Sociology quiz questions

The more consistent the results given by repeated measurement, the higher the ——— of the measurement procedure (and vice versa)
NOT efficiency
A variable that is through to be influenced by another variable is known as the
Dependent variable
The likelihood that a researcher will obtain the same results using the same measures the next time he or she test the hypothesis is:
reliability
Harry’s study compared how the posts on Craiglist of “men seeking women” differed from the posts of “women seeking men” What research method was Harry using when he compared how often men and women mentioned particular characteristics
Content analysis
All of the following are described as golden rules of ethical conduct in social research EXCEPT:
Never debrief
Sandra is doing research on cheating among students at Duke Univeristy. The student body at Duke will serve as her:
Random sample
An…. is an in-depth look at a specific phenomenon or situation in a particular socail setting and is common in qualitative research
Participant observation
The research method that uses information that van be converted to numerical form is:
Quantitative research
A variable that is thought to cause a change in another variable is called the:
Independent variable
Which of the following might be an advantage of participant observation research
The researcher can uncover what people do rather than simply what the SAY they do
A potential shortcoming of survey research is that survey:
rely on peoples honesty and willingness to cooperate
Which of the following methods involves collecting data from written reports of other artifacts in order to discover patterns in behavior/attitudes dating to an earlier time period
Historical methods
Norm is interested in whether oet owners are more likely than those who do not own pets to have a healthier lifestyles. By comparing the numbers he gathers on both groups, Norm will most likely be using what particular research method
Quantitative
When a researcher is successful at measuring what he or she intends to measure, this is called: q
Validity
A sociologist studying minor children, pregnant women, or inmates must get approval, as these groups are known as:
protected populations
A testable statement about the relationship between two or more variables is called
a hypothesis
Andy hypothesized that the stress created during economic downturns would increase the probability of spouse abuse. Stress would be considered the —- variable and spousal abuse would be considered the—- variable
independent and dependent
In establishing causation, it helps to know which variable precedes the other in time. If not, it is easy to make a mistake involving:
NOT time order
If Sandra wants to generalize the findings of her study to another population, is it important that the people in her study be:
not randomly selected from the population she wants to gneralize
In social research, a hypothesis is:
A proposed relationship between two or more variables
Research subjects have a right to know that they are participating in a study and what the study consists of. This is known as:
Informed consent
An ordered series of questions intended to elicit information from research respondents is known as:
A survey
_________ is probably the best method available to the social scientist interested in collecting original data and for describing a population too large to observe directly
Survey Research
A correlation is:
A simultaneous change in two variables
Martine is a sociologist who thinks that A is causing B when in fact, B is causing A. She needs to be careful not to make the mistake known as:
Reverse causality
When one factor is said to influence another factor, we refer to this as:
Causality
What is the meaning of the term “white coat effects”is social research
The impact researchers have on the people/relationship they study
If Jose’s study measures religiosity by the number of hours people spend in organized religious activities, while Deidra’s study measures religiosity by whether people agree or disagree that religion plays an important part in their life, Jose and Deidra:
Operationalize their concepts of religion differently
Positivist sociologist tend to use which of the following types of measures?
Quantitative
The research method that uses information that can be converted to numerical form is:
Quantitative research
The functionalist paradigm went largely unchallenged in the US until about the 1950s. C wright Mills criticized Talcott Parsons for:
Supporting the dominant class structure and the inequalities associated with it
Who wrote the “The protestant ethic and the Spirit of Caplitalism?
Max Weber
Sociology is the study of:
How urgers, drives and the mind can account for humn behavior??
