Process for Developing a Sport Marketing Plan: Step 3
3. Project the market climate
*Influence of market conditions
*Assessing the sport climate:
-internal factors: factors inside a sport organization that affect the sport marketing climate (players, owners)
-external factors: factors outside of a sport organization that affect the sport marketing climate (media, sponsors, advertisers)
SWOT Analysis – Overview
-Assessing internal strengths and weaknesses
-Assessing external opportunities and threats

Marketing plans should:
-maximize strengths & opportunities
-minimize weaknesses & threats

Process for Developing a Sport Marketing Plan: Step 4
Position the sport product.
-Differentiating the product from competing products
-Creating a distinctive image of the product
-Elements of effective communication practices: Using honest and non-offensive communication
Branding – Overview
Using a name, design, or symbol to differentiate a sport product:
-Brand awareness – recognition and recollection of the brand name
-Brand image – perception and set of beliefs about a brand that shapes their attitudes about it
-Brand equity – value that the brand contributes to a product in the market place
-Brand loyalty – consistent purchase or repeat purchase of one brand
Process for Developing a Sport Marketing Plan: Step 5
Pick the players.
*Analyzing and targeting consumers: grouping and selecting the right consumers
*Market segmentation
-Used to identify target audiences
-Segmenting consumers into four areas: demographics, psychographics, media preferences, purchasing behavior
Process for Developing a Sport Marketing Plan: Step 6
Package the sport product.
*Presenting the product in the best possible manner
*Packaging
-Tangible sport product, core product, product extensions
-Licensed merchandise and sport sponsorship
Process for Developing a Sport Marketing Plan: Step 7
Price the sport product.
-Determining the value of the product
-Price is the most visible and flexible element
-Factors to consider when developing pricing strategy
-Unique aspects and complexity of sport pricing
Process for Developing a Sport Marketing Plan: Step 8
Promote the sport product.
-Communicating the desired image (see the sidebar, Renaming the Washington Bullets)
-Educating and informing target audiences
-Persuading target audiences to purchase
Elements of Promotion Strategy (1)
-Advertising(one-way messages)
-Publicity (nonpaid)
-Activities and inducements (giveaways, coupons)
-Public relations (PR=MR+CR)
Elements of Promotion Strategy (2)
-Community relations
-Media relations
-Personal selling (face to face)
-Sponsorship
Process for Developing a Sport Marketing Plan: Step 9
Place: Distributing the sport product.
-Product location
-Distribution point of origin
-Geographic location of target markets
-Other channels
Process for Developing a Sport Marketing Plan: Step 10
Evaluate the promises of the sport marketing plan.
-Evaluating the extent to which plan met its promise
-Obtaining and analyzing feedback from internal and external sources
Market Research
Information needed to develop marketing plan
-The product
-Targeted consumers
-Social, cultural, and economic trends
-Direct and indirect competitors
Practical Application
-Technology, social media, and sport marketing

-Critical thinking in sport marketing: Infusion of hip-hop nuances into marketing plans

Ethics in sport marketing
-Communicating honesty in images and integrity in messages
-Technology’s impact on sport marketing practices
-Increasing consumer diversity

Sport Marketing
process of designing & implementing activities for the production, pricing, promotion and distribution of a sport product/sport business product to satisfy the needs or desires of consumers and to achieve the company’s objectives
Marketing Plans
comprehensive strategic and tactical frameworks for identifying and achieving a sport organization’s marketing goals and objectives
Marketing Mix
Elements of product, price, place, and promotion, which sport marketers alter, modify, or manipulate to achieve marketing goals and objectives
Product Life Cycle
the lifespan stages of a sport product include introduction, growth, maturity, and decline
Internal Factors
factors inside a sport organization that affect the sport marketing climate (players, owners, management)
External Factors
factors outside of a sport organization that affect the sport marketing climate (media, sponsors, advertisers)
SWOT Analysis
a management technique available to sport marketers to help them assess the strengths and weaknesses of an organization and the opportunities and threats that it faces
Branding
the process of using a name, design, symbol, or any combo of the three to help differentiate a sport product from the competition
Market Segmentation
the process of identifying smaller and viable clusters of sport consumers who may exhibit similar wants, needs, and interests regarding sport
Sport Sponsorship
the acquisition of rights affiliate or associate with a sport product or sporting event in order to derive benefits from the affiliation or association
Promotions Mix
the collection of integrated activities that seek to communicate, inform, and ultimately persuade consumers to participate in the sport consumption activity, experience, or event
Place
the comprehensive manner in which sport is distributed to consumers
Marketing Research
the systematic process of obtaining, analyzing, and interpreting data or info to evaluate and improve marketing practices