SPCM 2360 UNIT 2

New Urbanism
Centrally planned communities by companies ie, Celebration, FL
New Ubranism
Recreation of the small ideal town.
Suburban Sprawl / Flight
Post WWII, families started leaving cities for suburbs.
Atmospherics
controlled environments make consumers spend more by appealing to our senses
Atmospherics
sight: mannequins, revolving doors, extravagance, colors
Atmospherics
sound: musak i.e. elevator music
Atmospherics
smell: conscious and unconscious; emotionally evocative
Atmospherics
space: saloon architecture (not having a lot of steps so making navigating through a store that much easier), aisle width, bigger counters elicit bigger buys, architecual lines, waiting spaces
Atmospherics
tactile: floor texture, temperature
Gruen Transfer
the point – go from a goal-oriented shopper to someone who loses direction, sense of purpose and time, and can be acted on by cues of atmospherics
Gruen Transer
Turns a directed shopper to a non-directed, impulse buyer
The Pornographic Gaze
Built on possession, power over, control
Women depicted as
: Fragmented parts, Body parts featured, Women are collections of interchangeable parts, Bound, possessed, Food, Animal, In competition for men
Objectification
Symbolically equating people with objects, Objects are subhuman,Economics, provokes quick manufacture of pleasure but at a cost à becomes naturalized, Dehumanization is first step to violence, Rape is the endpoint of this logic
Green marketing
Julia Corbett: ads brown not green
Green marketing
series of paradoxes
Green Marketing
Conflict between green and marketing (advertising has a tough time being green because it is a large apparatus that encourages consumption)
Green Marketing
Case study: SUV (pictured in front of pristine landscapes but is wasteful/inefficient)
“Green” is marketed as a scarce commodity
must have money to buy it
Greenwashing
Falsely painting a commodity or company as environmentally friendly
Green washing
“Green” itself is marketed as a scarce commodity, Playing on consumer anxiety of alienation from nature, Conflict between marketing real green products/efforts and greenwashing Example: BP marketing itself as green company ..Changed logo to green sunflower, Push in green marketing more so than green production, BP spill crisis stopped BP’s green marketing
Co-optation
a response to mall fatigue when people stopped liking to go to the mall because it made them tired
Co-optation
people went to warehouse stores instead and outside shopping plazas i.e. present day example would be tanger outlets
Co-optation
the rise of theme-towns, commercialized historical districts
Co-optation
colonizing “real” places like Times Square
Co-optation
co-option created a struggle for control for consumer behavior and resistances
Minstrel show
Traveling show in 19th century before radio and tv, Biggest theater group
Minstrel show
Whites wore black faces and imitated black people (whites in “blackface”)
Minstrel show
Whites both producing and consuming blackness. Talking a certain way
Minstrel show
Sang negro spirituals or concocted/white version
Slapstick comedy
White fascination with black music, dance, Buffoonery, “Jim Crow” and “Jim Coon”
Response to anti-slavery movement
1915 Birth of a Nation: racist and fear mongering but is first feature film (silent)
Response to anti-slavery movement
1927 “The Jazz Singer”- Minstrel enters Hollywood (first feature film with sound/talkie)
Response to anti-slavery movement
1930-50 Amos and Andy
Theme of returning back to slavery
Nostalgia for plantation life again, Anti-abolitionist theme
Second Wave
Personal is political, societal changes – feminist consciousness enters the mainstream
Third Wave
Feminist Chic – a response to second wave feminism, lost political element, female empowerment vs. victimization
Third wave
Uses of feminism are often contradictory, Teaches activism through consumerism
Heteronormativity
the idea that the way things are and the way things ought to be are heterosexual in nature
Heternormativity
Images of gayness are produced and consumed by dominant heterosexual culture
Food
Alienation and fetishism, Major innovations of post-war fast food marketing
Food
Alienation: We don’t know where our food comes from and where our trash goes.
Architecture and Space
Migratory trends and city planning after WWII, Architecture of isolation
Architecture and Space
No more front porches, they have garages, sidewalks go unused, lack of interaction
Celebration Florida as case study
Large scale project by Disney
Celebration Florida as case study
Metaphor for a planned corporate community, People wanted to re-urbanize
Celebration Florida as case study
Waiting list and lottery to get into, Accouterments of the walking city
Celebration Florida as case study
Theme parking life- a particular American fantasy, Like living on the set of Leave it to Beaver
Celebration Florida as case study
Private, not public, Disney enforces and makes rules, Not a democratic place, Buildings and logo made to fit in the city, Represents the saturation of the Superbrand: 360 degree brand living, Life everyday of your life in the New Brand
Relationship between Mall and Town Square
Tensions of space: privatization, authenticity,Citizen versus consumer, Centrally planned space which is an extension of suburban trends, Surrogate of the lost town square, A private space that is controlled to maximize consumption, Looks like a town square, but functions otherwise,Displaces citizen with consumer
History of atmospherics
Uses of the senses, Controlled spaces, Muzak as case study
Environment and pop culture
History of environmental movement and relation to marketing
Corbett’s critique of green marketing
The business of advertising is fundamentally “brown,” therefore the idea of advertising being “green” and capable of supporting environmental values is an oxymoron.
