Sociology Study Guide 3

Social Environment
the entire human environment, including interaction with others.
Jean Piaget’s use of the term “operational” is most aligned with the concept of
Socialization
the process by which people learn the characteristics of their group — the knowledge, skills, attitudes, values, norms, and actions thought appropriate for them
Feral Children
Children assumed to have been
*raised by animals in the wilderness,
*isolated from humans.
*Unable to speak
* Walk on all fours
Self
the unique human capacity of being able to see ourselves “from the outside” ; the views we internalize of how others see us.
Personality
the sum total of behaviors, attitudes, beliefs, and values that are characteristics of an individual
Elements of a personality- Sigmund Fraud
First is the id (Fraud’s term) for inborn drive to seek self gratification, Second is ego the balancing force between the id and the demands of society, third superego more commonly known as conscience.
Elements of a personality- Notes
Cognitive, Emotional, Behavioral
Looking-glass self
a term coined by Charles Horton Cooley to refer to the process by which our self develops through internalizing others’ reactions to us.
The theory of self development according to the looking glass self
The theory of self development according to the looking glass self
Charles Horton Cooley
Developed theory of looking glass self, imagination, interpretation
George Herbert Mead
developed theory of role taking/ three stages of self development imitate others, play stage, game stage
Role taking- Notes(Imagination, Play, Game)
taking on or pretending to take on the role of others. we learn to see ourselves through the eyes of others.
Significant Other
An individual who significantly influences someone else.
Taking the role of the other
Putting yourself in someone else’s shoes.
Agents of socialization
peers/school/family/work/neighborhood/religion/technology
Generalized Other
The norms, values, attitudes, and expectations of people “in general” ; the child’s ability to take the role of the generalized other is a significant step in the development of a self.
Mead’s Three Stages of taking roles of others
1. Imitation
2. Play
3.Team games
Imitation
Under age three we can only mimic others.
Play
We pretend to take the roles of specific people.
Team Games
the significance for the self is that to play games we must be able to take multiple roles.
Jean Piaget
A Swiss psychologist that studied the development of children’s reasoning.
The sensorimotor stage
Stage of a child (from birth to age 2) in which our understanding is limited to direct contact (sucking, touching, listening, and etc)
The preoperational stage
Stage of a child (from age 2-7) in which understanding that we developed the ability to use symbols (but we don’t understand common concepts such as size, speed, or causation).
The Concrete Operational Stage
Stage of a child (from age 7-12)..they can now understand numbers, size, causation, and speed, and we are able to take the role of the others.
The Formal Operational Stage
Stage of person (after age 12). Now capable of abstract thinking.
Id
Freud’s term for our inborn basic drives
Ego
Freud’s term for a balancing force between the id and the demands of society.
Superego
Freud’s term for the conscience; the internalized norms and values of our social groups.
Gender
The behaviors and attitudes that a society considers proper for its males and females; masculinity or femininity
Gender Socialization
learning society’s “gender map” the paths in life set out for us because we are male or female.
Peer Group
a group of individuals, often of roughly the same age, who are linked by common interests and orientations
Mass Media
forms of communication, such as radio, newspapers, and television that are directed to mass audiences.
Agents Of Socialization
People or groups that affect our self-concept, attitudes, behaviors, or other orientations toward life.
Anticipatory Socialization
The process of learning in advance an anticipated future role or status.
Resocialization
The process of learning new norms, values, attitudes and behaviors.
socialization
Total Institution
A place that is almost totally controlled by those who run it, in which people are cut off from the rest of society and the society is mostly cut of from them.
nature versus nurture
Degradation Ceremony
A term coined by Harold Garfinkel to refer to a ritual whose goal is to remake someone’s self by stripping away that individuals self-identity and stamping a new identity in its place.
Life Course
the stages if our life as we go from birth to death
Transitional Adulthood
A term that refers to a period following high school when young adults have not yet taken on the responsibilities ordinarily associated with adulthood; also called adolescence.
Transitional Older Years
an emerging stage of the life course between retirement and when people are considered old; approximately age 65 to 75
Social *PSYCHOLOGICAL* Theories of Human Development
1. Freud’s psychoanalytic perspective- children first develop the id (drives and needs), then the ego (restrictions on the id), and then superego (moral and ethical aspects of personality)
2. Piaget’s cognitive development- children go through four stages of cognitive (intellectual) development, going from understanding only through sensory contact to engaging in highly abstract thought
3. Kohlberg’s stages of moral development- people go through three stages of moral development, from avoidance of unwanted consequences to viewing morality based on human rights
4. Gilligan: gender and moral development- women go through stages of moral development from personal wants to the greatest good for themselves and others
Sociological Theories of Human Development

