Sociology Chapter 5

1. What is the relationship between culture and society, from a sociological perspective?
a. The members of a society share a culture to some extent.
b. A society is much larger and more widespread than culture.
c. A society involves social interaction; culture does not.
d. Culture is a subset of society.
2. Which of the following characteristics does a society not possess?
a. People think of themselves as distinct from other societies.
b. Members maintain ties of interaction.
c. Individuals have a high degree of interdependence among their members.
d. Groups resemble society, but are similar in size.
3. Which of the following describes a society according to sociologists?
a. Highly independent individuals living together.
b. Members who share common culture.
c. Members who are unaware of other societies.
d. Members who exhibit constant harmony.
4. Emile Durkheim described society as suis generis. This means that society
a. is made up of a lot of individualized social interaction.
b. is the term for a set of groups and organizations in the same location.
c. is greater than the sum of its parts; it is an entity of its own.
d. lacks order because it has such great diversity.
5. In which of the following is Durkheim most interested?
a. How society changes.
b. The ways that interaction creates innovation.
c. Power.
d. The ways society is held together.
6. The importance of Durkheim’s sui generis is that .
a. society is more than the sum of the individuals in it.
b. society is simpler than once thought.
c. social interaction is more important than social structure.
d. culture and society are not equivalent.
7. Sociologists who study relatively small, less-complex, and less differentiated patterns of social interaction are using
a. microanalysis
b. macroanalysis
c. structural analysis
d. organic analysis
8. Sociologists who study the large patterns of social interactions that are vast, complex, and highly differentiated are using .
a. microanalysis
b. macroanalysis
c. content analysis
d. organic analysis
9. Which of these is an example of something a sociologist would consider from the microlevel analysis of social interaction?
a. day to day life in a sorority house
b. poverty in the U.S.
c. the causes of homelessness
d. rates of urban crime
10. Which of these would interest a sociologist who prefers macroanalysis of social interaction?
a. the pattern and content of cliques in a high school
b. how laws governing family leave have affected families in the U.S.
c. how members of a gang feel about the crimes they commit
d. the daily lives of people in a homeless shelter
11. Sociologists use the term to describe the order established in social groups at any level.
a. social interaction
b. infrastructure
c. social design
d. social organization
12. Sociologists investigating social organization find that
a. it is most common in industrial societies.
b. it brings predictability to human behavior.
c. it only applies to very large organizations.
d. it is only apparent to researchers.
13. Which of the following is not a social institution?
a. education
b. family
c. friends
d. religion
14. A is a broad system that organizes specific functions in society.
a. social organization
b. social institution
c. social structure
d. socialization
15. Social institutions
a. cannot be observed directly.
b. are only found in large societies.
c. do not serve any particular function in society.
d. are rare in our society.
16. Social institutions are an important concept within sociology for all of the following reasons, except
a. they shape life within any particular society.
b. they meet certain needs that are necessary for society to exist.
c. they exist outside of individual experience.
d. they are natural extensions of society.
17. Functionalist theorists contend that social institutions
a. assure the stability and continuance of society.
b. provide for some segments of society at the expense of others. c. distribute power to the various segments of society unequally.
d. shape individual identity and personality.
18. Which of the following is not a function of social institutions?
a. the socialization of new members of the society
b. providing members a sense of purpose
c. replacement of society’s members
d. supporting members economically
19. From the perspective of conflict theorists, social institutions
a. exist to protect the rights of those with less power in society. b. provide for some members of society more than for others.
c. create meaning for the people who participate in them.
d. hold society together.
20. Sociologists use the term to refer to the organized pattern of social relationships and social institutions that together comprise society.
a. cultural complex
b. social structure
c. infrastructure
d. social network
21. According to the text, social structures
a. are a part of large, but not small organization.
b. only have an influence on impersonal aspects of our lives, like education and religion.
c. are difficult to see for the untrained observer.
d. do not have any connection to each other.
22. Society is a network of:
a. roles.
b. statuses.
c. social structures.
d. divisions of labor.
23. According to Emile Durkheim, it is that gives groups social solidarity.
a. the social macrostructure
b. collective consciousness
c. class consciousness
d. popular culture
24. In answer to the question, “What holds society together?” Durkheim answered:
a. division of labor.
b. collective consciousness.
c. social structure.
d. social interaction.