Corbett’s critique of green marketing
Advertising commodifies the natural world and attaches material value to non-material goods, treating natural resources as private and possessible, not public and intrinsic.
Corbett’s critique of green marketing
Nature-as-backdrop ads portray an anthropocentric, narcissistic relationship to the biotic community and focus on the enviorment’s utility and benefit to humans.
Corbett’s critique of green marketing
Advertising idealizes the natural world and presents a simplified, distorted picture of nature as sublime, simple, and unproblematic.
Corbett’s critique of green marketing
The depiction of nature in advertising disconnects and estranges us from what is encouraged to reconnect through products, creating a circular consumption.
Corbett’s critique of green marketing
As a ubiquitous form of pop culture, advertising reinforces consonant messages in the social system and provides strong dissonance to oppositional or alternative messages.
Paradoxes of the SUV
been around for a long time, but filled with symbolism, Survivalist, but extravagant- “survival of the fattest”, Protective, but dangerous, Seen as the safest, but more likely to flip and takes twice as long to stop.
Paradoxes of the SUX
Tame, but wild, “off-road”, But few owners actually take them off the road, wasteful, but pictured in pristine landscapes, Statement that goes in the exact opposite direction., example: Chevy commercial: the background is the country, but depicts a big SUV, SUVs try to escape technology, but they also embrace them, being with nature/driving over nature
Enduring mythologies and tactics used in environmental marketing
Nature is a frontier of desire – with SUVs we want to travel to places we haven’t gone, conflict between manifest destiny and earthly paradise
Enduring mythologies and tactics used in environmental marketing
The ad’s main role is to substitute “clean” fantasy of consumption to replace “dirty” reality of production and waste.
Gender and Popular Culture
Producers and consumers of gendered images, Objectification of female body and types, Role of feminism in advertising, Paradoxes of “girl power”, Representation and visibility of minority sexualities in film, television, reality TV
Race and Hip Hop
History of hip hop and its entrance into the mainstream, David Samuels’ argument about the commodification of blackness, Consumption patterns and changing face of hip hop
Race and Hip Hop
Bell Hooks and transgressive consumption, History of the minstrel show and production of blackness, History of white cross-over artist
New Urbanism
Corporations build company towns, sell them to people who want to live there
Suburban Sprawl/flight
Push to find town square again – “white flight” moving away from the city
Town square = metaphor for what
1) chance encounters 2) political activity
Suburban Sprawl/flight
political activity (close to City Hall, government institutions), this idea was seen in the TV show Friends (reflection in mass media)
Suburban Sprawl/flight
family structure was made about living in the city and being close to people your own age, Architecture of isolation: big yard, big fence to keep neighbors away, garage replaced front porch, car culture: Anywhere where you cannot walk on foot. assembly line done with houses; car becomes available to the masses, reflected in films & television
Atmospherics (Rushkoff)
1970s: belief in 100% controlled environment
Atmospherics
the “art of consumption:” the building/architecture elicits feeling that causes you to buy
Atmospherics
“passive coercion:” studying consumers in store environments, then using research to help stores influence shopping experiences; claims that it’s just making the shopping experience more efficient for consumers and merchants
Green Marketing: Diane Hope Mythologies
stories that guide thinking behind green marketing, substituting “clean” fantasy of consumption to replace “dirty” reality (but really, all consumption is “dirty”
green Marketing: Diane Hope Mythologies
environmental ad fantasy is a response to this economic force, history of “The West” and its image: frontiers of desire
green Marketing: Diane Hope Mythologies
conflict between manifest destiny (civilization – the American dream) and earthly paradise (Eden, nature), daily stress vs healing nature, the environment is always going to be “somewhere else”. They have to make you feel like you are lacking something so you will consume their product.
