Sociology Ch. 3: Socialization and Social Interaction

Achieved Status
A status that a person gains voluntarily, such as a job title. The result of individual effort. It depends on capabilities and efforts of the individual. You gain from the result of your behavior.
Ascribed (aquired born) Status
A status that a person is born with and has no control over, such as biological sex or race. It does not depend on capabilities and efforts of the individual. It is given to you by other people.
Degradation Ceremony
An encounter designed to humiliate an individual.
Dramaturgical Approach
Erving Goffman’s metaphor for understanding social interaction.
Ego
Sigmund Freud’s term for the rational part of the personality.
Feral
A term used for children who have been extremely socially isolated. Human-ness is taught–nurture.
Generalized Other
George Herbert Mead’s term for society’s conscience.
Hidden Curriculum
The beliefs and values that children learn in school.
Id
Sigmund Freud’s term for the instinctual, selfish part of the personality.
Impression Management
Erving Goffman’s term for the process whereby individuals who are interacting try to convey a favorable impression of themselves.
Looking-Glass Self
Charles Horton Cooley’s term for one aspect of the process whereby we gain an understanding of our self-image and self-identity. theorized that the “self” emerges from our ability to assume the point of view of others and imagine how those others see us.
Master Status
A status such as race, gender, or disability that overrides a person’s other statuses. The person’s dominant statues. It is the status that is most influential in shaping one’s life. Ex: Race, sexuality, getting married or not.
Resocialization
A dramatic change in a person’s beliefs, values, and behavior, often occurring in total institutions. A dramatic change in a person’s beliefs, values, and behavior, often occurring in total institutions. Occurs when powerful socializing agents deliberately cause rapid change in one’s values, roles, and self-conception.
Role
Behavior expected of an individual in a particular status. The behavior (or set of behaviors) expected of a person occupying a particular position in society.
Role Conflict
The problems arising when a person has to deal with competing demands on two or more roles that the person is expected to play. when you hold many different roles, and within each of those roles you have to do many things: what happens if those do not fit together this happens.
Role Strain
The problems arising when a person performing a role has to deal with competing demands on that role. If you have too many activities within that one role. You have role strained. Ex Student pays tuition, get along with roommates, study, activities.
Self
Self-image, self-identity, or self-concept.
Significant Others
George Herbert Mead’s term for parents and other important individuals in the lives of children.
Social Construction Of Reality
The process by which individuals understand and create reality through their interaction with other individuals.
Socialization
The process whereby individuals learn the culture of their society. They do so by: entering and disengaging from a succession of roles. becoming aware of themselves as they interact with others.
is the process by which individuals internalize the values, beliefs, and norms of a given society and learn to function as a member of that society.
not only do people live in society, but society also lives in people (Peter Berger, 1963). -idea of our culture exist bc we all agree it exist.
is the process through which people learn the expectations of society.
this is the basis for social identity
this is the process by which groups and individuals within those groups are brought into conformity with dominant social expectations.
Begins when you are born, ends when you are dead.
Status
A position a person occupies in society, such as parent, sibling, or teacher. It is an established position in a social structure that carries with it a degree of prestige, i.e., social value. It is a rank in society.
Status Set
All the statuses that an individual holds.
Superego
Sigmund Freud’s term for society’s conscience.
Take The Role Of The Other
George Herbert Mead’s term for what children do when they play that helps them acquire an understanding of their self.
Total Institutions
Institutions that have total control over their residents’ lives. Institutions that have total control over their residents’ lives.
Characteristics of these institutions:
They take away the identity of their residents in an effort to weaken their self-identity and ensure conformity to the institutions’ rules
They subject their residents to harsh treatment
are settings where people are isolated and under the control and supervision of a specialized staff, leader(s), or collective culture. Ex: Fraternity
Primary Socialization
The process of acquiring the basic skills needed to function in society during childhood. Usually takes place in a family.—usually in your family
Secondary Socialization
Socialization outside the family. Media, workplace, government, church.
Peer Group
Composed of people who are not necessarily friends but are about the same age and of similar status as the individual.
Status refers to a recognized social position that an individual can occupy.
Charles Horton Cooley
Individuals use the perceptions that others have of them to develop judgments and feelings about themselves–looking glass self.