25. In a society where mechanical solidarity exists
a. solidarity is created by individuals playing a great variety of different roles.
b. unity is based on role differentiation, not similarity.
c. individuals share the same values, hold the same things sacred, and frequently play the same roles.
d. the performance of multiple roles is necessary for the execution of society’s complex and integrated
26. In a society marked by organic solidarity
a. individuals play a great variety of different roles and unity is based on role differentiation.
b. the roles people play are very similar.
c. individuals share the same values and hold the same things sacred.
d. there is a complete lack of collective consciousness.
27. The type of social solidarity that exists in the United States and other industrialized societies is solidarity.
a. communal
b. mechanical
c. organic
d. integrated
28. Durkheim argued that complex societies are held together by the systematic interrelatedness of different tasks.
He used the term to refer to this interrelatedness.
a. bureaucracy
b. the division of labor
c. social superstructure
d. social infrastructure
29. Durkheim defined division of labor as:
a. the relatedness of different tasks.
b. the differentiation of male tasks and female tasks.
c. unity within diversity.
d. important secondary relationships.
30. In most contemporary societies create consistent patterns in the division of labor.
a. intelligence and ability
b. age, gender, race and class
c. interest and enthusiasm
d. religion and moral beliefs
31. Those societies that are gemeinschaft are characterized by
a. a sense of “we” feeling.
b. extensive division of labor.
c. strong secondary relationships.
d. organic solidarity.
32. Which of the following reflects a gemeinschaft society?
a. Strangers on a street corner.
b. Individuals talking in a cubicle in a large corporation.
c. A small community’s tomato festival.
d. A large city park.
33. is characterized by less prominence of personal ties, a somewhat diminished role of the nuclear family, and a lessened sense of personal loyalty to the total society.
a. Gemeinschaft
b. Gesellschaft
c. Verstehen
d. Sue Generis
34. Within a gemeinschaft society, how is social control achieved?
a. through social institutions such as the legal system
b. through a system of written laws that apply equally to members of society
c. through an internal sense of belonging that member of society share
d. through a strict division of labor.
35. Which of these is true about gesellschaft societies?
a. they have no social cohesion
b. primary relationships are dominant in society
c. the division of labor creates organic solidarity
d. mechanical solidarity creates social control
36. Ethnic conflict is most likely within societies and between societies.
a. gesellschaft / gemeinschaft
b. gemeinschaft / gesellschaft
c. mechanical / organic
d. traditional / contemporary
37. Sociologists distinguish six different types of societies based on
a. the complexity of their social structure and level of technology.
b. locations in the world.
c. their political systems-whether they are democratic or totalitarian.
d. their economic system-whether capitalist or socialist.
38. The key factor that distinguishes types of societies is the
a. kinship system.
b. division of labor.
c. development of technology.
d. economic system.
39. Preindustrial societies are those that
a. do not raise any crops.
b. only forage for food.
c. work directly with the land.
d. no longer manufacture; they produce information.
40. Which of these types of society has the greatest amount of social differentiation?
a. foraging
b. pastoral
c. agricultural
d. horticultural
41. Which of the following is not characteristic of foraging societies?
a. simple technologies for harvesting food surpluses
b. being nomadic
c. society organized around the family
d. role differentiation based on gender
42. Pastoral societies are based on the domestication of animals. In addition, they are characterized by
a. having no material wealth.
b. being nomadic.
c. their location in rich farmlands.
d. a lack of any division of labor.
43. In societies, there is a clearer division of labor than pastoral societies, but less than in industrial societies.
a. foraging
b. horticultural
c. pastoral
d. post-industrial
44. Which type of society may include a system of slavery?
a. foraging
b. industrial
c. horticultural
d. agricultural
45. In industrial societies, social cohesion is achieved through
a. a complex division of labor
b. kinship systems
c. religious beliefs
d. shared ethnic heritage
46. Which of these is not a characteristic of most industrial societies?
a. use of machines to produce goods and services
b. increased death rates and a lowered life expectancy
c. highly differentiated labor force
d. social cohesion achieved through structures of social institutions
47. Postindustrial societies are characterized by
a. the production of information services.
b. an increase in manufacturing jobs.
c. a large working class of industrial laborers.
d. a strict division of labor.
48. A pastoral society is unlike a forging society because:
a. It lacks a division of labor.
b. A forging society is more complex.
c. It develops a division of labor.
d. It lacks surplus.
49. In postindustrial societies
a. the economy is dependent on the production and distribution of services and knowledge.
b. there is very little social differentiation or division of labor.
c. religion and family are the most vital social institutions.
d. social inequality is rare.
50. If my occupation involves scientific research or management of information, then the type of society I represent is
a. postindustrial
b. industrial
c. forging
d. pastoral.
