SPCH 1318 FINAL

Which of the below have Ekman and Friesen identified as key sources of nonverbal cues?
face, hands, and feet
Alejandro was sitting by himself in the quad, leaned over, with his head resting on the heels of his hands. Joe approached and said, “Hey Alejandro, you look sad.” Alejandro responded, “Huh? No, I’m just thinking.” Which difficulty in interpreting nonverbal behavior does this exchange exemplify?
Nonverbal messages are often ambiguous.
Josephus can’t seem to talk without using his hands. He is always pointing, and shaping, and indicating size when he talks. How would you classify Josephus’ actions?
illustrators
The face, voice, and movement are the primary indicators of
arousal cues.
When Judd enters the elevator at the hospital and instead of turning and facing the doors, the same direction everyone else is facing, he faces the back of the elevator and asks Dr. French to push the button for the third floor, Dr. French notices Judd’s
expectancy violation.
Oftentimes, a student will sit in the same seat all semester and may become upset if someone else takes his or her seat. This behavior reflects which category of nonverbal behavior?
territoriality
Ekman calls ________ “gymnasts of the mind” because of their surprising ability in detecting microexpressions.
Buddhists
One research team estimated that about 50-60 percent of U.S. households have experienced at least minor forms of violence.
True
Interdependent means that people do not need to rely on another; what one person does or says has little affects the other.
False
A tell is a nonverbal cue, such as a facial expression, body posture, or eye behavior, that gives away what we are thinking and feeling.
True
As a general rule, men are more likely to initiate touch with a woman before they are married than after they are married.
True
According to the “struggle spectrum,” which of the following is closest to the “fight” end of the scale?
litigation
Frustration awareness occurs in which of the following stages of a conflict?
beginning
Which skill is being addressed when you select a mutually acceptable time and place to discuss a conflict so as to avoid saying or doing anything you will later regret?
managing your emotions
Yakov sees Sven in the quad and says, “Hey, Sven. Where were you? I thought we were going to meet at McDonald’s for lunch.” Sven responds, “Hey, man. I was there. Where were you?” Yakov says, “I was there at noon, like we agreed, and waited 30 minutes for you to show up.” Sven says, ” I was there at noon and didn’t see you. Hey, wait a minute. Which McDonald’s did you go to? I was at the one on campus.” Yakov says, “Well that explains it. I was at the one on the main highway.” What kind of conflict does this situation reflect?
pseudoconflict
Which myth about conflict has someone accepted if he or she believes that if only we listen harder and paraphrase, conflicts can be solved?
Conflict can always be resolved.
Rob is extremely angry with Beth about something he heard she said about him to a mutual friend. When he approaches Beth, Rob is surprised when she starts talking about all the bad things Rob has done to her in the past. Beth is engaging in
gunny-sacking.
All of the following are one of the three categories into which Miller and Steinberg say all conflicts fit EXCEPT:
instrumental conflict
Rob is extremely angry with Beth about something he heard she said about him to a mutual friend. Before approaching Beth, Rob asks himself whether coming on strong with Beth will be a good idea. Rob is engaging in
self-talk.
Interaction adaptation theory suggests that people tend to “catch” the emotions of others.
False
Long-married couples spend less time verbalizing their feelings and emotions to each other than they did when they were first dating.
True
When communicating online, a simple conflict can become an ego conflict when you use ________ in your communication.
flaming
Alistair’s friend Ivana is going to go to a baseball game tonight and has asked him to go along. He wants to go, but also wants to stay home and relax after a difficult week at work. He feels torn in two directions and wants to do the game AND wants to stay home. This is an example of which of the following?
dialectical tension
Heather and William are planning their son’s first birthday party and are inviting both of their extended families to celebrate. Just as they dreaded, Heather’s aunt Sonja declines her invitation because she dislikes some of William’s relatives and refuses to be in the same room with them. Heather calls and tries to reason with Sonja, who remains steadfast; in fact, her suggestion is that they throw separate parties for each side of the family. Heather and William are left sad and tired that this rift continues to arise each time they try to arrange a family function. Heather and William seem to be facing which of the following myths about conflict?
Conflict can always be resolved.
What stage of the conflict process is involved when Tobias, realizing he keeps putting the toothbrush holder back out on the bathroom counter after Rachel keeps putting it away in the bathroom cabinet, finally says to Rachel, “Darn it all! Will you stop putting the toothbrush holder in the cabinet!”
active conflict
All of the following are reasons why people use an accommodating conflict style EXCEPT:
Accommodators are particularly emotional.
Which of the following is NOT one of the elements of interpersonal conflict suggested by Wilmot and Hocker?
at least two interdependent people
Where does competition fit on the scales of concern for self and concern for others?
high concern for self, low concern for others
Kurdek found that regardless of whether couples are heterosexual, gay, or lesbian, several topics or issues serve as conflict triggers.
True
An avoidance conflict management style reflects low concern for the self but high concern for the other person.
False
In what stage of quasi-courtship behavior are we engaged when we manipulate our appearance by combing our hair, straightening our tie, and double-checking our appearance?
preening
Keith is studying human communication so he can gain greater expertise in the study of human movement and gesture, or
kinesics
In your public speaking class, you are asked to evaluate the delivery of a classmate. You critique her vocal characteristics, her eye contact, her gestures, and her appearance, but find that you can really only pay attention to one category at a time. Your experiences support what challenge of interpreting nonverbal messages?
Nonverbal cues are multichanneled.