*PAY ATTENTION: to weather the question ask for *(Social *Psychological* Theories*)
or just
**(Sociological Theories)

1. Cooley’s looking-glass self- a person;s sense of self is derived from his or her perception of how others view him or her
2. Mead’s three stages of self-development- preparatory stage (children imitate others around them); play stage (children role play specific people); game stage (children learn the demand and expectations of roles)
Theory of Personality (Freud’s)
according to Freud, human development occur in three states that reflect different levels of personality
*id- immediate gratification CONSCIOUS
*ego- reality oriented imposes restrictions on pleasure seeking UNCONSCIOUS
*superego- conscience, moral and ethical aspects of personality UNCONSCIOUS
Sigmund Freud
*known as the founder of psychoanalytic theory
*developed his major theories in the Victorian era, when biological explanations of human behavior were prevalent
*during this era, extreme sexual repression and male dominance greatly influenced his theory and explanations
*believed that people have two basic tendencies: the urge to survive and the urge to procreate
*considered biological drives to be the primary source of human activity.
*activated by the pleasure principle to demand immediate and complete gratification of biological needs
1. Deviance can be seen as functional for a society for all of the following reasons EXCEPT?
it promotes the development of out-groups
2. According to Robert Merton’s structural strain theory, stock brokers who bend the rules to achieve financial success for their clients are demonstrating a combination of adaption strategies, namely?
conformity and innovation
3. Female and male are to sex what feminine and masculine are to ______?
gender
4. The emergence of adolescence as a distinct stage in the life course is a product of all of the following EXCEPT?
biology
5. Maria Elena is a professor of astrophysics. She is also a spouse and parent. Taken together these statuses are called a(n) _____?
status set
6. Sociology is different from other social science in that it ________?
looks at several dimensions of observable social life to form behavioral explanations
Robert Merton
clarified the difference between manifest functions and latent functions
7. As noted in your text, deviance changes existing social norms according to ______?
how society interprets boundary violations
8. Conflict theory emphasizes the key concepts of ______?
inequality, power, competition
9. Social structure, the framework for social behavior, is recognizable by ____?
patterned behaviors
10. The concept of medicalization refers to the ____?
redefinition of non-medical problems as medical problems
11. The life course is influenced by _____?
social location, historical time, and biology
12. In a traditional Caste system, one’s status and position in which the social hierarchy is determined by _____?
the parents’ caste
13. In general, _________defines which acts are deviant in a society?
those with the power to enforce their definitions
generalized other
common behavioral expectations of general society
(As a whole)
Global EMotions
Anger, Distrust, Fear, Happiness, Sadness, and Surprise
Degradation ceremony:
an attempt to remake the self by stripping away the individual’s current identity and stamping a new one in its place.
14. A person’s or organization’s ability or capacity to make others accept their authority is called _______?
power
In psychoanalytic theory, the “culture within us” is represented by the ________
15. The central assumption of functionalism is that ________?
society is a whole composed of interrelated parts
16. Without language there can be no__________
culture—no shared way of life—and culture is the key to what people become.
Piaget and the Development of Reasoning
1 ).Sensorimotor:= Understanding limited to direct contact.
2 ).Preoperational:= We develop the ability to use symbols.
3 ).Concrete operational stage:= Reasoning abilities remain concrete.
4 ).Formal operational stage:= Capable of abstract thinking.
The Skeels/Dye Experiment
*discovered that orphanages that did not stimulate social interaction affected a child’s ability to develop social skills. “High intelligence” depends on early, close relations.

* study has been confirmed in Indian orphanages.

*At age 13, children are not able to receive enough socialization to help them develop normally.

