Sociology Exam 2 Chan Biola

Three Biblical Causes of Poverty (Keller)
• Oppression (loans with excesive interest, unjust system), Natural Disasters (lame blind fires floods), Personal Moral Failure (a lot in Proverbs)
• In the bible there is usually a larger emphasis on structural factors
• Structural: refers to anything that is beyond a persons control, Social Justice
Mishpat (Keller)
• Justice, giving people what they are due, whether punishment or protection or care. Mishpat is the action.
• Micah 6:8 ” And what des the Lord require of you but to do justice, and to love mercy, and to walk humbly with your God?”
• Social Justice, how to fix
Tzadeqah (Keller)
• Being just, life of right relationships, Mishpat + Tzadeqah = “Social Justice”
• Isaiah 58: 1-7
• Being just in the Bible is social
Stratification
• “Structured social inequality or, more specifically, systematic inequalities between groups of people that arise as intended or unintended consequences of social processes and relationships” (Conley) “Stratification is the study of who gets what (and why)” (Conley)
• Social Class and equality, explains why there are certain gaps in equality
Ontological Equality
• “The notion that everyone is created equal in the eyes of God” (Conley)
• What Christians believe
• Standards of Equality, contributes to social class and stratification
Equality of Opportunity
• “The idea that everyone has an equal chance to achieve wealth, social prestige, and power because the rules of the game… are the same power for everyone” (Conley 247)
• Capitalism
• Standards of Equality, contributes to social class and stratification
Equality of Condition
• “The idea that everyone should have an equal starting point” (Conley)
• Socialism
• Standards of Equality, contributes to social class and stratification
Equality of Outcome
• “A position that argues each player must end up with the same amount regardless of the fairness of the ‘game'” (Conley)
• Communism since there is no private ownership, Socialism
• Standards of Equality, contributes to social class and stratification
Class/Socioeconomic Status
• No consensus
• Working definition for our class: ones economic status in a society
• Indicators used to assess class generally include occupation, income, wealth, and education
o Class categories in the U.S.
• Upper class, middle class, working class, lower class
• Stratification and social equality
Social Mobility
• “The movement between different positions within a system of social stratification” (270)
o any movement
• so with the caste system there was no ability for social movement because you were born into a certain caste and there was no chance that you could move up
Social Reproduction
• The reproduction of social organization; the idea that people from a particular social class will reproduce members of that social class
o If I was born upper class, I will be upper class
o If I was born poor, I will be poor
• Lareau’s Fidnings on working class poor parents and accomplishment of natural growth; the children wre not about to speak to people in authority and get what they want like the richer kids were able to and they were also not able to get into after school programs that would allow them to move up; This is difference between Oppenheim and Langand
• Langand wasnt use to the way the Reed college was
• Social capital “the info, knowledge of people, and connection that help people enter gain power in or otherwise leverage social networks; any relationships between people that can facilitate the actions of others” (Conley Glossary) [WHO YOU KNOW]
Cultural capital: “symbolic and interactional resources that people use to their advantage in various situations [CULTURAL COMPETENCIES]
o Non economic goods that are reflected in language and the arts
o Traveling, books, cultural experiences, concerts, museums
o Knowing how school works, filling out an application, write a paper
Income vs. Wealth
• Income: Money received by a person for work or returns on investments (Conley)
• Wealth: a family or individuals net worth (that is, total assets minus debts) (Conley)
• White Privilege (Peggy McIntosh)
• The Racial Wealth Gap (Sharpio)
• Race, Stratification, Class and Poverty, Racial Gap
• White Privilege (Peggy McIntosh)
o A. White privilege: “an invisible package of unearned assets which I can count on every day, but about which I was ‘meant’ to remain oblivious; an invisible weightless knapsack of special provisions…” (McIntosh)
o B. “[White privilege] is all about not having to think about your race.” (Conley: 329)
• The Racial Wealth Gap (Sharpio)
o Wealth v. Income
o Wealth is “the key to understanding racial stratification in the us”
• Wealth is personal safety net and allows for the growth in status
• Income is the use for daily needs
o Wealth is “a vehicle for transferring inequality across generations”
o Homeownership and institutional discrimination
• Black people have trouble getting a loan from the bank (60% rejection rate)
• When black families get approved, they get higher mortgage rates
• Not a big of a down payment
• Home location and other opportunities
o Cheap houses; bad schools: expensive schools; good schools
Sex vs. Gender
• Sex: Biological differences between male and female
• Gender: Social/cultural trails linked to males and females (masculinity/femininity)
• Emily Kane “No Ways My Boys are Going to Be Like That!”