To Marx, conflict between a small number of capitalists and a large number would divide society. He referred to this large number of workers as:
proletariat
Functionalsim is an extension of nineteenth-century theory called_____, which stated that society is like a life form, each part serving a role on keeping society together
organicism
Perhaps the largest division within the discipline of sociology exist between:
NOT functionalist
According to Comte, positivism arose out of a need to make ____ sense of the social order in a time of declining religious authority
NOT scientific
Who criticized Marx for focusing exclusively on economics and social class as explanations for human behavior and advocated sociological analyses that allowed for multiple influences
Max Weber
Emile Durkheim defined ___ as a sense of normlessness that results from drastic changes in peoples living conditions
Anomie
The person who is often considered to be the founding practitioner of “positivism” is:
Emile Durkheim
The Chicago School’s jane Addams founded the first American settlement house, an institution to help the poor by offering aid, educational services
The Hull house
The author of the “protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism argued that sociologist should study social behavior from the perspective of the people engaging in it. This is known as:
Vertehen
Karl Marx would argue that the types of social institutions in a society were the results of the economic makeup of that society. Max Weber, however, argued that:
There are multiple influences on how social institutions are created
Charles Horton Cooley argued that the self emerges from how we envision that others perceive us. He called this the___
looking glass self
Robert Merton’s modern sociological theory focused on attempting to predict how certain institutions function between microsociology and macrosociology. This is known as:
Midrange theory
In contrast to functionalism, which modern sociological theory borrows from Marx’s belief that competition, not consensus, is the essential cause of social change?
Conflict theory
Which feminist sociologist wrote “Sex, gender, and Society, which argued that much of what we attribute to biological sex differences can actually be traced to learned behaviors and socialization?
Ann Oakley
Cooleys theory of socialization states that the “self” develops from our interactions with others and thier reactions too us. Theory known as:
Looking glass self
One of the two main categories of culture that includes values, beliefs, norms, and behaviors is known as:
Which theorist argues that other people essentially provide us with a “social mirror” and that our interpretations of this mirror affect how we see ourselves?
Charles Horton Cooley
Military boot camps and prisons are places that control all of the basics of peoples day-to-day lives and are known as:
Total institutions
If______ are abstract cultural beliefs, then _____ are how they are put into play
Values, norms
Everything in our constructed environment, including technology, buildings. furniture, clothing and books, is part of:
Material culture
Which of the following is represents an ascribed status
American of Japanese decent
Harold Garfinkel developed an approach to study human interaction that focused on how people produce (and maintain) a mutually shared social order. This method is called:
Ethnomethodogly
The belief that happiness and fulfillment can be achieved through the acquisition of material possessions is known as:
The popular television show “sesame Street” was created with the explicit purpose of providing educational opportunities for low-income children. Being that this how was successful, we can argue that:
The media serves as a powerful socializing agent
_____ refers to a social position while ___ designates socially expected behavior
Status, Role
Gendered behaviors, such as wearing dresses and high heels, are examples of learned behaviors that are not natural or universal, and are known as:
Cultural scripts
Athough there are many agents of socialization, four of the primary ones are:
Family, schools, peers and media
According to research by Kohn and Schooler, parents of different classes socialize their children differently. Which of the following statements best describes these differences?
Middle-class parents are more likely to stress independence and self-direction,
working class parents are more likely to instill respect for authority
Which of the following is the best example of achieved status
a newly ordained minister in a church
Saying “hello” when answering the telephone signals the start of an encounter in the first bracket and is known to dramaturgists as:
The opening
The experience of internalizing a culture’s norms, values and the like, is known as:
Socialization
Gramsci’s concept for the historical process in which a dominant group exercises moral and intellectual leadership by voluntarily receiving the approval and consent of the masses is known as:
Hegemony
What is Jean Kilbourne’s critique of an advertisement that shows a pair of women’s legs with brand new, expensive shoes on them popping out of a trash can?
It promotes, even simplicity, violence against women.
According to impression management, the backstage arena would include:
Where we are “private selves” and where the real story takes place
Sociologists refer to the degree to which ties are reinforced through indirect paths within a social network as
embeddedness
A general rule found in research known as “no cylces of four” within two romantic heterosexual couples, is that people rarely date the ex-partner od their own ex-partner’s new boy or girlfriend. What explination is giiven for this finding?
