Sociology Chapter 8- Q&A

It is a master status cutting across all aspects of life
Sociologically, why is gender especially significant?
A) It is a master status cutting across all aspects of life.
B) It permits a comparison to superior male qualities.
C) It provides one group to lead, another to follow.
D) It reinforces the teachings of Genesis.
The terms “sex” and “gender” are sociologically and biologically interchangeable
Which statement is least accurate regarding sex and gender?
A) The world offers unequal access to power, prestige, and property based on one’s sex.
B) Being born male or female carries images and expectations on how one should act.
C) Gender is sociologically significant because it is the way in which society controls its members.
D) The terms “sex” and “gender” are sociologically and biologically interchangeable.
gender stratification
The term for the unequal access to power, prestige, and property based on a person’s sex is ________.
A) sex typing
B) sexual harassment
C) gender stratification
D) matriarchy
Biological
While the notion of gender refers to sociological characteristics, the concept of sex refers to ________ characteristics.
A) psychological
B) biological
C) philosophical
D) anthropological
A uterus in women
Which of the following is a primary sex characteristic?
A) increased body hair in men
B) lower voice in men
C) a uterus in women
D) broader hips in women
XY
What is the normal chromosome configuration for a male?
A) XY
B) XX
C) XYY
D) XXY
It is a product of socialization and social control
According to sociologists, why do men and women typically perform different types of work?
A) It is based on biology and climate.
B) It is a product of socialization and social control.
C) Its determining factors are motivation and aspiration.
D) It focuses on status and wealth as the determining factors.
Gender differences are based on social factors
Which of the following statements best describes how most sociologists believe behavioral gender differences develop between men and women?
A) Gender differences are based on social factors
B) Gender differences are based on genetic dispositions.
C) Gender differences are the result of biological differences.
D) Gender differences are based on physiological differences
Alice Rossi
Who proposed the concept that women are better prepared biologically for “mothering” than men, which is overlaid in culture?
A) Cynthia Fuchs Epstein
B) Margaret Mead
C) Alice Rossi
D) Rebecca Ann Wilson
Human behavior is the result of nature and nurture working together
Based on the accident that led to the sex change of a seven-month-old identical twin as well as the Vietnam veterans’ study, which statement is most accurate regarding the effects of nature and nurture on behavior?
A) Nature is the dominant force in determining human behavior.
B) Nurture is the dominant force in determining human behavior.
C) Human behavior is the result of nature and nurture working together.
D) Neither nature nor nurture is responsible for determining human behavior.
Testosterone
Dominance behavior, such as winning a game, produce higher levels of __________.
A) testosterone
B) aggressive behavior
C) progesterone
D) stress
Hunting and Gathering
In what society were women and men often considered social equals?
A) industrial
B) pastoral and horticultural
C) agricultural
D) hunting and gathering
Minority Group
What classification or terminology do sociologists apply to women that describe their inability to gain equal access to power, property, and prestige?
A) the glass escalator
B) radical feminism
C) a counterculture
D) minority group
Women are discriminated against because of their physical characteristics
Why do sociologists classify females as a minority group?
A) Women are outnumbered by men in virtually every society.
B) Women are not as physically strong as men.
C) Men perform the most difficult and dangerous work in most societies.
D) Women are discriminated against because of their physical characteristics.
warfare and hand-to-hand combat
What activity did Marvin Harris link to the emergence of sex discrimination and men gaining the upper hand?
A) warfare and hand-to-hand combat
B) childbirth and childrearing
C) local governance of the tribe or community
D) the right to vote
Gerda Lerner
According to __________ patriarchy could have had different origins in different places.
A) Gerda Lerner
B) Frederick Engels
C) Marvin Harris
D) George Murdock
Taking care of cattle
George Murdock discovered that only a few jobs were consistently male-dominated in his study of 324 societies around the world. He considered all of the following as male-dominated jobs EXCEPT for ________.
A) making weapons
B) pursuing sea mammals
C) taking care of cattle
D) hunting
Metal Working
In his study of sex typing and work, ________ was the one occupation considered to be “men’s work” in all the societies examined by George Murdock.
A) metal working
B) herding cattle
C) hard physical labor
D) disciplining children
Every society associates certain activities with one sex or the other
What conclusion did George Murdock make following his study of 324 societies?