• Social construction of gender, Essentialist View( men and woman are naturally different based on biology) and Social Constructionist View (masculinity and feminity are created through social interaction changing with time and place)
• Emily Kane “No Ways My Boys are Going to Be Like That!”
o Question: How do parents respond to their children’s gender nonconformity?
o Method: Interviews with parents of preschoolers
o Findings:
• Responds to daughters’ nonconformity:
Celebrated
Noted that they encouraged “boyish” behavior
• Reactions to sons’ nonconformity:
Not okay
23/41 negative
domestic things, playing with dolls, kitchen sets – okay
painting nails, wearing tutus, pink, Barbie’s – no
• Saw a difference between reaction between fathers and mothers
Dads were more concerned with sons gender
7/27 parents worried that the son would become gay, and mostly a fear that they would be made fun of if they went out into the worldFeminism
Underlying belief= equal opportunities and respect for men and women
Social Construction of Gender
• Meanings of masculinity and femininity are created through social interaction
• Meanings of masculinity/femininity are fluid; vary by time and place
• We are socialized into acting in masculine and feminine ways
• How gender is constructed through social interaction, explains why it is socially acceptable for woman to act like men but not men like women
Essentialism
• Men and women are naturally different based on their biology
• Hallmarks of essentialisn are fixity, lack of history, absolutism, and biological determinism
• Counter to social constructionism view of gender
The Motherhood Penalty (Correll et al.)
• A. Phenomenon they are studying: why mothers experience disadvantages in the workplace
• B. Possible explanations
o 1. Worker explanations are having to take time off work because of kids
o 2. Discrimination explanations might be discriminating against mothers, preference for those who are not parents
• C. Their theory: status characteristics theory + cultural beliefs and norms
o 1. Status characteristic guides behaviors and evaluations due to “performance expectations”
• I expect a Stanford graduate to perform better than a high school graduate
o 2. “Performance expectations” based on cultural belief that mothers are less committed to work than non mothers
• If you are being a good mother, you are not being a good worker
• If you are a good worker, you are not being a good mother
• How do you test if the women are being discriminated in the workplace?
• D. Methods
o 1. Laboratory experiment
• Fake application
o 2. Audit study
• E. Laboratory experiment findings
o 1. Mothers judged as significantly less competent and committed than nonmothers
o 2. Mothers held to harsher performance and punctuality standards than nonmothers
• it would be okay for other people to be late, but not for mothers. (harsher on the mothers)
o 3. Recommended starting salary lower for mothers than nonmothers
• $11,000 lower for mothers
o 4. Rated as less promotable and less likely to be recommended for management
o 5. Recommended for hire less than nonmothers
• Most of them didn’t even get the job, and if they were to get hired, they wouldn’t be recommended for raises or higher positions
• 84% of females nonmothers offered for hire
• 47% of mothers offered for hire
• Men have a benefit of being a father
• BUT women without children rated as more competent than men without children
• People like fathers, then single women, then single men, then mothers.