Which of the following is NOT a factor in determining the amount of touch you need, tolerate, receive, and initiate?
the time of day
President Nixon visited Latin America on a goodwill tour. As he exited the plane he gave the A-OK sign. Many Latin Americans were offended by this gesture, because in their region this was an obscene gesture. Of which difficulty in interpreting nonverbal behavior should President Nixon been more aware?
Nonverbal interpretation is culture-based.
Which function is involved when we use eye contact to signal when we want to talk and when we don’t?
regulatory
Roddy earned an “A” for the semester in his communication class and was quite happy and excited about it. When he arrived at his sister’s house for dinner, she could tell that Roddy was in a particularly good mood because of his
affect displays.
Which function is involved when our eye contact reveals our emotions to others?
expressive
Which function is involved when eye contact gives you information about another person’s thought processes?
cognitive
Dr. Wheeler walks into class several minutes late. He has always been strict about classes starting on time, so you think about teasing him by saying, “You’re lucky we didn’t all just leave.” But then you notice that Dr. Wheeler’s voice is flat, his brow is furrowed, and his eye contact is indirect and decide he may not receive your good-natured ribbing in the way you intend. What theory describes how you adapted to Dr. Wheeler’s nonverbal communication?
interaction adaptation theory
If you leave your study place in the library and leave your book open or some other indication that this space is being used, you are probably making use of a(n)
territorial marker.
Which of the following theories suggests that people tend to display the same emotions that a communication partner is displaying?
emotional contagion theory
When using effective listening, sometimes the best thing to do after describing the conflict-producing events is simply to wait for a response.
True
The goal of managing conflict is as much about managing relationship issues as it is about solving problems.
True
Research suggests that facial expressions are contagious, meaning that when other people smile, we smile, and when they frown, we frown.
True
Expectancy violation theory suggests that each of us interacts with others with certain preconceived expectations about their behavior.
True
Alexandra demands that Robert begin to talk to her in a different way than is natural for him. He does not want to cause more friction between the two of them, so he changes the subject and asks her if she has finished her paper that is due Monday in their anthropology class. In this case, Robert has engages in which of the following?
the demand-withdrawal pattern of conflict management
In what stage of the conflict process does self-talk about differences and growing dissatisfaction about the problem occur?
frustration awareness
While communicating online with a fellow student in his psychology class, Brent finds that a conflict begins between the two of them. After few minutes, Brent has had about all he can take, tensions begin to increase and to run high, and he loses his inhibitions. The conflict between the two escalates. This is an example of which of the following?
disinhibition effect
Avoidance represents which of the following approaches to conflict?
lose-lose
High-status individuals usually have less space around them.
False
While most people like touching, it isn’t vital to our personal development.
False
An emotional outburst is not only cathartic, but it may force the other to engage in meaningful conflict resolution.
False
Because conflict is a single act and not a process, prior conditions have nothing to do with a current conflict.
False
Each of the following statements about interpersonal conflict is true EXCEPT:
People involved in a conflict are independent from one another.
Which of the following conflict management styles reflects a high concern for others and a low concern for self?
accommodation
What is the study of personal space and the meaning of distance in our interpersonal relationships called?
proxemics
According to Mehrabian, what percentage of the emotional meaning of a message is communicated through explicit verbal channels?
7%
While a person’s facial expression and vocal cues communicate a specific emotional response, his or her posture and gestures communicate the ________ of the emotion expressed.
intensity
According to Mehrabian, what percentage of the emotional meaning of a message is communicated through vocal cues?
38%
Which of the following is NOT a cue associated with lying?
slurring of words
An open mouth, tense skin under the eyes, and wrinkles in the center of the forehead are facial expressions that indicate
fear
Scott is angry with Al, but he isn’t sure why. He is, therefore, having difficulty managing his anger. Scott needs to realize that understanding what’s behind his anger can help him manage it.
True
While words are discrete, nonverbal behaviors are continuous.
True
Yakov wants to sit in his easy chair and listen to his music, loudly. Sven, his roommate, needs some quiet time to study for a major exam the next day. If Yakov listens to his music, Sven won’t be able to study. What kind of conflict does this situation reflect?
simple conflict
Warnings are actually more powerful than threats in changing behavior.
False
When trying to detect lying, it is more accurate to focus on a particular cue like eye contact than to try to look for clusters of cues.
False
Research suggests that women have greater variety in their emotional expressions and spend more time smiling than men.
True
A nonverbal cue in poker that gives away what we are thinking and feeling is known as a/an
tell.
What are nonverbal cues that communicate liking and engender feelings of pleasure called?
immediacy cues
A perceived cause of conflict is a/an
conflict trigger.
Which of the following is the name for the zone of personal space used for personal interactions, typically ranging from 0 to 1-1/2 feet?
intimate space
Interaction adaptation theory describes how people adapt to the communication behavior of others and suggests that we respond not only to what people say, but also to their nonverbal expressions.
True
In what stage of quasi-courtship behavior are we engaged when we move closer to someone, adopt an open body posture, and make eye contact?
appeals to invitation
In which zone are you most comfortable talking with friends and family?
personal
The follow-up stage of conflict involves all of the following EXCEPT:
changing the frame
Gunny-sacking is
dredging up old problems and issues from the past.
The fact that people do have incompatible goals and experience scarce resources contradicts this myth about conflict:
Conflict always occurs because of misunderstandings.
