Solid Waste Management

What is solid waste?
all wastes from human and animal activities that are normally solid or semi-solid and are discarded (includes municipal, industrial, and hazardous wastes)
What is solid waste management?
– activities involved with the reduction of generation, collection, storage, transport, processing, and disposal of solid wastes
– solid waste management concerns public health, economics, engineering, conservation, esthetics, and other environmental considerations
___________ is the animal and vegetable waste resulting from the handling, preparation, cooking, and serving food.

Does not include: processing wastes from canneries, slaughterhouses, packing plants, and similar facilities.

Combustible: paper, cartons, boxes, barrels, wood, excelsior, tree branches, yard trimmings, wood furniture, bedding, dunnage
Transfer Station
MSW is transferred from several collection vehicles to a larger vehicle at a transfer station where MSW is carried to an ultimate disposal site.The larger vehicle may be a tractor-trailer, railroad car, or barge.

*A place where trucks dump their loads into a larger vehicle where it is compacted. By combining loads, the most per Mg * km for transport to the landfill is reduced.

Environmental Protection Agency
reduction in both the quantities of waste generation
and the toxic constituents in the products
use or reuse of an effective substitute for a commercial product or as an ingredient or feedstock in an industrial process
process which changes the physical, chemical and biological character of any waste so as to recover energy or material resources
discharge, deposit, dumping and placing of waste on any land or water
Nature of Materials
– Organic (potential biodegradable)
– Inorganic (non biodegradable)
– Combustible (potential for energy production)
– Non combustible
White goods
large and bulky appliances e.g., refrigerators,
washing machine
residual from fires used for cooking and heating
MSW: Municipal Solid Wastes
______ is the number one component in the MSW (Municipal Solid Wastes)
MSW (Municipal Solid Waste) composition is dependent on
-Economic condition
How many landfill is in Iowa
There are 51 landfills
Iowa has
a yard waste ban and bottle deposit rules
Federal Regulations for Municipal Landfills
RCRA – Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

CFR – Code of Federal Regulations

*Principal federal requirements are contained in
RCRA Subtitle D and 40 CFR 258
Criteria for classification of solid waste disposal facilities and practices

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
Code of Federal Regulations
Landfill Liners
manufactured and natural materials that lined the bottom and below grade sides of a landfill to prevent migration of landfill leachate and gases
liquid that collects at the bottom of a landfill resulting from percolation or precipitation, water initially contained in the waste and infiltration groundwater
Leachate Collection and Removal System
LCRS (Leachate Collection and Removal System)
drainage system to allow easy movement and removal of landfill leachate include a composite liner, perforated piping in a drainage layer, etc
_______volume of material placed in a landfill during one operating period usually one day
Daily Cover
6 to 12 inches of native soil or alternative materials such as compost that are applied to the working faces of the landfill at the end of each operating period
a complete layer of cells over the active area of the landfill
Final Lift
last layer of cells plus the landfill final cover
What is a typical slope of a landfill
Bottom Soil Liner
should consist of a composite liner and a leachate collection system

. Must be designed to maintain less than 30- cm depth of leachate over the liner
. Composite – consist of two components

upper component
a minimum of 30 mil (0.076 cm) flexible membrane liner
lower component
at least a two-foot layer of compacted soil with a hydraulic conductivity of 1×10-7 cm/sec
Final Lift (Final Cover or Cap)
. must have a permeability less than or equal to the permeability of any bottom liner system or a permeability no greater than 1×10-5 cm/sec whichever is less

. a minimum of 18 inches of earthen material as drainage layer

. a minimum of 6 inches of topsoil material that is capable of sustaining plant growth and minimize erosion

Two types of landfills:
1. Sanitary landfills
2. Secure Chemical landfills
Secure Chemical landfills
_____________are disposal sites for hazardous wastes, selected and designed to minimize the chance of release of hazardous substances into the environment
Sanitary landfills
______________are disposal sites for non hazardous solid wastes spread in layers, compacted to the smallest practical volume, and covered by material applied at the end of each operating day