• F. Audit Study Findings
o 1. Employers do discriminate against mothers
o 2. Childless women received 2.1 times as many call backs as equally qualified candidates
Glass Ceiling
• Glass ceiling for women: an invisible limit on womens climb up the occupational ladder (Conley)
o Not due to natural abilities
o The glass ceiling is the legal profession
• Woman traditionally will earn less then men, they will not be able to move up the latter as easily- Motherhood Penelty
• Gender Inequality
Glass Escalator
• Glass escalator for men: when men enter predominantly female jobs, they enjoy a quicker rise to leadership positions
• “The Glass Escalator” board
• “The Glass Escalator” (Williams 1992)
• Socialization of gender and Gender Inequality
• “The Glass Escalator” (Williams 1992)
o A. Phenomenon she is study: are men being discriminated against in predominately female occupations
• Nursing
• Librarians
• Elementary school teachers
• Social work
o B. Method: in-depth interviews 76 men and 23 women in 4 occupations
o C. Findings
• Preferential hiring and promotion (glass escalator)
• Non-hostile work environment
• No sexual harassments
• Had male supervisors- allowing for informal networking
• Discrimination from “outsiders”
Gaylord Focker: male nurses
Social Construction of Race
• How is race constructed?
o Giving meaning to physiological attributes
• Skin color, eye color, etc.
o Race had fluid and changeable boundaries
o Race is constructed in the interest of groups that wish to maintain power and social exclusion
o Racialization
• There is no biological basics for race
o Overall, the three racial categories (white, black, Asian) differ in just 6% of their genes
o More genetic variation within than between races
o No genetic code that all people of one race share
Racialization
• The formation of a new racial identity, in which new ideological boundaries of difference are drawn around a formerly unnoticed group of people
Race vs. Ethnicity vs. Nationality
• Race: a socially constructed category of people who share biologically transmitted traits that members of a society consider important
• Ethnicity: a shared cultural heritage
• Nationality: citizenship in a political territory (what passport you hold)
• The Social Construction of Race
The Social Construction of Race
o Social Construction: giving meaning of something through social interaction
o A. How is race socially-constructed?
• Giving meaning to physiological attributes
• Race as fluid ad changeable boundaries
• Changes of meaning of white: immigrants aren’t considered whites (Irish)
• Race is constructed in the interest of groups that wish to maintain power and social exclusion
o Racialization: “the formation of a new racial identity 9ni which new ideological boundaries of differences drawn around a formerly unnoticed group of people” (319)
• Politically motivated usually
• B. There is no biological, genetic basis for race
o Overall, the three racial categories (white black and Asian) differ in just 6 percent of their genes
o More genetic variation within than between races
o No genetic code that all people of one race share
Prejudice vs. Discrimination
• Prejudice: negative thoughts and feeling about an ethnic or racial group
• Discrimination: harmful or negative acts against people deemed inferior on the basis of their racial category
• If you have a prejudice you just think that the person is inferior to you, and although you may treat them differently it is not solely due to their race, but discrimination is like the Jim crow law (extreme) in the south
• The social construction of race, race inequality
Institutional Racism (Lecture)
• Systemic white domination of people of color, embodies and operating in corporations, universities, legal systems, political bodies, cultural like, and other social collectives (Desmond and Emirbayer)
• A system of advantage based on race whereby the dominant group receives unearned advantages, benefits, and privileges while the oppressed group is denied these
• Examples:
o Poor service/ put at the worst table in restaurants
o Higher chances of getting cars searched
o Ignored at retail stores selling expensive commodities
• Social construction of race, inequality due to race
White Privilege