In developing his theory on moral development, when did Kohlberg claim most people reach the postconventional stage?
The family
The Neighborhood
Religion
Day Care
The School
Peer Groups
The Work Place
Deprived Animals
* Harlows’ Experiments with Rhesus Monkeys
* It Confirms Data from Isolated Humans Socialization

*experiments demonstrate the importance of early socialization and a consequence of isolation being the inability to socialize with other monkeys.

When young people enter college as resident students, they must learn new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors. This is an example of ________.
culturally determined: social class, gender, our culture, the setting can all affect if and how we express ourselves.
How we develop a sense of self
“The social self” by George Herbert Mead; “the looking glass self” by Charles Horton Cooley (Spitz & Haney Study); and “life is a stage”(Nippert & Garfinkle)
George Herbert Mead; The Social Self
Symbolic interaction or interactionism; Social self is only kind of self; Self is not a thing, but a process of interaction; Individual is shaped through communication with self and others
Society makes us Human
interactionism
suggests that individuals and situations interact continuously to determine individuals’ behavior.
Haney Prison Study
Without contact with others, prisoners in solitary confinement experienced a wide variety of negative psychological and physical symptoms; e.g. hallucinations and some suicide
Spitz Orphanage Study
Lack of social contact affected emotional health, physical health, and sometime the mortality of babies
Charles Horton Cooley (1)
“Looking glass” self; We know ourselves through the looking glass of others that mirrors back to us impressions we create;
Charles Horton Cooley (2)
looking for approval is a motivational, fundamental human instinct; Positive approval contributes to our sense of self and social belonging.
Christena Nippert-Eng
Researched contents of wallets and purses, found publicly shared and privately kept items; This suggests we think differently about what aspects of our identities we are willing to show and exactly how
Harold Garfinkel
Invented ethnomethodology; Concluded humans have specific methods for interacting with others; Suggested same methods are used regardless of country, culture of historical moment
ethnomethodology
Harold Garfinkel’s term for the study of the way people make sense of their everyday surroundings
How we make sense of our world
Methods of context; conversation principles; impressions; emotions; applause; digital age self; and interaction in public
context
Conditions, including facts, social/historical background, time and place, etc., surrounding a given situation
social context
The combination of people, the activities and interactions among people, the setting in which behavior occurs, and the expectations and social norms governing behavior in that setting
Master method of context
People persistently and intensively take context into account; meaning is constructed by drawing on social context
other methods of context
Not demanding complete responses to asked question is sometimes used
conversation principles
principles include utterances, simultaneous utterances, and turn taking
Utterances
Fit in precise way to ongoing flow of conversations with others; manner of speaking
Simultaneous utterances
Includes bowing out of simultaneous utterances aka repair; Involves gender, age, and role difference
Turn taking
Used to safeguard interactions, help others save face, and retain more positive sense of self
impressions
First impressions affect both our later perceptions of their behavior and our reactions to it. First impressions are long lasting influence.
emotions
Performances arranged for specific purposes with specific display content that varies by context: Crying, Fighting, and Laughing
applause
Appreciating performance creates cycle of mutual reinforcement between actors and applauding audience.
Sociologist Max Atkinson
used a decibel meter and sound recordings to measure the volume
and timing of an outburst of applause; how applause was coordinated; begin & end
Max Atkinson. 1984
Wrote “Our Master’s Voices: The Language and Body Language of Politics.”
Presentation of self in digital age (1)
Manipulated in Facebook, Twitter, texting, and other social media to gain approval of others; Often uses to bring about copresence;
Presentation of self in digital age (2)
Employs same communication techniques found in other media, including print and electronic exchanges; Changes some details of interaction patterns, but many features remain.
Menchik & Tian
found that sociology researchers got confused about one another’s meaning and tone when e-mailing; Study participants incorporating little signs to facilitate communication
Interaction in Public
Communication strategies altered when interacting with strangers
Goffman calls this “dimming the lights”; Inattention, especially in dense places, makes social life possible; “Oops!” often works
Goffman
Presentation of self; impression management; quote “dimming the lights.”
Georg Simmel
contends inattention, especially in dense places, makes social life possible; Special techniques are used to repair potential damage when our public performances are imperfect
Mitchell Duneier & Harvey Molotch
analyzed interactions between street people and passersby
Duneier and Molotch; Interaction in Public
Men on street remarked women’s bodies, appearances, and how to entangle them; Disaffiliative gestures to end interaction ignored; Ignored signals encouraged interactional vandalism
Disaffiliative
used to express lack of interest to talk through poses and nonresponses
What matters to us
significant others & reference groups; social networking sites; generalized other, culture, and subculture;
Significant others; Mead
Individuals close enough to us to have a strong capacity to motivate our behavior-more than spouse or lover
Reference groups (1)