What kind of conflict do inflexibility and a win-lose perspective characterize?
destructive conflict
We communicate almost 93 percent of the emotional meaning of our messages nonverbally.
True
Allan notices that Paul is mirroring his gestures as they hold a conversation. This is an example of which of the following?
interactional synchrony
People with a competition conflict management style have a lose-lose philosophy.
False
Clarifying your goals in a conflict is what really matters; it is better to let your partner manage his or her own goals.
False
Each of the following is a strategy for avoiding pseudoconflict EXCEPT:
Keep the conversation focused on the issues at hand.
Camille and Larry have been arguing a lot lately about the best way to deal with their children when they misbehave. In dealing with this issue, they started discussing how the two of them interact when they disagree on something and are taking steps to tone down the high emotional level of their discussions. Which of the following types of conflict does this experience represent?
constructive conflict
When Professor Glass lectures behind a lectern, far from her students, she is exhibiting immediacy.
False
Extroverted individuals tend to be better at interpreting nonverbal messages than shy individuals.
True
Karah, a teenager, rolls her eyes and walks away when Tammy, her mother, orders her to clean her room. Karah and Tammy are using one of the least satisfying approaches to conflict management:
demand-withdrawal pattern
The prime experiences in life that shape how we learn to express and manage conflict occur in the families in which we grew up.
True
Among adolescents, boys are more likely to join either socially acceptable groups or socially unacceptable groups, while girls are more likely to develop intimate relationships with one or two good friends.
True
In general, the longer we are in a relationship, the more motivated we are to gain information about the other.
False
Looking for clues to validate or invalidate an online claim is called warranting.
True
When Alicia found out that Aaron had another girlfriend that she didn’t know about, she was hurt and felt betrayed, even though Aaron never said there was no one else and they weren’t officially “going steady.” Alicia confronted Aaron and said she didn’t want to see him anymore. This event was a reflective turning point in their relationship.
False
Which of the following is the first or lowest step in relational escalation?
preinteraction awareness
Francois and Pierre are brothers who are constantly challenging one another. When deciding what to play, how to play, or when to play, they both believe the other should defer to his judgment. What kind of relationship do they most likely have?
symmetric
At which stage of relational escalation is physical contact and risky self-disclosure most likely to first appear?
intensification
Rory has realized that she and Boothe seem to increasingly find fault with one another and engage in coercive conflict. She and Boothe are at which stage of relationship de-escalation?
turmoil or stagnation
Steven and Sean have been friends for a long time, but it is clear that Steven likes to be in charge and Sean prefers to go along. Which of the following type of relationship best characterizes their friendship?
complementary
Which of the dialectical tensions was found to be the most important in the study of married couples reported in your textbook?
openness versus closedness
Which of the following elements of interpersonal attraction is most likely to be a source of long-term maintenance attraction than of short-term initial attraction?
attitude similarity
Being ___________ means that each partner relies fairly equally on the other to meet needs.
interdependent
Beth and Carl have been married for several years. Carl has a habit of picking his nose. Initially, Beth tried to get him to change by giving him handkerchiefs and tissues. It didn’t work. Now she simply asks that he not do it in public, which he seems to accept. Which strategy for escalating and maintaining relationships is Beth employing?
being tolerant and being tactful
Which of the following behaviors is NOT related to the level of commitment among married and romantically involved couples?
maintaining friendships outside the relationship
Janelle likes Allen. When he approaches her she turns to him, waves, and gives an animated smile. She is manifesting
approachability cues.
Which of the following is NOT true about sex?
Disclosure about past sexual history always helps the relationship.
Which of the following love types is the sort of love found in most friendships and in relationships with siblings and other family members?
storge
Our friendships involve one-way assistance at what age?
ages 4-9
Which of the following reflects researcher Heidi Reeder’s findings about romantic and physical attraction in cross-sex relationships as they endure over time?
Romantic and physical/sexual attraction diminished over time.
What are affinity-seeking strategies?
strategies that we use to try to increase someone’s attraction to us
Which of the following is NOT a dimension utilized in the triangular theory of love?
trust
Research by Lillian Rubin concerning cross-sex friendships found each of the following EXCEPT:
Women reported a higher level of intimacy and friendship than their male counterparts.
When Kate wasn’t with Justin she thought about him all the time. Though they had only known each other for two months, she wanted to spend every minute with him, and had even changed her major in college so she could take classes with him. If Justin failed to return a text message to her within 15 or 20 minutes, she would become anxious and fearful, but when she received an affirming message, she would quickly bounce back up to “cloud nine.” Justin felt the same about Kate. Which of the following types of love characterizes their relationship?
mania
What is a secret test?
a behavior strategically chosen to indirectly determine a partner’s feelings
Which of the following is TRUE concerning “love” in the context of romantic relationships?
People like their romantic partners only slightly more than they do their friends.
Hector and Mary Beth have been married for just a few months. Hector begins to notice that Mary Beth expects him to take out the trash every time. Why can’t she take it out once in a while? He decides to ask her about the issue. Mary Beth says she wasn’t aware that she was asking him to do it all the time, but she usually thinks about it when she is doing the dishes. When she’s up to her elbows in soapsuds, it just seems reasonable to ask Hector to take out the trash. Hector indicates that he will do the dishes sometimes, if she will take out the trash sometimes. Mary Beth agrees. Which strategy for escalating and maintaining relationships are they using?
managing conflict cooperatively
Miguel and Maria have been married for several years. Maria has been coming home from work and complaining bitterly about the new boss and all the changes that are going on. Miguel is getting a little tired of hearing her complaints, but knows that Maria really needs to let off some steam. So instead of telling her to quit, he gives her a hug, asks her to sit down, and tell him all about it. Which strategy for escalating and maintaining a relationship is Miguel employing?
socially decentering and adopting an other-oriented perspective
Introductions is a sub-stage of the acquaintance stage of relationship development, in which interaction is routine and basic information is shared.