• An invisible package of unearned assets which I can count on cashing in everyday, but about which I was “meant” to remain obvious; an invisible weightless knapsack of special provisions. (McIntosh)
• No about having to think about race much at all (Conley)
• White people get higher loans and more likely to get a loan and get a job due to the invisible safety net that is assumed for white people
• Social construction of race and inequality due to race
The “Traditional” Nuclear Family
• Characteristics:
o Heterosexual couple
o Dependent children
o Economically independent
o Patriarchal (governed by male head)
o Husband breadwinner, wife homemaker
• Functionalist assumed that this was the best set up for fulfilling society’s needs for productive workers and child nurturers
• Not universal/common
• Social construction of family, and gender roles
The Second Shift (Arlie Hochschild)
• 1. The Second Shift: woman’s responsibility for housework and child care
o When men do housework, they are “helping out”
o Men are likely to be in charge of non-daily chores, women daily chores
o Adult daughter often primary caregivers to the parent
• 2. Positive outcomes when men and women share second shift
o more stable and happy marriage
o men who share in child rearing and housework have happier marriages, better health, and longer lives
The Deinstitutionalization of Marriage (Cherlin)
• Deinstitutionalization: The weakening of social norms that define peoples behavior in a social institution such as marriage
o Changing division of labor: Women are working more outside the home and men are contribution to housework and child care more
o Childbearing outside of marriage: Socially acceptable to have children outside of marriage. 1 of 3 births happen outside of marriage
o Cohabitation: Living together without being married
o Same-sex marriage: Increasing support
• Changes to the meaning of marriage
o Transition from institutional marriage to companionate marriage (1950’s)
• Institutional: getting married for practical marriage, done for utility
• Companionate: more fone for companionship, emotional satisfaction
o Transition from companionate to individualized marriage (1960 ‘s and on)
• Individualized: how can I fulfill myself in this marriage, individual satisfaction. Me. Me. Me.
• Current context of marriage
o Many choices in forms of marriage and roles within marriage
o Focus on individual benefits from marriage rather than the social value
• Why do people still get married?
o The gain of enforceable trust: still a gain to it
o Symbolic significance of marriage: still see it as the ultimate relationship, highest form of relationship
• The American Marriage- Divorce paradox: Americans value very highly (90%) yet has the highest divorce rate of ay comparable western country
Lareau’s Findings
Concerted Cultivation
o Middle class parents and concerted cultivation
• Key elements: are activity cultivating their children lives
• Organization of daily life: tons of activities
• Language use: Alexander and his parents have extensive conversations, mom constantly wanting to know more about what he is doing
• Interventions in institutions: they go to the parent meetings and complain, passes onto kids and they complain at school
• Consequence: emerging sense of entitlement for the child
Accomplishment of Natural Growth
o Working Class Poor Parents and Accomplishments of natural growth
• Key elements: believe that if they provoke with live, care, food, safety that they will grow and thrive- don’t worry anout the kids special talents
• Organization of daily life: hanging out with the neighborhood kids, child directed, unstructured free flowing life in their neighborhood ‘
• Language use: precise, directive, not much extensive conversation
• Interventions of institutions: mistrustful, didn’t really ask questions, conscious and reserved, intimidated
• Consequences: emerging sense of constraint, the feeling like “I cant speak to people in author”
• Social reproduction, social construction of gender, race, class, contributes to the transmission of social class causes and norms within families
The Hidden Curriculum
• Non academic things that you learn in schools
• Example: how to socialize with other children, obedience to authority, how to share, etc.