A) Women are biologically and socially suited for “mothering” and nurturing tasks.
B) Men hold a position of dominance in society because of their inherent strength.
C) Every society associates certain activities with one sex or the other.
D) Feminism has upset the natural order of the division of labor in modern society.
Felix’s and John’s
Felix tends goats in Peru, while his wife, Maria, takes care of the family crops. John is a nurse in France and his wife, Sonia, is a midwife. Based on cross-cultural studies, whose work would be given more prestige in their respective societies?
A) Maria’s and Sonia’s
B) Felix’s and Sonia’s
C) Felix’s and John’s
D) Maria’s and John’s
burning the living widow with the body of her dead husband
What is the practice of suttee?
A) permitting only men the right to vote
B) requiring women to cover their faces in public
C) passing legislation that legally makes women inferior to men
D) burning the living widow with the body of her dead husband
Honor Killing
In Pakistan, Jordan, and Kurdistan, a woman who has brought disgrace to her family is killed by a male relative, usually her brother or husband. This practice is called ________
A) honor killing
B) domestic manslaughter
C) blood feud
D) infanticide
Feminism
What is the philosophy that biology is not destiny, especially with regard to justifying gender stratification?
A) symbolic interactionism
B) exchange theory
C) neo-Marxism
D) feminism
They picketed the White House
What act did members of the National Women’s Party engage in to gain the right to vote in 1917?
A) They picketed the White House.
B) They filed suit with the Supreme Court of the United States.
C) They boycotted all male political activities.
D) They encouraged all women who worked for the government called in sick for a month.
reforming all the institutions of society
The first wave of the women’s movement had a radical branch and a conservative branch. What was the goal of the radical branch of the movement?
A) campaigning to pass an Equal Rights Amendment
B) winning the right to vote for women
C) reforming all the institutions of society
D) changing women’s work roles
The second wave
Which wave of feminism was characterized by broad goals ranging from an increase in women’s pay to an antiviolence campaign?
A) the first wave
B) the second wave
C) the third wave
D) the fourth wave
The third wave
Which wave of the women’s movement focused on the problems of women in the Least Industrialized Nations?
A) the first wave
B) the second wave
C) the third wave
D) the fourth wave
Football
What sport did anthropologist Douglas Foley and sociologist Donna Eder examine to illustrate the devaluation of females as a method of motivating men?
A) basketball
B) football
C) military standards
D) gang activity
Gender Socialization
The majority of students graduating with a degree in library science are women. Research has shown that this sex typing of majors is primarily due to ________.
A) gender discrimination in education
B) women’s natural strength in reading and language
C) gender socialization
D) the prestige of library science
Gender Tracking
The fact that nearly 80 percent of engineering degrees are awarded to men while 90 percent of library science degrees are awarded to women illustrates the phenomenon of ________.
A) feminization of the workplace
B) gender tracking
C) affirmative action
D) political correctness
Dentistry
In which profession have women made the greatest change in earning professional degrees compared to the number of degrees conferred to men?
A) engineering
B) psychiatry
C) agriculture
D) dentistry
psychology; engineering
Of the following choices, the doctorate conferred with the greatest percentage of women recipients is ________, while the doctorate with the greatest percentage to men is ________.
A) social science; agriculture
B) biological sciences; mathematics
C) psychology; engineering
D) computer science; agriculture
Judith Kleinfield
________ was the first to propose that we might need affirmative action for men.
A) Judith Kleinfield
B) Sue Fisher
C) Cynthia Fuchs
D) Christine Williams
20; 50
In 1890, women made up about ________ of the U.S. labor force. Today, they represent almost ________.
A) 0; 35
B) 10; 35
C) 15; 40
D) 20; 50
Being born male
When many students graduate from college, they are able to earn an extra $1,435 a month between the ages of 25 and 65. These students manage to earn this bonus by ________.
A) majoring in business
B) being born male
C) joining an influential fraternity/sorority
D) majoring in medicine
Among college graduates
Based the same levels of academic achievement, where does the greatest pay gap exist between men and women over their lifetime?
A) among high school dropouts
B) among high school graduates
C) among those who earned some college credits but no degree
D) among college graduates
The Child Penalty
What is the term for gender discrimination against women who miss the work experience while they care for children at home?