True
We would be LESS likely to share a family secret if we thought the secret would eventually come to light on its own.
False
Which of the following is the name for the theory that suggests that each of us has our own boundaries and rules for sharing personal information?
communication privacy management theory
Each of the following is one of the stages of relational escalation EXCEPT:
identification
Brett and Ernie have realized that they are becoming closer as a couple, but they still appreciate that you are separate individuals and have your own lives outside the relationship. This is realization is known as
recalibration.
Reed is attracted to Kelsey and has been asking one of their mutual friends a little bit about her, although he hasn’t had any direct interaction with Kelsey. What stage of relational escalation is Reed experiencing?
preinteraction awareness
The reciprocal nature of self-disclosure is called the ___________ effect.
dyadic
Elijah began dating Penny a few weeks ago, and things seemed fine, until he met Randi. He felt that a relationship with Randi would be more likely to offer him his expectations for a relationship. He broke up with Penny and began to see Randi. Elijah has engaged which aspect of social exchange theory?
comparison to alternatives
The triangular theory of love posits that all loving relationships can be described according to three dimensions: intimacy, compatibility, and passion.
False
Harriet and Russ were in their late 40s. Neither had been married before, and they had always said that if they weren’t married by age 50 they would marry each other. They came from similar backgrounds and enjoyed each other’s company. Neither wanted to go through life unmarried, so marrying just seemed like a good idea. Which of the following types of love characterizes their relationship?
pragma
Which of the following factors is NOT among those most related to the development of college friendships?
physical attractiveness
Which of the four factors that have been identified that specifically affect the development of intercultural friendships occurs as partners move from acquaintanceship to friendship, socializing within the specific cultural or intercultural context of one of the partners?
targeted socializing
Annie and Luke met during their freshman year of college. They dated now and then, but not exclusively. Annie found that she could count on Luke to ask her out to key social events such as the college’s spring banquet. Both Annie and Luke enjoy each other’s company, but neither has really given much thought to marrying the other. Their relationship is characteristic of which of the following types of love?
ludis
Which of the following has been identified as the most important dimension in the triangular theory of love for developing romantic relationships?
passion
Relationships of circumstance can also be relationships of choice.
True
In their relationship, Ida and Harold tend to share power and that power tends to shift back and forth between them, depending on situations. This type of relationship is known as a parallel relationship.
True
Although people make new friends during their late adulthood, they value their long-established friendships the most.
True
At which stage of relational de-escalation will partners tend to define their lives more as separate and themselves less as a couple, and using “me” more than “we”?
individualization
At which stage of relational de-escalation are partners most likely to discuss the definition of their relationship, question its future, and assess their levels of satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the relationship?
deintensification
Complementary needs refers to
when each partner contributes something to the relationship that the other wants or needs.
Which of the following is most likely an example of a relationship of choice?
counselor
Bill and Marilyn have begun to further develop their own language code (idioms and inside jokes), use fewer words to communicate, and rely more on nonverbal cues including increased physical contact and decreased physical distance during conversations. At which stage of relationship escalation are they?
intimacy
Which of the dialectical tensions occurs most frequently?
connectedness versus autonomy
Jan and Marty were married for about thirty years. They have now separated. It appears to their friends and relatives that their commitment to one another has increased and decreased several times over the last few years. They have already divided up their property, but still seem to struggle with commitment. Which pattern of commitment change are the two experiencing after their break-up?
turbulent relational progression
Predicted outcome value theory claims that people are most attracted to
relationships that potentially have greater rewards than costs.
If you abandon a relationship because you don’t think it lives up to what you think a relationship should be like, which of the following costs is tipping the balance away from the relationship?
expected costs
Allie, who pitches on the school softball team, has developed an interpersonal relationship with Carla, who is the team’s catcher. This relationship would be considered a relationship of
circumstance
When the decision about where to eat is in question, John usually defers to Phil. On the other hand, when it comes to which movie to see, Phil usually makes the decision. John and Phil’s friendship seems to work that way in general. John is the expert and in charge of some things and Phil in others. Which of the following best characterizes John and Phil’s friendship?
parallel
Which friendships are most important for honing our skills for successful romantic relationships?
young adult
In one study reported in your textbook that examined the qualities associated with friendship in various ethnic groups in the United States, which of the following conclusions was found?
African Americans emphasized respect and acceptance.
Toni has been secretly in love with Janessa for about two years. They are good friends, but Toni wants to move things to a more romantic level. When he talks to Janessa about his feelings, she very kindly but firmly tells him that she is only interested in a friendship with him. According to the text, Toni’s situation could be described as
unrequited romantic interest.
Desiree and Jorg have been dating for several months. One night while watching TV, Desiree turns to Jorg and says, “Jorg, we’ve been dating for a while now. I’m wondering if we have a future together.” Jorg responds, “I certainly hope so. I’ve been wondering myself if we might want to make our relationship more formal.” Desiree says, “What did you have in mind?” Jorg says, “Well, since you are a freshman and I know how important your education is to your parents, I don’t think an engagement is right just now. But I would like something like going steady, or being pinned.” Desiree says, “That was kind of my thinking, too.” What strategy for escalating or maintaining a relationship are they employing?
engaging in relationship talk
Compared to a ludis type of love, storge love usually develops over a longer period of time.