• Socialization of children, teaching them norms, social construction of education, equality of education and gender and class and race
The Coleman Report (1966)
• A. Biggest study ever conducted, groundbreaking
o Large scale quantitative study of 600,000 students in 4,000 schools
• Accounted for a lot of different facilities of schools
o Differences in resources in school didn’t matter
o Most differences in achievement could be attributed to two factors
o Family background (middle – upper class family exhibited more success)
o Peers: black students faired better in white schools and low socioeconomic students did well in middle upper class schools
• B. Class Size: Small class sizes benefit students
o Project Star (1985)
o Fewer disciplinary problems, higher test scores, higher graduation rates, more college students
• C. Private vs. Public Schools: catholic schools the most successful in preparing students academically
Tracking
• Dividing students into different classes by ability of future plans
• A. Ferguson, “Bad Boys”
• B. Lee, “Asian American Exceptionalism and ‘Stereotype Promise'”
• Social construction of race, stratification, institutional racism
A. Ferguson, “Bad Boys”
o Methods: 3 years of fieldwork at Rosa Parks Elementary School
o Findings
• African American boys are over represented in the disciplinary action
• Boys are punished more than others for being suspended, and 4/5 of those were Black
• Black male students suffer from teachers and administrators’ negative stereotypes of them
• More likely to be called out for misdemeanors, closely watched, being seen as adults (actions are intentional and done out of sinister intents)
B. Lee, “Asian American Exceptionalism and ‘Stereotype Promise'”
o Method: 82 face-to-face, life history interviews with 1.5 and second generation Chinese and Vietnamese American adults in the Los Angeles area
o Main findings: Asian student benefit from teacher and administrators’ positive stereotypes of them (“stereotype promise”)
• Made students live up to stereotypes
• When Asian students don’t do well, they feel like failures and then reject their Asian identity
• Disadvantages them in the college admissions process
• Biggest loser in the affirmative actions; need almost perfect SAT score while white only need 1400 and blacks 1100
Cultural Capital
• Symbolic and interactional resources that people use to their advantage in various situations (Conley)
o Cultural competencies
• White privilege
• Social construction of race, institutional racism, stratification
Social Capital
• The information, knowledge of people, and connections that help individuals enter, gain power in, or otherwise leverage social networks; any relationship between people that can facilitate the actions of others. (Conley)
o Who you know
• Malcolm Gladwell, “The Trouble with Geniuses”
Therefore, the problem with genusis shows us that the social networks that are created are even more important than how smart you are, for it was seen with Oppenhiemer that he was able to get out of things (like poisoning his chemisty tutor) by being able to talk and get what he wanted unlike Langan who couldn’t even get his morning class changed to the afternoon.
• Connects to Concerted Cultivation and Natural Growth
• Malcolm Gladwell, “The Trouble with Geniuses”
o A. Question: Is IQ the main determinant of success in life? Why do some geniuses succeed while other fail?
o B. Argument: “extraordinary achievement is less about talent than it is about opportunity” (76)
o C. Findings:
• The limit of IQ: threshold
• He looks at the list in which colleges people come from whom have won Noble Prize Winners
Terman’s termites
• Identify the best and brightest and “gifted” children through IQ test
• Tracked their lives from childhood to adulthood
• Conclusion: “intellect and achievement are far from perfectly correlated”
• Main difference between Group “A” (high achievers) and Group “c” (low achievers): family and practical intelligence
• Knowledge that helps you read situation and then get what you want
Resource Dilution Hypothesis
• The bigger the family, the lower children’s achievement test scores and grades
• Siblings spaces closer together, lower achievement test scores and grades
• Middle children do worse
• Later-born children get more financial support from parents
• How family effects socialization of kids and the social construction of families
The Achievement Gap (Lecture)
• 1. By age three, children of professionals have vocabularies that are nearly 50 percent greater than those of working class children, and twice as large as those of children whose families are on welfare.
• 2. By the end of fourth grade, African American, Latino, and poor students of all races are two years behind their wealthier, predominantly white peers in reading and math. By eighth grade, they have slipped three years behind, and by twelfth grade, four years behind.
• 3. Among 18- to 24-year olds, about 90 percent of whites have either completed high school or earned a GED. Among blacks, the rate is 81 percent; among Hispanics, 63 percent.
• 4. Black students are only about half as likely and Hispanics about one-third as likely as white students to earn a bachelor’s degree by age 29.