George Herbert Mead
Children pretend to be other people in their play and in so doing learn what these other people expect of them–taking the role of others. The self is the ability that develops over time to take oneself as an object through a process called taking the role of the other.
The I and Me are two distinct phases of the self. These concepts are important to a human’s ability to think.
The “I” is the unconscious, incalculable, unpredictable, and creative part of the self. It is an individual’s response to others.
The “I” allows a human to develop a personality.
The “Me” refers to the conscious understanding of what a person’s responsibilities are to a larger group.
The “Me” is rational and exerts social control over the “I”.
Sense of self
Social interaction enables infants to begin developing a self-image or this a set of ideas and attitudes about who they are as independent beings. Having this means that you matter to the world. It used to be that moms would just let babies cry, but now a days it is said that that makes the baby lose this.
Mead Stage of Self imitation stage
Children learn to use language and other symbols by imitating important people in their lives.
Mead Stages of Self play stage
Children pretend to be other people.
Mead: Stages of Self games stage
Around age 7, children play games that require them to take the role of other people. Once a child can think in this way, she can begin the fourth stage which involves taking the role of the generalized other.
Understand that different ages have different perspective.
Frued Psychoanalytic Theory
The personality consists of the id, ego, and superego. If a child does not develop normally and the superego does not become strong enough to overcome the id, antisocial behavior may result. Proposed the first social-scientific interpretation of emergence of the self:
Id – the part of the self that demands immediate gratification
Superego – personal conscience
Ego – balances the conflicting needs of the id and the superego
Criticisms of Freud’s Theory
The connections between early childhood development and adult personality are more complex than Freud assumed.
Freud shows gender bias in his analysis of male and female sexuality.
Freud neglects socialization after childhood.
Moral development Theory
Lawrence Kohlberg, Carol Gilligan: Children develop their ability to think and act morally through several stages. If they fail to reach the conventional stage, in which adolescents realize that their parents and society have rules that should be followed because they are morally right to follow, they might well engage in harmful behavior. Whereas boys tend to use formal rules to decide what is right or wrong, she wrote, girls tend to take personal relationships into account. Carol Gilligan’s research demonstrated that sociological factors help explain differences in the sense of self that boys and girls usually develop.
Parents and teachers pass on different cultural standards to boys and girls.
Much research shows that girls develop lower self-esteem than boys.
She was interested by why at the age of 10, a lot of girls that collective generalized other. But not boys. And boys suppressed collective generalized other. She argued the development of boys and girls are different bc of the gender socialization they experience.
Kohlberg: He argues that most people dnt reach post conventional morality, they get stuck at the conventional morality.
Pre-conventional—kids get punished if they do wrong
Conventional morality—taking on responsibility. College students take responsibility of grades and everything.
Post-conventional morality—being to recognize that laws and rules and opinions of others dnt really matter. High order of molarity is what matters, and what guides your decisions.
The higher we see education go, we can generally hope that after graduation we hit post conventional morality…having a more critical thought process. Very correlated with education
Identity development
Erik Erikson- Identity development encompasses eight stages across the life course. The fifth stage occurs in adolescence and is especially critical because teenagers often experience an identity crisis as they move from childhood to adulthood. Eric Erikson
Established a theory of psychosocial development that identifies eight stages that span a person’s lifetime
Each stage involves a specific conflict that a person must resolve in order to move on to the next stage
Trust VS Mistrust—feeding: Infants—Children develop a sense of trust when caregivers provide reliability, care, and affection.
Autonomy VS Shame and Doubt-Toilet training: Early Childhood—need to develop a sense of personal control of physical skills
Initiative VS Guilt- Exploration: Preschool—children need to being asserting control
Industry VS Inferiority-School: School age—Children need to cope with new social and academic demands.
Self-Socialization
Choosing socialization influences from the wide variety of mass media offerings.
Symbolic Interactionism Herbert Blumer: 3 basic processes:
Human beings act toward things on the basis of the meanings that the things have for them. ==>
The meanings of things arises out of the social interaction one has with one’s fellows. ==>
The meanings of things are handled in and modified through an interpretive process used by the person in dealing with things he encounters.
Dramaturgical Theory
Irving Goffman (1959) discussed how one watches and manipulates another’s behavior and adjusts theirs to the other’s expectations. Goffman likened this to a con game.
