sociology quiz culture

Term Definition
culture totality of learned, socially transmitted788
society large number of people who live in the same territory, who are relatively independent of people outside that area, and who participate in a common culture
adorno a common culture simplifies day-to-day interactions; said that a worldwide culture industry limits people's choices
cultural universal* certain common practices and beliefs that all societies have developed
ethnocentrism* tendency to assume that one's own culture and way of life represents the norm or is superior to others (ex. missionaries trying to spread their religion throughout africa – if the don't they'll go to hell if they don't convert)
sociobiology* systematic study of how biology affects human social behavior (ex. studying how birds different beaks separate them into different social groups)
cultural genocide* systematic destruction of traditions, values, language, and other elements which make a one group of people distinct from other groups (ex. forcing native Americans onto reservations and to learn english – slowly forgetting native language)
invention* existing cultural items combined into form that did not exist before (ex.
diffusion making known or sharing existence of an aspect of reality
mcdonaldization*
technology
material culture
non-material culture
globalization*
culture lag*
innovation process of introducing a new idea or object to a culture
discovery
sapir-whorf hypothesis*
formal norms*
mores*
folkways* norms governing everyday behavior (ex. walking down a down escalator)
sanctions (positive/negative)* penalties and rewards for conduct concerning a social norm (ex. pay raise or getting fired)
values*
sub-culture*
argo*
counter-culture*
culture shock
cultural relativism
how would conflict theorists view ethnocentrism differently than functionalists? one believes that ethnocentric value judgements serve to devalue groups and to deny equal opportunities while the latter believes ethnocentrism maintains sense of solidarity
what are some advantages that societies have because they share a common value?
what is one explanation for the existence of cultural universals? write down a few examples
what are some effects of globalization? write down two positives and two negatives
how does sociobiology differ from biology? give an example from the reading to illustrate the difference one is the systematic study of how biology affects human social behavior while the other is the study of living organisms (ex. one studied how different birds beaks separated them while the other studied the birds themselves)
what is an example of a behavior that might violate society's norms but be acceptable in a sub-group? underage drinking is frowned upon in society however it is 'cool' to drink among other teens
what are some values that have remained constant over many years in the United States? what are some values that have changed?
what are some cultural universals that all cultures share in the raising of children?
what are some cultural differences? how might these differences lead to unique cultures and world-views?
what are some informal norms that are an important part of MHS culture?
define social location. what is your social location?

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