• Explaining the Achievement Gap
o A. Two different arguments:
• 1. Jonathan Kozol: Due to unequal resources in racially- segregated schools
a. Differences in school facilities
• No gardens, no arts, poor bathroom facilities, unsanitary, packed classrooms, lack of air conditioning, etc.
b. Differential funding per pupil
• if you live in a low income area, the schools in those area get a certain amount of what their taxing is. So that means less income areas have less income schools.
c. Differential pay for teachers
• teachers in rich areas may get $30,000 more than teachers in low income areas
d. Curricular advantages
• 2. Malcolm Gladwell: Due to the differential hours that poor and rich children spend learning (educational structure/families)
o B. What is the solution to educational inequality?
• 1. Kozol: Greater equity in educational resources; desegregation of schools
• 2. Gladwell: More educational hours for poor children
Annette Lareau, “Invisible Inequality: Social Class and Childrearing in Black Families and White Families”
A. Phenomenon she is studying: the transmission of social lass causes and norms within families
B. Method: Ethnography (interviews and observations)
She becomes the family dog- she follows these 12 families to everything that they do
C. Argument: Social class leads to different parenting style and different life experience and outcomes
D. Lareau’s Findings
• Middle Class parents and Concerted Cultivation
o Key elements: are activity cultivating their children lives
o Organization of daily life: tons of activities
o Language use: Alexander and his parents have extensive conversations, mom constantly wanting to know more about what he is doing
o Contestation, negotiation, conversing
o Interventions in institutions: they go to the parent meetings and complain, passes onto the kids and they complain at school
o Consequence: emerging sense of entitlement for the child
• Working Class Poor Parents and Accomplishment of natural growth
o Key elements: believe that if they provide with love, care, food, safety that they will grow and thrive- don’t worry about the kids special talents
o Organization of daily life: hanging out with the neighborhood kids, child directed, unstructured free flowing life in their neighborhood
o Language use: precise, directive, not much extensive conversation
o Interventions in institutions: mistrustful, didn’t really ask questions , conscious and reserved, intimidated
o Consequence: emerging sense of constraint, the feeling like “I cant speak to people in author”
1. Class is more important than race in shaping childrearing patterns
2. Differences were created by parents’ differential economic and educational resources- activities are expensive
3. A caveat: “Still, the structural location of families did not fully determine their childrearing practices. The agency of actors and indeterminacy of social life are inevitable..” (626)
• “the agency of actors” born into this class, not an automatic a to b relationship, for you have choices to make

Malcolm Gladwell, “The Trouble with Geniuses”
A. Question: Is IQ the main determinant of success in life? Why do some geniuses succeed while other fail?
B. Argument: “extraordinary achievement is less about talent than it is about opportunity” (76)
C. Findings:
• The limit of IQ: threshold
o He looks at the list in which colleges people come from whom have won Noble Prize Winners
• Terman’s termites
o Identify the best and brightest and “gifted” children through IQ test
o Tracked their lives from childhood to adulthood
o Conclusion: “intellect and achievement are far from perfectly correlated”
o Main difference between Group “A” (high achievers) and Group “c” (low achievers): family and practical intelligence
• Knowledge that helps you read situation and then get what you want

Ann Arnett Ferguson, “Bad Boys: Public Schools in the Making of Black Masculinity”
Ferguson, “Bad Boys”
• Methods: 3 years of fieldwork at Rosa Parks Elementary School
• Findings
o African American boys are over represented in the disciplinary action
o Boys are punished more than others for being suspended, and 4/5 of those were Black
o Black male students suffer from teachers and administrators’ negative stereotypes of them
• More likely to be called out for misdemeanors, closely watched, being seen as adults (actions are intentional and done out of sinister intents)
Jennifer Lee, “Asian American Exceptionalism and ‘Stereotype Promise'”
• Method: 82 face-to-face, life history interviews with 1.5 and second generation Chinese and Vietnamese American adults in the Los Angeles area
• Main findings: Asian student benefit from teacher and administrators’ positive stereotypes of them (“stereotype promise”)
o Made students live up to stereotypes
o When Asian students don’t do well, they feel like failures and then reject their Asian identity
o Disadvantages them in the college admissions process
• Biggest loser in the affirmative actions; need almost perfect SAT score while white only need 1400 and blacks 1100
Thomas Shapiro, “Race, Homeownership, and Wealth”
(THIS IS NOT THE METHODS OR CASE INFO, BUT WHAT HE FOUND)
A. Wealth v. Income
B. Wealth is “the key to understanding racial stratification in the us”
• Wealth is personal safety net and allows for the growth in status
• Income is the use for daily needs
C. Wealth is “a vehicle for transferring inequality across generations”
D. Homeownership and institutional discrimination
• Black people have trouble getting a loan from the bank (60% rejection rate)
• When black families get approved, they get higher mortgage rates
o Not a big of a down payment
E. Home location and other opportunities
• Cheap houses; bad schools: expensive schools; good schools
Shelley Correll, Stephen Benard, and In Paik, “Getting a Job: Is There a Motherhood Penalty?”