Audience Created Culture
Why white suburban teens have sudden interest in rogue hero, outlaw, gangster character, Frankfurt: Economic forces tend to produce certain kinds of popular culture that are more profitableCulture reflects fantasies of money source, Buying a social commitment, Samuels says that audience demand creates popular culture
Second and third wave feminism
Both waves of feminism have been pushed by women of higher classes (The women that were supporting the 2nd wave were usually the women that didn’t have to work because their husbands made enough money and the women of the 3rd wave were only able to support that image because they had the disposable income that makes them able)
Heteronormativity
Stereotypes of gay men: artist, clown, effeminate, catty, sex-obsessed, psychopathic.Stereotypes of gay women: either as masculinized threats to men or objects of heterosexual male lust.
McDonalds
Grew with Disney. Advertising heavy: selling the intangible (family, America, innovation). Mythic component, fantasy environment. Synergy with entertainment industries (Transformers example). Marketing to parents/kids, Colonizing family life and rituals
McDonalds
National Symbol- golden arches
golden arches as the idea of mindshare and cultural capital
internationalization/nationalism: a way for the U.S. to be “present” in other countries
Celebration, FL
Represents the saturation of the Superbrand: 360 degree brand living, Live everyday of your life in the New Brand
Power comes from the top-down instead of representatives
The Mall
A little celebration everywhere, Citizen versus consumer…ends up displacing citizen with consumer, Centrally planned space which is an extension of suburban trends, A private space that is controlled to maximize consumption, Looks like a town square, it is a surrogate of the town square, but functions otherwise., No first amendment
Miniature “celebration”
Muzak as case study
1920s-1950s: solution to alienation of the modern work place
Muzak as case study
“Threshold of the consciousness” – fills the deadly silences, the idea of stimulus progression, Designed to deaden people, mindless consumers, Response: punk, new wave, grunge, designed to deaden people and turn them into mindless consumers
Muzak as case study
shift from workers to consumers, Songs indexed: tempo, light and dark rhythm
Gender and Popular Culture
Producers and consumers of gendered images, Image makers are male (4% of films directed by women), Mass media is still highly gendered towards males.
Gender and pop culture
Consumer dollars are skewed male, Men have the money and are spending the money, Mediated by the gaze, The “gaze” is something that is invited by the image.
subject vs. object
Who is the actor/has the power (subject, usually men), and the object that gets acted on/has no control (typically the woman) hierarchies: wealthy men will be at the top; normally the ones consuming the ad
History of Representation: Representation and visibility of minority sexualities in film, television, reality TV
production & consumption of “gayness”, dominant culture controls how we produce and consume less dominant culture, “heteronormativity”
History of Representation: Representation and visibility of minority sexualities in film, television, reality TV
1890s-1930s: object of ridicule, comedy (gay men and women on the screen) Highly stereotyped
History of Representation: Representation and visibility of minority sexualities in film, television, reality TV
30s-50s: Hayes Code- disappearance , Developed by Hollywood industry to combat the view that Hollywood is doing things that lower morality of nation, Homosexuality not allowed to be depicted in film, No romantic relationship depicted between different races
History of Representation: Representation and visibility of minority sexualities in film, television, reality TV
60s-80s: loosening of code; visible but now portrayed as dangerous, MPAA: rating system (self-regulation body), Gay culture is corrupt view
History of Representation: Representation and visibility of minority sexualities in film, television, reality TV
1990s: diversifying roles – Philadelphia, The Bird Cage, Ellen, Will and Grace, Healthy gay rights movement influences this time, Advances in gay rights
History of Representation: Representation and visibility of minority sexualities in film, television, reality TV
2000s: complex; depoliticization, Old labels are fading from the picture, Makes difference disappear
Case Study: Survivor
Homosexuals are not invisible anymore, Requisite “one flaming gay character” on reality TV
Case Study: Richard Hatch
When it fits the stereotype, the character’s sexuality is a prominent part of the discourse, Those that break stereotypes escape the discourse of “gayness”
Future of the Straight and Narrow
Going mainstream, Until mid 90s: gays and lesbians on TV were not present EX: Ellen, Will and Grace, Performing acceptance
Reality TV
Early on: debate morality of homosexuality, Early 90s: centered in tabloid talk shows à normalization of same-sex relationships, Youth oriented programming, Genre staple to have gay characters, Real world: built gay and lesbians in mix (a signature feature of show and reality)
Blackness
Early 90s Gangsta Rap, Sudden interest with hip hop, Coincides with appearance of West Coast style, Accounts for most records sold by far
Ethnicity becomes “spice” of consumer culture
Desirable because of exoticism, Commodification of race – becomes a way to differentiate products, Disservice to the idea that race is very diverse
The “primitive” playground in the imperial mind
“Heart of Darkness,” Joseph Conrad: the idea that these ppl need to be civilized, Mysterious, dark Africa and civilized British gentleman encounter the idea that urban America is a primitive playground