The replaced exes dont want to lose social satus and be seen as “leftover”
Which of the following types of groups do people compare themselves to, even if they dont know each other personally
Regerence groups
The characteristics of a formal structure and status differentiantion are essential to which of Simmels types of groups
Large groups
A classroom would not typically fall under Simmels calssification of a small group, because:
there are formal arrangements or roles
A married couple and their firstborn child are a type of group known asL
a triad
According to Simmel, the essential feature of a party is that is it:
Mulitfocal
A friendship group isnt an example of a formal organization b/c
They typically dont have formal rules and governing structures
Emma is hoping to secure an internship with an engineering firm. She runs itto her former aerobics instructor, who she hasnt seen in several years, and her instructor offers to put her in contact with and engineering friend of hers. An example of what?
Strength of weak ties
The example of more and more people bowling and eating alone are used to highlight a more general trend involving
Civic disengagement and a decline in social capital
A group that helps us understand our position relative to other groups is a
reference group
The shared beliefs and behaviors within a social group, also called corporate culture is knowns as:
organizational culture
Marina is a ten-year old girl who idolizes singers like Mariah Carey. She compares herself to them and imitates them while singing in front of her bedroom mirror. Singer is knowns as Marina;s:
Reference group
Cooley distinguished two types of groups he called
Primary and secondary groups
According to Putmans research. although much data suggests that the US is becoming less community orients and more selfish, which has led to a temporary revival of civic engagement among young people
The terrorist attack of 9/11
The ways i whoch power and authourity are distrubuted hierarchically within an organization are called:
Organizational structure
A process by which organizations face the same conditions, and ultimately tend to end up like each other is known as:
isomorohism
What appears to be the main reason for the success of amish buisnesses when compared to other us buisnesses
The amish live by prioritizing the community and its social capital rather than ruggesd individualism
Chapter 5, which explores interaction in groups, opend with a story about an Autralian artist who creates a buisness importing and disributing food products and utilities from arounf the globe. Her buisness would not be possible without:
Social networks
Stigmatized groups, such as gays and lesbians in the United States, are known as:
Out-groups
According to Simmel, which of the following groups is the more fragile
Dyad
Sets of dyads held together by ties between the individuals are known as:
Social networks
A damily is an example if which type of group identified by Cooley?
Primary group
According to the data presented in chapter 5, which of the follwoing is true regarding social capital in the US today
Social capital is decreasing
What kind of group ceases to exist if given one leaves the group
dyad
Which of the follwing types of groups are significant in that they distinguish between the relative power to define what are normal versus abnormal types of behavior within the groups
in groups and out groups
The characteristic of formal structure and status differentiation are essentail to which of Simmels type of groups?
Large groups
Any social network that is defined by a common purpose and that has a boundary between its members and the rest of the social world is known within sociology as:
Organization
The example of how real estate agents earn money by contractually maintaining or creating distance or contact between social buyers and sellers highlights which of the following?
Structural holes
A set of stories that ties you to a social group is known as a
narrative
The term “six degrees of separation” came out of research undertaken by Stanley Milgram, who wanted to tes:
The reach of social networks
____ is the information, knowledge of people or things, and connections that help individuals enter preexisting network or gain power from them
Social capital
According to a 2002 article in the USA Today that was discussed in chapter 5, a researcher found that 100 of the 15 largest companies have at least 2 board members who sit togter on another board. this is referred to as:
Interlocking directorates
In contrast to Putmans claims that civic engagement has declinded, sociologist Robert Wuth contends that:
socail capital never declinded or disappreared, but merely changed forms
The most imporant difference between primany and secondary groups has to do with:
the kidnsif relationships that exist within them
What trend, related toa decline in socail capital, did Robert Putman focus on in her book Bowling Alone?1
The declining interest in community-based activities and organizations
Wright Mills term fro interlocking directorates is which of the following?