Consist of others whose social positions and preferences make them especially relevant to our sense of worth
Reference groups (2)
Often share commonalities of age, tastes, status, and interests
Online social networking sites
Often involve members with overlapping reference group memberships; Cluster around commonalities of age, taste, or status; Contain stars with disproportionate influence
“Stars” in our groups
may be role models who have disproportionate influence as we imitate how they move, dress, and carry out life.
McPherson
found that social networking relationships to outsiders tend to be few in number and dissolve more quickly than those in groups have multiple links into our own social circles and interests.
Generalized other
Common-sense understandings of what is appropriate; Expectations of how to behave; Understanding of expectations and norms of our groups and various roles we transition into over the life course
Generalized other: Culture
Substance or systems of belief and knowledge of taken-for-granted world that together have socialize us; Not always boundary-bound due to immigration and shifting borders
Generalized other: Subculture
Sets of individuals who share common preferences or understandings of specific aspects of the social world but remain part of a larger group that is tied together on a more basic level
Challenges we face as we move from one social context to another
Status and role change; Labeling; Rule use; and conformity (experiments)
Status (1)
Distinct social categories are associated with a set of
expected behaviors and roles
for individuals to assume;
Status (2)
Different life statuses evolve with change in age and life situations; Each status change brings different type of groups, expectations, and rule sets
Role sets
Specific expectations are attached to each role; expected behaviors of a certain role
Role conflict
occurs when fulfilling expectations of one role conflicts with meeting expectations of another; Severe can create stress; So-called rule breakers are not nonconformists, but conformists to other groups
nonconformists
a person who refuses to follow accepted rules or customs
Labeling Theory
Theory that society creates deviance by identifying particular members as deviant
Labeling theory example
Label “deviant” surfaces when there is a person or group that can serve as an object of the label “deviant” and An individual or institution that can put the label on and make it stick
Social construction of reality
the interactive process by which knowledge is produced and codified, making it specific to a certain group or society.
Goal of Labeling
the goal is to understand the larger interaction systems that create such classifications, keep them alive, or causes them to erode.
Consequence of Labeling
One consequence of being labeled is that the individuals so identified change their conduct and embrace the behavior that led them into the deviant category in the first place
Robert Merton
States that when disapproved behavior is supported or even valued, is called a self-fulfilling prophecy; Something becomes true because people say it is true.
Scheff (1)
Studied self-fulfilling prophecy in mental hospitals; Proposed patient diagnosis rests on a variety of legitimate, labeling institutions consisting of doctors, nurses, and institution
Scheff (2)
Concluded that patients learn the best way to be released is to acknowledge judgment of others
Rosenhan (1)
Research assistants with no mental illness sent to psychiatric hospitals; Even with normal behavior after admission, no researchers were released until admitting they had mental illness;
Rosenhan (2)
Findings contributed to deinstitutionalization movement
deinstitutionalization movement
moving people with psychological or developmental disabilities from highly structured institutions to home- or community-based settings
Rule Use
Explicit, Implicit; Requires interpretation; Extracted through scans of organizational and individual needs to determine appropriate behavior
Explicit Rules
rules that are directly expressed
Implicit Rules
rules that have not been clearly articulated but are nonetheless understood
conformity
The tendency of individuals to change their attitudes, opinions, and behaviors to align with the group
Asch’s classic three line experiment
Demonstrated influence of social context; experimented how people would rather conform than state their own individual answer even though they know the group’s answer is wrong
Milgram
Induced subjects to deliver what they thought were painful, even fatal, electrical shocks to a stranger who had given the wrong answer
Zimbardo’s Standford prison study
Volunteer students acted as guards in mock prisons; Some guards became intensely sadistic and prisoners became radically dependent on their guards’ attitude toward them
CHAPTER OBJECTIVE REVIEW
[OBJ 3.1] Explain how feral, isolated, and institutionalized children help us understand that “society makes us human.”
How much of our human characteristics come from
“nature” (heredity) and how much from “nurture”
(the social environment)?
* Observations of isolated, institutionalized, and feral
children help to answer the nature-nurture question,
as do experiments with monkeys that were raised in
isolation.
* Language and intimate social interaction—
aspects of “nurture”—are essential to the development
of what we consider to be human characteristics.
Pp. 66-71.
3.2 Use the ideas and research of Cooley (looking-glass self), Mead (role taking), and Piaget (reasoning) to explain socialization into the self and mind.
Part 1) How do we acquire a self?
* Humans are born with the capacity to develop a self, but the self must be socially constructed; that is, its contents depend on social interaction.
* According to Charles Horton Cooley’s concept of the looking-glass self, our self develops as we internalize
others’ reactions to us.
*George Herbert Mead identified
the ability to take the role of the other as essential to
the development of the self. Mead concluded that even the mind is a social product. Pp. 71-72.