A. Phenomenon they are studying : why mothers experience disadvantages in the workplace
• Nonmothers and mothers have larger wage gap then men and woman
• Considered more incompetent
B. Possible explanation
• Worker explanation
o Maybe she has more interruptions, working part time, taking time off for having a baby, less productive at work
• Discrimination explanation:
o Employer discrimination
C. Their theory: the status characteristics theory + cultural beliefs and norms
• Status characteristics guides behaviors and evaluations use to “performance expectations”
• We expect more out of people who are old, men, women, college graduates
• “Performance expectations” based on cultural beliefs that mothers are less committed to work than nonmothers
o intensive mothering: the mother does everything for her kids, if she does any less not a good mother
• make own bb food
o intensive worker: stays later, does more at work
o the two together clash when it comes to a working mother
D. Methods
• Laboratory experiment: undergrads evaluated the resumes and cover letters
• Only difference is that some were parents and some were not
• Gave example job
• Write and evaluation
o Mothers were judged as sig les then competent and committed than nonmothers
o 10% lower than nonmothers
o Mothers held to harsher performance and punctuality than nonmothers
o The recommended starting salary was lower by 11,000 dollars than nonmothers
o Less promotable and less likely to be recommended for management
• Recommended 47% mothers and 85% of nonmothers
• Fatherhood was a bonus
• Audit study: undergrads aren’t real employers- submitted them to jobs ads, same idea as lab
o Employers do discriminate
o Childless woman received 2.1 time as many callback as equally qualified candidates
Christine Williams, “The Glass Escalator: Hidden Advantages for Men in the ‘Female’ Professions”
A. Phenomenon she is study: are men being discriminated against in predominately female occupations
• Nursing
• Librarians
• Elementary school teachers
• Social work
B. Method: in-depth interviews 76 men and 23 women in 4 occupations
C. Findings
• Preferential hiring and promotion (glass escalator)
o Non-hostile work environment
o No sexual harassments
• Had male supervisors- allowing for informal networking
• Discrimination from “outsiders”
o Gaylord Focker: male nurses
Jonathan Kozol, “Still Separate, Still Unequal: America’s Educational Apartheid”
Due to unequal resources in racially-segregated schools
• Still have schools that have racial segregation in the schools due to the white families sending their kids to other schools that aren’t in the neighborhoods while the black kids have to
• Difference in school facilities: poor bathroom facilities, no art programs, lack of air conditioning, no libraries
• Differential funding per pupil almost double in suburbs
• Differential pay for teachers 30,000 dollars more
• Curricular advantages
o Freemont high school have to take sewing and hairdressing
o Other schools had architecture and broadcast as electives
2. The United States is a nation of equal opportunity for all, regardless of race, class, or gender. Using evidence from three of the following readings, develop an argument for whether this is true or false.
Essay Question
1. Do social institutions, like the family or the educational system, reproduce or reduce inequality? Using evidence from three of the following readings, develop an argument for how institutions like the family and the educational system reproduce or reduce class and/or racial inequalities.
Essay Question