A) the child penalty
B) the devaluation of women
C) the glass ceiling
D) the glass escalator
The testosterone bonus
Joan and Jim were both hired to do the same work at the Acme Tool Company, although Jim’s title is slightly different from Joan’s. Jim has received a higher starting salary. What do sociologists call this form of employment discrimination?
A) the testosterone bonus
B) the good ol’ boy network
C) the blue-collar syndrome
D) management by gender
Pipelines
Marketing, sales, and production positions are considered _________ that lead(s) to the top of a company.
A) support positions
B) barriers to jobs
C) pipelines
D) “women’s work”
Eighteen
Of the nation’s top 500 corporations, referred to as the “Fortune 500,” ________ are headed by women.
A) none
B) eighteen
C) twenty-five
D) thirty-seven
The “glass ceiling”
Agatha has worked for ten years in the public relations department of a large firm. She has been promoted to several higher paying managerial positions, but never to an executive position, even though she has directed several successful projects for the firm. Her lack of promotion most likely illustrates ________.
A) the “glass ceiling”
B) the “glass elevator”
C) the “mommy track”
D) sexual harassment
the glass ceiling
What term describes the invisible barrier that keeps women from advancing to the top levels of a corporation?
A) the glass ceiling
B) the glass escalator
C) gender tracking
D) the hidden sex role
Structural
By the 1970s, women began to perceive unwanted sexual advances at work and school as part of a _______ problem.
A) gender
B) structural
C) co-worker
D) company.
It is based on the structural problems imbedded in society
Which of the following statements best describes how feminists view sexual harassment?
A) It is a fundamental difference in how men and women think.
B) It is based on the social process that guides society.
C) It is based on the structural problems imbedded in society.
D) It is caused by the biological differences between men and women.
Stereotypes
Even when women break through the crackling glass ceiling, they still confront gender ________that portray(s) them in a less favorable light than men.
A) tracking
B) indifference
C) stratification
D) stereotypes
Sexual harassment laws apply to homosexuals who are harassed by heterosexuals or other homosexuals on the job
What has the Supreme Court ruled regarding the treatment of homosexuals in the workplace and sexual harassment?
A) Homosexuals can only file claims of sexual harassment if the aggressor was also a homosexual.
B) Sexual desire is a fundamental requirement for a sexual harassment charge to be valid.
C) Sexual harassment laws apply to homosexuals who are harassed by heterosexuals or other homosexuals on the job.
D) Homosexuals are not a protected class and therefore are not covered by sexual harassment laws.
1970s
Sexual harassment was not recognized as being a social problem until the ________.
A) 1960s
B) 1970s
C) 1980s
D) 1990s
A high school boy acting obnoxious around a girl he is attracted to
Which of the following is not an example of sexual harassment?
A) A male boss using his position of authority to pressure women who work for him to perform sexual favors
B) A woman making obscene comments to a male homosexual she works with
C) A homosexual male making unwanted advances toward a female college
D) A high school boy acting obnoxious around a girl he is attracted to
Strangers
Which group of men do women fear the most as potential rapists?
A) co-workers
B) strangers
C) family members outside the home
D) family members in the home
16 to 19
The age range of women most likely to be victims of rape is ________.
A) 12 to 15
B) 16 to 19
C) 20 to 24
D) 25 to 34
The victim feels partially responsible because she knows the perpetrator
Why do most acquaintance rapes go unreported to authorities?
A) The victim does not wish to ruin her relationship with the perpetrator.
B) The victim feels partially responsible because she knows the perpetrator.
C) The perpetrator has invested time and money in developing a relationship with the victim.
D) The perpetrator has a higher social standing than the victim.
Men outnumber women as both victims and killers
Which statement best summarizes the relationship between killers and their victims?
A) Women and men are equally represented as victims of homicide.
B) Women and men are equally represented as perpetrators of homicide.
C) More women than men are victims of homicide.
D) Men outnumber women as both victims and killers.
She was the first African American woman elected to the U.S. Senate
In politics, what distinction does Carol Brown hold?
A) She was the first African American woman elected to the U.S. Senate.
B) She was the first woman ever elected state governor.
C) She was the first woman nominated for vice-president of the United States by a major party.
D) She was the first African American woman to hold a presidential cabinet post.