Part 2) How do children develop reasoning skills?
* Jean Piaget identified four stages that children go through as they develop the ability to reason:
(1) sensorimotor, =in which understanding is limited to sensory stimuli such as touch and sight;
(2) preoperational,= the ability to use symbols;
(3) concrete operational,= in which reasoning ability is more complex but not yet capable of complex abstractions; and
(4) formal operational,= or abstract thinking. Pp. 72-74.

3.3 Explain how the development of personality and morality and socialization into emotions are part of how “society makes us human.”
PART 1) How do sociologists evaluate Freud’s psychoanalytic theory of personality development?
* Sigmund Freud viewed personality development as the result of our id (inborn, self-centered desires) clashing with the demands of society.
* The ego develops to balance the id and the
superego, the conscience.
* Sociologists, in contrast, do not examine inborn or subconscious motivations but, instead, consider how social factors—social class, gender, religion, education, and so forth—underlie personality. Pp. 74-75.

PART 2) How do people develop morality?
* That even babies exhibit a sense of morality seems to indicate that a basic morality could be inborn. Lawrence Kohlberg identified four stages children go through as they learn morality: amoral, preconventional, conventional, and postconventional.
* As they make moral decisions, both men and
women use personal relationships and abstract principles.
* The answer to “What is moral?” differs from society to
society. Pp. 75-76.

PART 3) How does socialization influence emotions?
* Socialization influences not only how we express our emotions but also what emotions we feel.
* Socialization into emotions is one of the means by which society produces conformity. Pp. 76-78.

3.4) Discuss how gender messages from the family, peers, and the mass media teach us society’s gender map.
How does gender socialization affect our
sense of self?
* Gender socialization—sorting males and females into different
* roles—is a primary way that groups control human behavior. Children receive messages about gender even in
* infancy. A society’s ideals of sex-linked behaviors are reinforced by its social institutions. Pp. 78-83.
3.5). Explain why the family, the neighborhood, religion, day care, school, peer groups, and the workplace are called agents of socialization?
What are the main agents of socialization?
* The agents of socialization include the family, neighborhood, religion, day care, school, peer groups, the mass media, and the workplace.
* Each has its particular influences in socializing us into becoming full-fledged members of society.
Pp. 83-88.
3.6 Explain what total institutions are and how they resocialize people.
What is resocialization?
* Resocialization is the process of learning new norms, values, attitudes, and behavior.
* Most resocialization is voluntary, but some, as with the resocialization of residents of total institutions, is involuntary. Pp. 88-89.
3.7 Identify major divisions of the life course and discuss the sociological significance of the life course.
PART 1) Does socialization end when we enter
adulthood?
* Socialization occurs throughout the life course.
* In industrialized societies, the life course can be divided into childhood, adolescence, young adulthood,
the middle years, and the older years.
* The West is adding two new stages, transitional adulthood and transitional older years.
* Using the sociological perspective, we can see how both the streams of history and social location—geography, gender, race-ethnicity,
social class—influence the life course. Pp. 90-93.

PART 2) Are We Prisoners of Socialization?
* Although socialization is powerful, we are not merely the sum of our socialization experiences.
* Just as socialization influences our behavior, so we act on our environment and influence even our self-concept. Pp. 93-94.