True
The number of friends married people have tends to stay about the same over the course of their lives.
False
Turning points are associated with positive OR negative changes in a relationship.
True
Intelligence is a more important predictor of initial attraction in eventual romantic relationships than in friendships.
True
Sylvia is somewhat dissatisfied with her friendship with Sarah, in part because Sarah has been depressed a lot lately and isn’t as much fun to be around anymore. Sylvia maintains her friendship with Sarah in spite of these reservations, in part because she feels that over the years she has known Sarah, Sarah has been there when Sylvia needed her and they have a lot of history together. According to social exchange theory, which of the following best explains why Sylvia continues to be friends with Sarah?
cumulative rewards
After her separation from Lisa, Sara has begun to tell a “prepared” statement about the cause(s) of the break-up and to come to grips with that break-up. Steve Duck calls this “grave-dressing,” and it occurs at which point in relational de-escalation?
post-separation
The approach that represents a model of self-disclosure that reflects both breadth and depth of shared information is
the social penetration model.
Each of the following is listed as a reason for engaging in a “friends with benefits” relationship EXCEPT:
avoidance of specific relational maintenance rules
Will and Allison had been dating for some time and their college graduation was only two months away. Allison had wondered what would happen to their relationship after college – Will had a job prospect in far away Oregon and he hadn’t really talked over the implications of accepting the job with her. One evening, while out to dinner, Will broached the subject and declared that while he wasn’t quite ready for engagement, he was moving that direction, and would only take the job if such a future included Allison. Their talk is an example of a
turning point.
According to the triangular theory of love, passion is the most important dimension for developing romantic relationships.
True
Men tend to act less interpersonally competitive in their friendships with women, but women’s competitiveness increases in their friendships with males.
True
In their relationship, neither Bette nor Sam wants to take control or make decisions. This type of relationship is known as a competitive symmetrical relationship.
False
According to relational dialectics theory, each pair of tensions is present in every relationship.
True
The degree to which relational partners mutually confirm, value, and accept each other’s sense of self is known as which of the following?
interpersonal intimacy
Casual banter, a sub-stage of the acquaintance stage, might occur before or without the introduction sub-stage and involves talking about impersonal topics with little or no self-disclosure.
True
The ludis love style means practical.
False
In one study, psychotherapist Lillian Rubin found that men seemed to gain more from their friendships with women than women did from men.
True
A person is more likely to be attracted to a next-door neighbor than someone down the block.
True
Which of the following is TRUE?
Men report having more best friends than women.
Barbara and George have been married for several years. George has learned that when Barbara wants to talk, he needs to eliminate distractions. So, when she comes into the bedroom after having attended the school board meeting and starts talking, he turns off the TV, even though it’s a show he has been waiting to see, and devotes all his attention to her. Which strategy for escalating and maintaining a relationship is George employing?
listening actively and responding effectively
What is an initiation norm?
a ritualistic and scripted initial interaction
Exploring values, negotiating new relationships with family members, discovering romantic and sexual opportunities, becoming more other-oriented, and seeking increased intimacy are all associated with
adolescence.
All of the following are outcomes of receiving comforting messages EXCEPT:
They encourage the person to express his or her emotions.
Molly uses nonverbal cues, such as smiling and leaning toward Brutus whenever she sees him. She also uses verbal cues, such as saying his name, asking how he is doing, and so on. Molly is employing affinity-seeking strategies.
True
Self-disclosure is important because it is risk-free and helps us get to know someone else.
False
While some feelings relate to your partner, many of the emotions you share are not related to your partner.
True
One large national survey found that the formation of interracial friendships in the United States is associated with participation in nonreligious civic groups, socializing with coworkers, social status, shared neighborhoods, and the diversity of the community.
True
The total rewards and costs accrued over the duration of the relationship are the ___________ rewards and costs.
cumulative
This dialectical tension concerns our wish to disclose information while maintaining our privacy.
openness versus closedness
A highly intimate, close relationship in which a large amount of self-disclosure has occurred over a wide range of topics would most likely represent ___________ of disclosures.
a breadth and depth
The main premise of the social penetration theory is that the movement toward intimacy is connected to increased breadth and depth of self-disclosing.
True
Marriage is most likely to occur at which stage of relational escalation?
intimacy
Paul and Henrietta are both aware of a mutual attraction between them. They talk before class each day, but mostly about how the class is going and what they think about the teacher. At which stage of relational escalation are they?
acquaintance
Confirming responses increase your partners sense of self-worth and communicate the value you place on him or her and the relationship.
True
Which of the following love types is based on a spiritual ideal of love?
agape
25-year-old Jennifer was in trouble again. She had been using drugs for about a year, which had resulted in her lying to her parents. All of her parents’ friends told them to “cut her loose” and let her feel the consequences of her actions. However, her parents always welcomed her into their home and offered any assistance they could. Jennifer’s father even picked her up from the police station once, and didn’t even seem angry on the ride home. The love Jennifer’s parents feel for her is called
agape.
Passion plus commitment leads to
the ludus form of love.
“Friends with benefits” are characterized by which of the following?
both sexual and nonsexual interactions
Each of the following tends to occur during the stagnation stage of the de-escalation of a relationship EXCEPT:
there is an increase in conflict
The closest relationship you develop with another person is more likely to be with a friend than with a lover.
