Sociology 2

socialization
the process by which we learn what is expected of us and how to behave accordingly (how we internalize culture and society); ONGOING! socialization turns into social control via self control (we tend to conform to norms because they become so much a part of us, therefore social control is everyone in society having self control)
self/ identity
the unique set of traits, behaviors, and attitudes that distinguish one person from another
Theories of Socialization
3 Stages of Self (Mead) and the Looking Glass Self (Cooley)
3 States of the Self (Mead)
Preplay/ Imitation, Play Stage, Game State
Preplay/ Imitation Stage
first time that babies realize that they’re their own being and objects exist separately from themselves, around 18 months. (also can recognize themselves in a mirror, learn name, realize that certain behaviors illicit certain reactions)
Play Stage
able to imitate some actions and characteristics that others play, so role-taking behavior begins, usually around 3 years.
Role-taking
the ability to imagine the perspective of another and behave accordingly
Game Stage
when a child can imitate all the roles that others play and how those roles relate to one another, so they grasp the role of the generalized other, usually around elementary school
generalized other
the abstract perspective of society
The Looking Glass Self
How we feel about the self we’ve created, in three steps: 1. Imagine how you appear to others, 2. Imagine their evaluation of that appearance, 3. Develop some sort of self-feeling about that evaluation
Agents of Socialization
those individuals, groups, or institutions that pass on social expectations
Types of agents of socialization
Institutional (religion, media, family, education) and demographic (age, class, race, sexuality, etc)
Anticipatory Socialization
the process by which we acquire the values and orientations of statuses that we will likely enter in the future (ex: AP courses to prepare to be college students). ; Melvin Conn studied how middle vs. working class parents’ values shaped their children’s anticipatory socialization and future
Resocialization
learning a new set of behavioral expectations (happens any time there’s a new transition, like from high school to college)
gender socialization
certain behavior is taught to us because of our gender; sex=ascribed status, gender= achieved status; more acceptable for women to do masculine things than for men to do feminine things.
hidden curriculum
the informal/subtle messages in school about social roles, values, and norms that are often tied to race, class, and gender
“Pygmaeleon in the Classroom”
experiment in which researchers randomly labeled students as “spurters” and “non-spurters”, and told the teachers who was what. by the end of the year, spurters were more advanced. self-fulfilling prophecy!
Dramaturgy
Analyzing social interaction as a series of theatrical drama performances (part of symbolic interactionism)
Impression Management
an attempt to present a successful image of one’s self or one’s group so that others will make a positive judgement of us (we behave the way we want others to see us)
Goal of impression management
to permit social interaction and get a favorable response for the social situation
Impression Formation
the process by which we define others based on observable characteristics and initial interactions
Initial impressions formed by
group membership stereotypes (sex, race, etc), individual attributes (clothing, etc), verbal and nonverbal cues
Types of Cues
Giving and Giving off
Giving Cues
intentionally giving info
Giving- Off Cues
unintentionally giving info or intentionally giving false info
The Stage
a metaphor for how we act
Front Stage
part of social interactions where actors maintain the appropriate appearances because they are under the impression of the audience
Back Stage
region where people can knowingly violate their impression management performance because they’re out of view of their audience
Boundary
exists between front and back stage. essential to maintain boundaries to maintain credibility of your identity
Dramaturgical Cycle
Socialization (internalize a culture)— Impression Management (use culture for how we want to act)— Successful Performance (OR Spoiled/Stigmatized— Aligning Action)—- Creates Culture—-Socialization
Performance Types
successful, spoiled, and stigmatized
Spoiled Performance
back stage is shown to the front stage; audience will try to overlook it with aligning actions/face-saving to restor order
Types of Aligning Actions
apologizing, give an account (explain away the violation), disclaimer (statement before violation), cooling out (persuading an individual to take a lesser role while maintaining their self worth)
Stigma
deeply discrediting characteristic that trumps all other performances; socially constructed based on what we think is a stigma
Ways to Cope with Stigma
*Try to conceal (avoidance, adapt, selective disclosure),
IF CAN’T BE CONCEALED: use of humor, use of other symbols (overshadow stigma with other quality), embracing (deliberately draw attention to it to try and redefine it culturally
Deviance
behavior that doesn’t conform to society’s norms or expectations
Absolutist Perspective of Deviance
the action is deviant in itself/ inherently wrong, so anyone who commits a deviant act is a deviant, bad person (Bandura: we learn by observing so deviant people are created when their socialization process fails). Problem: not all deviants are genetically/physically distinct, so when locating the root of the act in the individual, we can’t find the cause.