The power elite
Which of the following is true regarding the applicablility of networl analysis within a sociological research?
it can be used in both micro-level and mcro-level studues
Which main sociological theory takes up more micro or close-up look at the individual to explain deviance
Symbolic interactionism
From Emili Durkheim’s functional perspective, deviance in a society:
is necessary for society success
The act of abiding by societys norms is known as which of the following
Normative compliance
in 1973, the gov of NY enacted legistaltion mandating increased prison tems for drug possession and sale. These are known as:
Rockefeller drug laws
Which theory explains how social cues impact the way individuals act, specifically whether or not local, informal norms allow acts such as vanalizing an abandon car?
Broken Windows Theory
In industrialized societies, social sanctions are most likely:
Focused on the criminals individial cirumstances
Which theory developed by Cloward and Ohlin explains that street crime rises and falls in relation to the availablility of legitimate ecomonic opportunities
Differentail opportunties theory
The paradox on deviance and social control presented by your textbook authors in chap. 6 is that:
it is the deviants among us who hold society together
Tex evasion is an example of which of the following types of crimes?
White-collar crimes
Which of the following is true regarding the current social sanctions in the US?
We apply both the mechanical and organic sanctions
Which of the following is Durkheims term meaning a sense of aimlessness or despair that arises when we can no longer reasonably expect life to be more or less predictable?
Anomie
Which of Durkheims types of social solidarity characterized modern life
Organic
Which type of social solidarity is based on interdependence because the members of society perfom different and specialized functions? according to durkheim
organic
Former Enron CEO Kenneth Lay committed crimes such as misappropriating funds, issuing false reports and destroying evidence. these crimes are knowns as:
Corporate crimes
Sociologist refer to the set of mechanisms that creates compliance to norms as which of the following
Social Control
What is Mertons theory which stated that we learn societys expected goals and means to achieve them and when we cant achieve them, we may adapt in a variety of modes
Strain theory
According to Merton, which of the following describes a person who accepts both the goals defined by society and the means to achieve them
Conformist
Which of the following is Durkhiens primary explaination for why people commit suicude
they lack social intergration
The common faith or set of social norms by which a society and its members abide is defined by Dukhiems as:
Collective conscience
Which of the following is true regarding race and the death row population
justice and race on death-row is color blind
According to Zimbardos Stanford prison experiement, goof people can do terrible things depending on their social surrondings and expectations. He calls this:
The Lucifer effect
A crime such as burglary is also known as which type of deviance
formal
Accodring to Merton, a person who completely stops participating in societys drive to achieve its defined goal is an
retreatist
National cost per prisoner is approximately how much per year
20,000
All of the following are types of suicide described by Durkheim EXCEPT
recidivist
A policy of imprisoning and monitoring criminal offenders fro committing crimes in an effort to prevent them from committing more crimes is known as
specific deterrence
Within organic solidairy, what response to deviance is designed to transform the offender into a productive member of society
Rehabilitative
Which of the following statements is true regarding the current US incarceration rate
It is the highest in American history
Tracy is a woman who rejects the goals defined by society to achieve a big house and lots of money, but she still follows the means and abided by the rules. Merton would classify Tracy as an
Ritualist
Which theory suggests that “crime results from a rational calculation of the costs and benefits of criminal activity
Deterrence theory
Which of the following is Durkheims term meaning a sense of aimlessness or despair that airses when we can no longer reasonable expect life to be more or less predictable
Anomie
A person who desires a big mansion and the perfect american dream life style, but sells illegal drugs to acheive this is knowns by Merton as an
innovator
Goffman called situations where ” aspects of life are conducted in the same place and under the same single authority
Total institutions
Which of the Durkheims types of social solidarity characterized premodern life?
Mechanical
Which term best described what happens when other people label a person and that label affects his or her actions
Secondary deviance
Which type of social solidartiy is based on the sameness of the individual parts and people in the society, according to Durkhiem
Mechanical
When analyzing crime rate, the best indicator we have of crime is the
murder rate
Which crime has the most financial impact in theUS today
White collar crime
Suicude occurs when a person expereinces too much social regulation, according to Durkhiem?
Fatalistic