We are always conning others and also are being conned by them. Goffman called this the dramaturgy model, and likens it to a stage play.
We engage in impression management so others see the roles we perform in the best possible light.
We can easily find ourselves in embarrassing situations and we may have to restore face by giving a good explanation or excuse.
Front End (stage) – where we perform
Back End (stage) – where we formulate ideas about our performances
Defining the scene: we determine how we want a situation to unfold and we perform according to our expectations
knowing which “self” a person is obliged to present and how to present—knowing what to say and how to say it, what to do and how to do it—is largely determined by defining what is going on in a situation.
feral
A term used for children who have been extremely socially isolated.
Looking Glass Self
Charles Horton Cooley’s term for one aspect of the process whereby we gain an understanding of our self-image and self-identity.
Self
Self-image, self-identity, or self-concept.
Socialization
The process whereby individuals learn the culture of their society. The lifelong social experience by which people develop their human potential and learn culture. It occurs through human interaction that begin at infancy and continue throughout life
We learn the most from people important in our life. Family, best friends, our teachers
Total Institutions
Institutions that have total control over their residents’ lives.
Significant Others
George Herbert Mead’s term for parents and other important individuals in the lives of children.
Resocialization
A dramatic change in a person’s beliefs, values, and behavior, often occurring in total institutions.
Degradation Ceremony
An encounter designed to humiliate an individual.
Hidden Curriculum
The beliefs and values that children learn in school, not openly taught in the curriculum.
Generalized Other
George Herbert Mead’s term for society’s conscience.
Nature vs. Nurture
Humans depend on others to provide care for physical growth and personality development.
Lawrence Kohlberg’s Theory on Moral Development
His theory is similar to Piaget’s theory, but he focuses on one aspect of cognition – Moral Reasoning.
How people come to judge situations as right or wrong using three stages of development
1st Preconventional level of moral development.
2nd Conventional level of moral development.
3rd Postconventional level of moral development.
Moral Reasoning
How people come to judge situation as right or wrong.
Carol Gilligan’s Theory
Moral development studies to follow up Kohlberg. She studied girls and women and found that they did not score as high on his six stage scale because they focused more on relationships rather than laws and principles. Their reasoning was merely different, not better or worse
George Herbert Mead’s Theory
Primary concept of the self, the part of one’s personality composed of self-awareness and self-image. Links self concept to role-taking. Three stages of self development: Preparatory stage, play stage, game stage.
Erik Erikson’s Theory
Some point to childhood as the curtail time when personality takes shape. He took a broader view of socialization. He explained that we face challenges throughout the life course in eight stages.
Stage 1: Infancy
Stage 2: Toddlerhood
Stage 3: Preschool
Stage 4: Preadolescence
Stage 5: Adolescence
Stage 6: Young Adulthood
Stage 7: Middle Adulthood
Stage 8: Old Age
Formal Organization
A large group that follows explicit rules and procedures to achieve specific goals and tasks.
Social Network
The totality of relationships that link us to other people and groups and through them to still other people and groups.
Social Institution
Patterns of beliefs and behavior that help a society meet its basic needs.
Hunting / Gathering Societies
Societies of a few dozen members whose food is obtained from hunting animals and gathering plants and vegetation.
Emotions
Feelings that begin with a stimulus and that often involve psychological changes and a desire to engage in specific actions.
Status Set
All the positions an individual occupies.
Social construction of reality
The process by which individuals understand and create reality through their interaction with other individuals.
Gemeinschaft
A human community, particularly a small society with a strong sense of community and strong group ties.
status symbol
An object that signifies a particular status that a person holds.
Social Inequality
The ways in which a society or group ranks people in a hierarchy.
Social Group
Two or more people who regularly interact on the basis of mutual expectations and who share a common identity.
Background Assumptions
Our understanding of the roles expected of people in a given encounter.
Gesellschaft
A large society characterized by weak and impersonal social ties.
Ascribed Status
The status that someone is born with and has no control over.
Society
A group of people who live within a defined territory and who share a culture.
Post Industrial Societies
Societies in which information technology and service jobs have replaced machines and manufacturing jobs as the primary dimension of the economy.
Industrial Societies
Large societies that rely on machines and factories as their primary modes of economic production.
Social Interaction
The ways in which people act with other people and react to how other people are acting.