Relativist Perspective of Deviance
deviance is socially constructed depending on society’s values, beliefs, and norms; Evidence: we have variations within our own culture and across cultures, and what’s considered deviant changes over time
Functionalist Theory of Deviance
deviance serves the purpose of reaffirming norms
Functionalist Theories of Deviance
Learned deviance (Sutherland) and Structural Strain (Merton)
Learned Deviance Theory (Sutherland)
deviance is just conformity to a subculture instead of the large culture
Structural Strain Theory (Merton)
deviance arises because of culturally acceptable goals and the acceptable means for achieving them.
Conformist
has culturally accepted goals and means
Innovator
culturally accepted goals, but not means
Ritualist
culturally accepted means, but not goals
Retreatist
neither culturally accepted goals nor means
Rebel
part of a counterculture that challenges society
Conflict Perspective of Deviance
deviance is associated with the lower class because norms and laws reflect interest of ruling class, wealthy have resources to defend themselves when accused of deviance, criminalization and medicalization
criminalization and medicalization
defining certain types of deviance as a crime or a condition. By doing so, those in charge of law or medicine can define what’s see as normal or healthy.
Symbolic Interactionist Theory of Deviance
Thomas Theory: If a situation is real, it’s real for its consequences.” how you define a situation determines how you react to it.
Labeling Theory
Deviance develops in a 3-stage process (primary, secondary, and tertiary). Once a person is labeled, it often becomes a stigma (positive or negative) where it is difficult for them to be seen in any other way.
Primary Deviance
an act/ perception of an act that initially draws the label as deviant (ex:calling someone a slut)
Secondary Deviance
behavioral response that occurs as a result of an assigned label. Repeatedly try to violate a norm just to see what will happen, but the deviance isn’t part of the self yet.
Tertiary Deviance
flaunt and embrace the label as part of one’s identity (self-fulfilling prophecy.
Family (US census definition)
a social group of two or more people related by blood, marriage, or adoption who usually live together
fictive kin
people we adopt as our own family even though there’s no relation
Functions of family
regulates reproduction, socializes/educates children, emotional support, financial/material security, religion/values, defines culturaly accepted love. Family is a social institution found in all societies that oversees bearing and raising of children by uniting people into groups.
Marriage
a legally sanctioned enduring relationship, usually involving economic cooperation, as well as sexual activity and child-bearing
4 Types of Modern Families
Traditional nuclear family, blended (step) nuclear family, single parent families, extended families
Ways that Family perpetuates Social inequality
1. property/ inheritance keeps power in the same family 2. Patriarchy makes men regulate female sexuality so that they know who their children are and can pass wealth onto them 3. race/ethnicity: people tend to marry within their own race and continue existing racial hierarchu
Exogamy
individuals should form relationships with someone outside certain social groups to which they belong (inappropriate to date someone in your family or from work)
Endogamy
individuals tend to form relationships with someone in certain social groups to which they belong (social class, religion, ethnicity)
Theories of Romantic Love
Complimentary Needs Theory, Emotional Reciprocity, Interdependence, Triangular
Complimentary Needs Theory
opposites attract; usually people are of the same social class but have different personalities
Emotional Reciprocity Theory
both people are equally invested in the relationship. rooted in exchange theory (you have to put in as much as you get out of it)
Interdependence Theory
in a relationship, we combine love with a personal development (you make me a better person)
Triangular Theory
all relationships must have intimacy, commitment, and passion, but levels differ based on the stage of the relationship
Coontz’s study into the increase in divorce
historically there has always been romantic love, but only very recently has become foundation/ reason of marriage, so now when love fails, there is no reason to stay (marriage doesn’t have functions anymore)