False
According to the triangular theory of love, all loving relationships can be described according the three dimensions listed below EXCEPT:
attraction
Morgan wants to know more about her partner because she likes control in her life as well as predictability. In order to achieve these goals, she gathers information about her partner so she can better predict how he will act in given situations. She has been in this relationship for nearly a year, but feels the need to gain greater control and predictability. This is an example of which of the following?
uncertainty reduction theory
Helen and Martin have been a couple for some time, but they seem to be leading more of their lives separately and less as a couple these days. They limit their interactions and don’t see each other as a best friend or relational partner. They also have begun to divide their property in terms of what belongs to each of them rather than what is collectively theirs and they speak in terms of “you” and “me” rather than “we” and “us.” The two are most likely engaged in which stage of relational de-escalation?
individualization
Which of the following factors has NOT been found to specifically affect the development of intercultural friendships?
IQ
Similarities between friends are greater at larger universities than at smaller ones, because the larger number of students also means a higher likelihood of finding more similar friends.
True
Predicted outcome value theory asserts that people assess the potential rewards of a relationship based upon the possible costs to determine whether or not to invest in developing a relationship.
True
Maria’s accusation that John cheated on her is called a(n)
reproach
Repeated, unwelcome intrusions that create concern for personal safety and fear in the target are collectively known as
stalking.
What did Cupach and Spitzberg describe as a repeated non-threatening invasion of a person’s privacy by an acquaintance who desires or assumes a close relationship?
obsessive relational intrusion
When Anna was the initiator of the end to her relationship with Tomas, she affirmed his positive qualities and worth, while declaring the end to their relationship. This is an example of Anna using
a positive tone.
If all four signs of communication behaviors that indicate increasing problems in a marriage are consistently present, the chance a couple will eventually divorce is __________ percent.
94
When Carlos lies to Jacob about how much money he makes at his new job because he’s embarrassed at how little he makes, his reason for lying is best described as to
protect his self-image.
In her list of strategies to help address the grief and loss of nonmarital breakups, Weber’s last item is
be ready for further punishment, or maybe reward.
Believing that our partner is the only person who can really meet our relational needs is known as perceived partner
uniqueness.
Each of the following is identified as one of the paths a relationship takes to dissolution EXCEPT:
unplanned extinction
When one researcher asked individuals to identify why their friendships with a friend of the same sex ended, first on the list of reasons was
physical separation.
The four categories of communication behavior that indicate increasing problems in a marriage include all of the following EXCEPT:
defensive behavior
In order, Duck’s phases of ending a relationship are:
intrapsychic, confidant/dyadic, social, and grave-dressing
According to the research by Michael Cody concerning students’ assessments of what caused their intimate heterosexual relationship to break up, the number one cited cause was
faults.
In essence, we forgive others for a failure event when
it is in our own best interest to do so.
The two general categories of reasons people are deceptive are
altruistic and self-serving.
Relational violence includes violent acts and physical abuse, but does not include aggressiveness, threats.
False
Gay and lesbian couples engage in the same kinds of relational maintenance activities as heterosexual couples.
True
De-escalation is an indirect termination strategy.
False
Sudden death is not considered one of the strategies for ending declining relationships.
False
Benji is attracted to Violet, but she does not share his feelings of desiring a relationship. Benji has been exhibiting obsessive behavior, trying to get Violet to change her view. Violet should be cautious. While in some instances, such pursuit is simply annoying, at its extreme, it can lead to fears for personal safety.
True
Reproaches are usually indirect statements conveyed through hints or nonverbal messages.
False
Researchers Vangelisti and Crumley found that, in general, informative messages that invoke pain, such as “I don’t love you anymore,” have less of a negative impact than an accusation or comment about someone’s abilities.
False
Interpersonal deception theory is an explanation of deception and detection as a linear process affected by the interplay between the deceiver and the detector.
False
In this stage of the ending of a relationship, one or both partners use a public story that they can share with others about what happened.
grave-dressing
Seemingly out of the blue, Harriott comes home from work one day and says to her partner Sherry, “I’ve found someone else. I’m moving out tomorrow.” The type of breakup that this example represents is
sudden death.
Trouble has been brewing in the relationship between Shawn and Trevor for quite some time. One problem seems to go away and another one emerges. At some point, the couple decides they can’t take it anymore and decide to break up. This kind of breakup is best identified as an example of
incrementalism.
When Maria accuses John of cheating on her, John admits that he did go out with Angela but that it was no big deal and that Maria shouldn’t worry about it. John’s account is most appropriately labeled a(n)
justification.
Carla cried when Elmer said he thought Carla was “spoiled brat.” Carla’s crying about Elmer’s hurtful comment is a(n) ___________ response.
acquiescent
Each of the following were identified by researcher Michael Cody as categories of students’ assessment of what caused their intimate heterosexual relationships to break up EXCEPT:
infidelity
Henry always avoids talking about his past, in large part because he spent some time in prison. When his fiancé, Carla, finds out about it, she is horrified and calls him a liar. Carla is accusing Henry of deception by
omission.
Of the following, the single best predictor of divorce is
stonewalling
Max has been dumped by his girlfriend and is trying to work through his post-dissolution grief. One strategy that is helping him is to mentally review his ex’s flaws. Max is engaging in which of Weber’s strategies?
Realize, don’t idealize.