51. Today, the United States would be described as
a. an agricultural society.
b. between industrial and post-industrial phases.
c. moving beyond post-industrial society.
d. no longer manufacturing any products for itself.
52. How does post-industrialism impact members of society?
a. most have more leisure time
b. new kinds of jobs pay better so most make more money
c. education, particularly science, takes on paramount importance
d. full employment as new kinds of jobs are created
53. From a sociological perspective, which of these is not necessarily characteristic of a group?
a. interaction is face-to-face
b. members communicate with each other
c. members share goals and norms
d. members possess an awareness of themselves as “we”
54. Which of the following is not an example of a social group?
a. the elderly
b. nurses
c. veterans
d. American Idol fans
55. If I am a member of a parent-teacher association, which of the following am I involved in?
a. an audience
b. an informal organization
c. a formal organization
d. a private organization
56. The faithful fans of the original Coke form a(n) .
a. social group
b. social constituency
c. audience
d. social category
57. It is possible for members of an audience or a category to become a group, but in order to do so they must
a. meet face-to-face.
b. interact with each other.
c. be well-organized.
d. share other things in common.
58. The established position that one occupies within a social structure and that carries with it a degree of prestige is called a(n)
a. status
b. occupation
c. role
d. role set
59. When the different statuses of a person each brings with them significantly different amounts of prestige this causes .
a. role strain
b. status inconsistency
c. role conflict
d. status ambivalence
60. An immigrant from Vietnam was a lawyer in his home country. In the U.S. he cannot practice law, and so he drives a cab for a living. His experience is an example of .
a. role conflict
b. status inconsistency
c. role strain
d. ascribed status
61. A status that is earned is called an
a. acquired status
b. achieved status
c. assumed status
d. ascribed status
62. A medical doctor and a judge are examples of .
a. ascribed statuses
b. achieved statuses
c. assumed statuses
d. acquired statuses
63. A status that is occupied from the moment of birth (e.g., your sex or race) is called an .
a. acquired status
b. assumed status
c. ascribed status
d. achieved status
64. Your age and race are examples of
a. ascribed statuses.
b. achieved statuses.
c. assumed statuses.
d. acquired statuses.
65. Gender may be considered an achieved status as well as an ascribed status for all of the following reasons,
a. gender is socially constructed.
b. people enact their gender through behaviors and appearance.
c. some people transition in some way from the sex into which they were born.
d. gender and sex are unique concepts.
66. are statuses that demonstrate that it is difficult to draw a firm line between ascribed and achieved statuses.
a. Occupation and education
b. Social class and gender
c. Age and occupation
d. Being a parent and being a student
67. An ascribed status is one that is .
a. beyond the individual’s control
b. the responsibility of the individual
c. an earned status
d. a low rank
68. Which of the following is likely not an example of one’s master status?
a. age
b. race
c. gender
d. height
69. When a person defines her identity as a mechanic, she is creating her .
a. master or achieved status
b. ascribed status
c. role set
d. none of the above
70. A student who admires her basketball coach and plans to become a coach herself is an example of .
a. role reversal
b. role modeling
c. role imitation
d. taking the role of the other
71. When the roles in one’s role set clash with one another, the result is role .
a. inconsistency
b. conflict
c. strain
d. breakdown
72. Anne is a college student and a full-time employee and a mother of two young children. Anne is likely experiencing
a. role conflict.
b. role strain.
c. status inconsistency.
d. status sets.
73. Sociologist Arlie Hochschild’s concept of “the second shift” is discussed in the text as an example of .
a. a role set
b. role conflict
c. role strain
d. taking the role of the other
74. A condition wherein a single role brings conflicting expectations is called role .
a. strain
b. breakdown
c. conflict
d. confusion
75. Students are expected to spend a lot of time on their studies, but students are also increasingly expected to perform some sort of volunteer work and to socialize in their residence halls. The result is
a. role strain.
b. anomie.
c. role conflict.
d. role breakdown.
76. Which of the following is false in regards to social interaction?
a. Everyday behaviors are shaped by society.
b. Most behaviors are inherently positive or negative, regardless of the situation is.
c. The cultural context is important in determining the meaning of a behavior.
d. An action that is positive in one culture may be negative in another.
77. In the study of social interaction, sociologists find that
a. social status influences the meaning of nonverbal behaviors.
b. nonverbal communication, such as silence, has universal interpretations.
c. the vast majority of human communication is verbal.
d. although men and women have different speech patterns, they use nonverbal communication in the same ways.
