Sociology Culture/Emotions/Impression Management

Paul Ekman
Basic “facial features” that all humans can recognize: sadness, happiness, anger, surprise, contempt, disgust, fear. Certain emotional responses carry different meanings depending on culture. Observed blind people and athletes in competition in order to support his theories.
Physiological Arousal
Hormonal/visceral/physical changes. Examples: increased heart rate, sweating, blushing, etc.
Cognitive Interpretation
Attaching meaning to emotional experience by drawing on memory, etc. Examples: Blaming someone, perceiving a threat.
Social/Behavioral Reactions
Expressing oneself through gestures/verbally, etc. Examples: Crying, screaming, jumping, etc.
James-Lange Theory
Physical responses underlie emotions. “We feel sorry because we cry, afraid because we tremble, etc.” Physical reactions create emotions, not the other way around. Partially correct: physical state can alter emotions (for example, drinking too much caffeine –> jumpiness, irritability). Also partially correct because the brain does maintain memories of physical states associated with events (supports James-Lange, counters Canon-Bard).
Canon-Bard Theory
Emotional feeling and internal physical response occur simultaneously. Reasoning: physical behavioral changes occur too slowly to account for split-second emotional states and that physical responses are not varied enough to account for all possible emotional states.
Two-Factor Theory (Schachter-Singer Theory)
Emotions we feel depend on 1) internal physical state,and 2) current external situation. Only theory to factor in cognition as a role in emotions. Example: Female assistant working on shaky bridge vs. sturdy bridge experiment.
Cognitive Appraisal Theory
After an event has occurred, we make a conscious decision on how to feel.
Visuals
James-Lange: Stimulus (snake) –>physiological arousal (sweating, heart rate) –> emotion (fear).

Canon-Bard: Stimulus (snake) –>Physiological Arousal
–> Emotion

Two-Factor: Stimulus (snake) –> Physiological Arousal
–> Cognitive Interpretation
BOTH LEAD TO: Appraisal of arousal/interpretation –> Emotion (fear)

Norms
set of rules & understanding that control behavior of people/groups in ANY culture/setting
-Folkways –> unwritten rules of how to behave. Ex: bathroom etiquette. Receive weaker Sanctions (dirty looks)
-Mores –> Rules. Laws. Stronger Sanctions. Ex: Don’t Drink and Drive.
Culture
Complex system f meaning/behavior that defines a way of life for a certain society; patterns of behavior.
Sanctions
Rewards/Punishments when norms are followed/broken (respectively). Mechanisms of social control to enforce norms.
Ethnomethodology
Purposefully breaking norms in order to study them
Subculture
group of people that maintain certain rituals/norms/values that make them separate from dominant culture. Ex: Trekkies, Irish Immigrants, Freegans, etc. Will most likely Assimilate, but will still be considered a subculture.
Counter-culture
Cultural patterns that strongly oppose those widely accepted by society. Actively resist assimilation and reject dominant culture norms. Ex: anti-government survivalist groups, such as E.L.F. Assimilation is not likely, they are not integrated into common society.
Assimilation
culturally distinct groups with larger civilization. Adopting language/values/norms of host civilization.
Ethnocentrism
Tendency to judge another’s culture as inferior in terms of one’s own norms/values.
Cultural Relativism
Evaluating a culture by its own standards, not putting it into comparison to you own culture
Culture Shock
Feelings of disorientation when one encounters new/rapidly changing cultural situations. Ex: Lost Boys of Sudan upon coming to America.
Cultural Universals
Kinship/descent; belief system/religion; communication/language; recreation; arts; laws/politics; technology; stratification/social structure; marriage; gender roles; economics; covering genitals; food sharing; healthcare systems.
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
Language determines other aspects of culture because language provides the categories through which social reality is understood. Ex: Yanomano counting system (1, 2, more than 2), and the word “awkward” doesn’t exist in Spanish.
Emotional Intelligence
Ability to identify, assess, and control emotions. Ability to handle emotions and recognize right from wrong. 5 Components:
-Self Awareness
-Managing Emotions
-Motivation
-Empathy
-Social Skills
Amygdala
Emotional part of the memory is stored when everything is settled, we realize what happened –> referred to as the emotional hijack.
The Self
Identity a person adopts and about which he/she attempts to gain agreement from others in a situation.
-Erving Goffman: Life is a series of cons.
Impression Management
Presentation of Self-you purposefully portray yourself a certain way by adopting an identity/providing identities for others, thereby influencing the outcome of a situation.
Audience Effects
Explains how an individuals’ work is affected by knowing they’re visible to others (similar to Hawthorne Effect)