Baldfaced lies are outright falsifications of information intended to deceive the listener and impact the behavior of those who hear them more than white lies or exaggeration.
True
Cognitive jealousy includes the feelings of anger, hurt, distrust, worry, or concern aroused by the threat of losing the relationship.
False
Not disclosing to your romantic partner that you were once married is an example of deception by omission.
True
The reasons for evoking jealousy in a relationship include relational
rewards and relational revenge.
One study reported in your textbook suggests that people who are in long-distance relationships can maintain relationships similar to those between people who are geographically close, as long as they are able to get together at least
once a week.
All of the following are typical types of accounts EXCEPT:
answers
Jim uses verbal threats against Toni as a way of maintaining dominance in their relationship. Jim’s actions display which type of partner violence?
intimate terrorism
When Felix tells Alex that he doesn’t want to be friends anymore because, “I just don’t like the way you behave around other people,” the strategy for terminating their friendship, according to Baxter, is a(n)
direct strategy of negative identity management.
Research on messages that hurt, conducted by Vangelisti and Crumley, found all of the following EXCEPT:
People are more hurt by messages from nonfamily members than from family members.
When Carol laughed at Cynthia’s insult, “You’re such a brat!,” Carol’s reaction to this message is an example of an acquiescent response.
False
Jealousy and envy are interchangeable terms.
False
Baldfaced lies involve embellishing the facts.
False
When Alicia wanted her relationship with Todd to end, but Todd wanted the relationship continue, the relationship ended due to a bilateral dissolution.
False
Deception can be harmful to relationships as well as to innocent bystanders.
True
After her break-up with Simon, Peg adjusted her perspective on relationships to include “things not to fall for again” and “things to never do again.” This action by Peg would be included in which phase of the relational dissolution process?
resurrection phase
When Albert calls his housemate Mark a slob, Mark responds with, “Right! Why don’t you take a closer look at your room?” Mark’s reaction is best characterized as a(n) ___________ response.
active verbal
Laughing as a reaction to a potentially hurtful comment by another person is a(n) ___________ response.
invulnerable
Embellishment or exaggeration is an example of deception by omission.
False
Bill is the biological son of Ed and Marilyn, who divorced when Bill was three years old. For two years, Bill and Marilyn lived alone. Then, when Bill was five, Bill and Marilyn moved in to Jeff’s home with Jeff and his three children when Jeff and Marilyn got married. In order, Bill’s family type changed from
natural to single-parent to blended.
According to Fitzpatrick, Ritchie, and Koerner, the degree to which a family pushes all members to agree to the same set of beliefs, values, an attitudes represents its __________ orientation.
conformity
About what percent of workers surveyed by Careerbuilder.com reported marrying a person they had dated at work?
31%
Which skill for improving family communication is involved when family members ask questions, reflect content and feelings, and perception-check to clarify the meaning of messages?
Listen actively and clarify the meaning of messages.
Pierre, of the marketing department, needs to talk with Francine, from research and development, in order to complete his marketing plan. What kind of communication is involved when coworkers at the same level of the organization exchange information?
horizontal communication
According to Virginia Satir, the single factor determining the kinds of relationships we make with others is
good family communication.
The Pelz effect research finds that subordinates
were more satisfied in their jobs when they felt their immediate supervisor had influence on decisions made at higher levels.
The Board met and agreed to some changes in operating procedures and performance benchmarks. This new policy must now be communicated to their subordinates and disseminated throughout the company. What kind of communication is involved when information flows from those higher up in an organization to those of lower rank?
downward
Brian’s family has a low orientation toward both conversation and conformity, thus they are termed a __________ family.
laissez-faire
Which of the following workplace values and functions is related to workplace friends helping to manage the stress and challenges unique to a person’s job, such as a hostile boss, cutbacks in hours, or working overtime?
retention
Gladys and Fred have been married for over twenty years. Fred thinks Gladys should stay home and take care of the children, but Gladys insists that she wants to have a career and will not be left at home with the kids. Fred thinks that the husband should be the breadwinner and the wife should keep the house and raise the children. Which type of married couple best represents the marriage of Gladys and Fred?
mixed
Which type of married couple does research show are the most satisfied?
traditional
The fastest growing type of family in the United States today is the __________ family.
single-parent
The three basic dimensions of the circumplex model of family interaction are
adaptability, cohesion, and communication.
Several women in the parts department are making a claim of sexual harassment against the parts manager. They claim he does nothing about the nude photographs of women hanging on the wall or the sexist remarks made by their male coworkers. They argue that he is allowing a situation to occur that is demeaning or offensive. What type of sexual harassment is this called?
hostile environment
Jordan and Taylor are married and raising one child. Both Jordan and Taylor are deeply committed to their family, but value their independence, each pursuing their individual goals and openly expressing their desires. Fitzpatrick, Ritchie, and Koerner would label their family communication pattern as
pluralistic.
Healthy families do not need to talk.
False
The extended family is the fastest growing type of family in the United States today.
False
Horizontal communication involves the flow of communication from employee to employer.
False
Only children have fewer friends than children with siblings.
False
Which type of married couple does research show is the least satisfied?
separate
Janice has filed a sexual harassment claim against her boss. She accuses him of demanding sex in return for his approval of her promotion. What type of sexual harassment is this called?
quid pro quo
Which of the following is NOT a value or function of workplace friendships?
better overall health
According to leader-member exchange theory, which of the following relationship types is less formal and is characterized by free-flowing information?
leadership relationships
What dimension of the circumplex model of family interaction is characterized by emotional bonding and feelings of togetherness?
cohesion
Research shows that the more open parents are in their communication with their children about sex and alcohol, the more likely their children are to
engage in safe behavior.