78. Nonverbal communication
a. varies very little from one society to another.
b. is of little interest to sociologists because it is so difficult to observe.
c. varies according to one’s race, class, and gender.
d. is usually one-way.
79. Patterns of touch are strongly influenced by gender. Which of the following statements regarding gender and touch is false?
a. Women are more likely to use touch for emotional support than men are.
b. Boys tend to be touched by their parents more roughly than girls are.
c. In an interaction, which people touch others is a reflection of the relative social status of the participants.
d. In everyday interaction men and women tend to use touch about equally.
80. Parents vary their pattern of touch or tactile communication most often based on .
a. age
b. gender
c. race
d. communication style
81. When Jack raises his eyebrows at a comment made by Carol he is engaging in .
a. role stain
b. verbal communication
c. nonverbal communication
d. small talk
82. Proxemic communication refers to:
a. how individuals use nonverbal cues.
b. the amount of space between interacting individuals.
c. an individual’s personal bubble.
d. the gender difference in nonverbal communication.
83. When it comes to proxemic communication
a. most people are aware of how they use personal space.
b. women always stand close, regardless of the degree of friendship with the person they are talking to.
c. people who are sexually attracted to each other stand exceptionally close.
d. men stand closer to women than to men.
84. Anthropologist E.T. Hall coined the term proxemic bubble to refer to our personal three-dimensional space.
Also, according to Hall,
a. we feel threatened when people we do not know enter our proxemic bubble.
b. the proxemic bubble is not affected by culture or ethnicity.
c. enemies stand close in order to try and intimidate each other.
d. we burst our proxemics bubble when we like the other.
85. The size of proxemic bubbles differs between ethnic groups. Research indicates that the ethnic group with the largest interaction distance between individuals involved in a conversation is
a. Hispanic people
b. White middle-class Americans
c. White British males
d. African Americans
86. Research on interpersonal attraction and the formation of pairs indicates that
a. affiliation and interpersonal attraction are really the same thing.
b. attraction can be scientifically predicted.
c. love is a matter of the heart and cannot be predicted.
d. there is no pattern to whom we find attractive.
87. Julie has a positive response when she sees Carl. Julie is experiencing .
a. affiliation
b. proxemic communication
c. interpersonal attraction
d. imprinting
88. Which of the following is true about human relationships?
a. Most people do not seek affiliation.
b. Many people lack human contact.
c. They have a strong need for affiliation.
d. Most people are not conscious of their need for relationships.
89. In regards to interpersonal attraction, sociologists find that
a. attraction to others is not sociological.
b. absence makes the heart grow fonder; we tend to find those who live further away from us more attractive.
c. close proximity is one of the determinants of attraction between people.
d. people tend to fear too much personal disclosure when communicating online.
90. Research has established that
a. there is no such thing as overexposure to someone you are attracted to.
b. if you find someone attractive, the more often you see them the more attractive they become, up to a point.
c. if you start out disliking someone, the more you see that person the more you will come to like them.
d. if you dislike a person, continued exposure to them will intensify those feelings.
91. Research on the importance of attractiveness in human interactions indicates that
a. standards of attractiveness vary between cultures and between subcultures in the same society.
b. its significance is overrated in terms of who we form relationships with.
c. attractiveness affects who we are attracted to, but not how we judge people.
d. people considered unattractive are generally thought of in very positive terms.
92. In regards to interpersonal attraction, sociological research tells us that
a. we must like someone in order to love and feel passion toward them.
b. it is possible to like someone a great deal and not love them.
c. the less we see of someone the more desirable we find them.
d. most of the time our evaluations of others are not influenced by their attractiveness to us.
93. Standards of beauty are culturally variable. In the U.S.,
a. White women are more concerned about weight than African American women.
b. the Hispanics and Whites have the same standard for thinness in women
c. African Americans women are more self-critical of their bodies than are White women
d. Hispanic women are more interested in outward appearances of beauty than White women.
94. According to the text, which of the following is true?
a. The more similar a couple is in terms of race and class, the more likely they are to break up.
b. The more similar a couple is in terms of race and class, the less likely they are to break up.
c. The more similar a couple is in terms of parental relationships, the more likely they are to break up.
d. The more similar a couple is in terms of parental relationships, the less likely they are to break up.
95. Research on interpersonal attractiveness is very clear that
a. opposites attract.
b. there is not pattern to interpersonal attraction.
c. attraction to people who are very similar to us is most common.
d. politics do not matter when it comes to love.