All of the following are true of families EXCEPT:
Families include three or more people.
Heidi and Gunther live with their biological parents. What type of family would this be called?
natural family
Everything in the circumplex model of family interaction is influenced by
communication
Which of the following is NOT considered to be fictive kin?
nuclear voluntary kin
Outward communication involves the organization communicating its message out to consumers.
True
The level of conformity is the degree to which the family emphasizes embracing the same values, attitudes, and beliefs.
False
Janet and Jack support traditional marriage and family values but tend to do the things separately that each wants to do, and they tend to stress their individuality and autonomy over their relationship as a couple. They would be known as a mixed couple.
False
According to the circumplex model of family systems, a balanced family has high levels of cohesion and adaptability.
False
Ramon has some important information to pass along to his subordinates, which will require action. Which of the following methods would be the best way to communicate with his subordinates?
face-to-face with written follow-up
Which skill for improving family communication is involved when family members schedule discussions, acknowledge the other’s viewpoint, moderate emotions, and know when to get help or when to give up?
Use productive strategies for managing conflict, stress, and change.
Chang’s divorced father married Gretchen’s divorced mother. They all live in the same house. What type of family is this?
blended family
Patty and Rod have been married for sixteen years. They go to movies together from time to time and share some of the household responsibilities, but they both have friends and interests outside of their marriage. Rod likes to see movies and visit museums while Patty goes antiquing with her friends on the weekends. Sometimes they have a hard time matching their schedules because of their varied interests. Which type of married couple are Patty and Rod most like?
independent
Becky and Gus have been married for eleven years. They make sure to sit down together for breakfast and a cup of coffee in the morning, but otherwise they are each usually busy doing their own thing. Becky likes to travel, but Gus would rather stay at home and read or do landscaping in the yard. Becky never wanted to have children even though Gus did, so they had only one child, who they both adore but who Gus attends to most of the time. Over the years, when they couldn’t agree on a place to go for vacation, they each went on their own where they wanted to go. Which of the following types of married couple best represents their marriage?
separate
According to the authors of your textbook, a family is a family if the people in it think of themselves as a family, whether or not they meet the specific definitions of a family.
True
Today, around 10 percent of all American families consist of a working father and a stay-at-home mother.
True
Edgar’s family has always been open and all members of the family have been encouraged to discuss whatever topics they feel are important. The degree to which Edgar’s family members are encouraged to discuss any topic is known as which of the following?
level of conversation
A marketing manager communicating with customers about a new product line is an example of which type of workplace communication?
outward
Dale and Donna have been married for over twenty years. When they got married, Donna took Dale’s last name. Dale works at a local car factory and Donna takes care of the home. On Sunday, they always go shopping together for the week. They argue occasionally, but generally like spending time together and are comfortable meeting each other’s needs. The type of marriage relationship they have is most like which of the following?
traditional
Regardless of the current status of your family, you have only one family of origin.
False
Sexual harassment that seeks to exchange sexual favors for something the employee wants is called creating a hostile environment.
False
Which of the following theories recognizes that, like relationships outside of work, relationships between supervisors and subordinates vary in type and quality?
LMX
A nuclear family is another name for a __________ family.
natural
Abdul, his parents, his grandmother, and his uncle Hassid all live together. What type of family is this?
extended family
According to the circumplex model of family interaction, the dimension of adaptability ranges from chaotic to rigid.
True
Responding with violence to a specific relational conflict or tension is what Michael Johnson refers to as intimate terrorism.
False
Generally, humorously phrased hurtful messages were found by researchers to be less hurtful than non-humorously phrased comments except when they were about abilities or intelligence, de-escalating the relationship, or about a person’s hopes or plans.
True
When two people have a relationship based on feelings of warmth, understanding, and emotional connection, this is known as
friendship-based intimacy.
Which of the following is most likely an example of a relationship of circumstance?
your classmate
Well-adjusted couples display support and affection for each other through positive nonverbal cues.
True
When the verbal and nonverbal messages contradict, we tend to put more faith in the verbal.
False
We should do everything we can to eliminate conflict from our relationships.
False
Similarity of interests and leisure activities appear more important in same-sex friendships than in opposite-sex friendships.
True
It is in the de-intensification stage that the perspective of the relationship changes from “we” and “us” to “you” and “me.”
False
Sarah and Sylvia are friends but Sarah is thinking about de-escalating her relationship with Sylvia because she is afraid that Sylvia’s reputation for being more party- than study-oriented will rub off on Sarah. According to social exchange theory, which of the following is Sarah concerned about?
forecasted costs
The more at ease you are sharing silence in a relationship, the more comfortable you are together.
True
Obsessive relational intrusion is another name for stalking.
False
Most employers try to discourage grapevine communication because it gets in the way of productivity.
False
Employees who describe more person-centered communication (PCC) by their boss also report stronger leader-member relationships and higher job satisfaction.
True
Dating in the workplace is especially problematic when those involved work in different units.
False
Gunny-sacking is helpful because it allows us to resolve old issues.
False
Evidence suggests that husbands are more likely to avoid confrontation as a way of managing conflict with their wives.
True
With respect to friendship, the older people become, the greater impact age differences have on them.
False
Affinity-seeking strategies are efforts to keep others from getting too close to us.
False