96. The social construction of reality is a principle that is central to .
a. functionalist theory
b. conflict theory
c. symbolic interaction theory
d. equilibrium theory
97. According to the concept of the social construction of reality,
a. there is no reality beyond that which is produced by social interaction.
b. the truth of a situation may be difficult for us to recognize at first.
c. people supporting different teams will agree on the fairness of the referees, because whether something is a foul or not is a matter of fact.
d. many things have their own intrinsic or inherent meaning.
98. Symbolic interactionists argue that our perceptions of reality are determined by our definition of the situation. This means that to a large extent,
a. we wait until we have enough factual information before we form opinions.
b. we basically see what we want to see.
c. we can never have any opinions or perceptions of reality.
d. our opinions and perceptions are determined by what others want us to believe.
99. Professor Watkins comes into her classroom before class begins and moved all the desks so that they are facing the back of the classroom. She then watches to see how the students react. Professor Watkins is using:
a. symbolic interactionism
b. functionalism
c. conflict theory
d. ethnomethodology
100. According to Ervin Goffman, when Jim willfully tries to manipulate others, he is engaging in .
a. role conflict
b. exploitation
c. impression management
d. role strain
101. The study of human interaction by deliberately disrupting social norms and observing how individuals attempt to restore normalcy is called
a. equilibrium theory.
b. ethnomethodology.
c. conflict resolution.
d. exchange theory.
102. Ethnomethodology is based on the premise that
a. most people do not act according to social norms.
b. we are not wholly aware of the norms that we use even though they are shared.
c. we never know what to expect from other people.
d. conflict over the norms for a situation is part of what holds society together.
103. Erving Goffman’s analysis of interaction views the participants as actors on a stage. This perspective is called the
model of social interaction.
a. dramaturgy
b. social exchange
c. equilibrium
d. impressionist
104. Using impression management, individuals
a. present themselves in the same way, regardless of the situation.
b. do not think about how others will perceive them.
c. worry they will not be able to play their role properly.
d. present different “selves” to others, depending on the situation.
105. Goffman’s theory, dramaturgy, views human experience as if it were a performance. Specifically, Goffman
argues that
a. we perform in a way that presents a consistent image of ourselves.
b. we are unaware that we are engaging in a performance.
c. how we present ourselves varies according to the stage and the role we are performing.
d. the only time we are not engaged in performance is with family and close friends.
106. Social exchange theory analyzes social interaction as:
a. based on the meaning people give to actions in society.
b. enactment of social roles played out in front of an audience.
c. a rational balancing act involving perceived costs and benefits of a given behavior.
d. calculated risks to balance rewards and punishments.
107. Exchange theorists analyze human interaction in terms of .
a. gender and class
b. race and ethnicity
c. profit and loss
d. gemeinschaft and gesellschaft
108. The social exchange model states that our interactions are influenced by the rewards and punishments that we receive from others. The social rewards that influence our behavior
a. must be tangible, such as gifts or recognition.
b. may be subtle everyday gesture such as nods or smiles.
c. must be known in advance of the interaction.
d. are influential even if they are outweighed by punishments.
109. predicts that human interaction has the characteristics of a game.
a. Social exchange theory
b. Game theory
c. Impression management
d. Zero-sum
110. Which of the following statements is true about cyberspace interaction?
a. In cyberspace interaction one is encouraged to develop a new identity.
b. Negative forms of interaction (e.g., aggression, intolerance, and exclusion) are prohibited when engaging in cyberspace interaction.
c. Tradition and a conservative mentality are emphasized in cyberspace.
d. Nonverbal communication is central to cyberspace interaction.
111. Which of the following individuals is least likely to use the Internet?
a. A Black male, living in a rural area with less than a high school education.
b. A White male, living in an urban area with a high school diploma.
c. A Hispanic female, living in a suburban area with a college education.
d. A Black female, living in an urban area with a high school diploma.
112. Which of the following best characterizes differences in Internet usage between men and women?
a. Cyberspace is shared by all groups evenly.
b. Men use the Internet more than women.
c. Women use the Internet more than men.
d. Men are more likely to use the Internet for business purposes.
113. As cyberspace interaction increases, sociologists have begun to research the influence of the internet on social interaction. Research indicates all of the following, except
a. some people are able to develop close and in-depth relationships through their interaction in cyberspace.
b. cyberspace interaction seems to follow the same patterns of face-to-face interaction in terms of impression management.
c. social interaction in cyberspace is a source of identity for people, just as in traditional forms of communication.
d. cyberspace interaction is quickly replacing face-to-face interaction.