Sociology 101 — Final Exam

Using sociological imagination to study poverty is valuable because it lets us see ____. (Sociological Imagination)

a. that most of the reasons that people are poor is related to their own personal decisions

b. that people’s motivation explains almost all of what happens to them in their life

c. that social traits such as race and gender have little impact on who is poor

d. that some personal troubles cannot be entirely solved or explained by the actions of individuals.

d. that some personal troubles cannot be entirely solved or explained by the actions of individuals.
Sociology is defined as the:

a. Qualitative analysis of human phenomenon.

b. Systematic study of society and social interaction.

c. Quantitative analysis of social transgressions.

d. Theoretical examination of lif’s origins.

b. Systematic study of society and social interaction.
Which of the following men coined the term positivism, and is widely considered the father of sociology?
Question options:

a. Auguste Comte

b. Karl Marx

c. Max Weber

d. Emile Durkheim

a. Auguste Comte
Definition of C. Wright Mills’ sociological imagination.
Question options:

a. The theory that man evolved slowly over time.

b. The process of analyzing human behavior based solely on statistics.

c. A series of interviews asking subjects about their sleep habits and dreams.

d. How individuals understand their own and others’ pasts in relation to history and social structure.

d. How individuals understand their own and others’ pasts in relation to history and social structure.
A hypothesis can be defined as:
Question options:

a. A way to explain different aspects of social interactions

b. A testable proposition

c. An attempt to explain large-scale relationships

d. Philosophical and theoretical frameworks used within a discipline to formulate theories, generalizations, and the experiments performed in support of them

b. A testable proposition
In the Sociological Imagination, Mills’ explains that the difference between a trouble and an issue is that _____. (Sociological Imagination)

Question options:

a. a trouble is a problem that many people have, but an issue is a problem that many people care about.

b. a trouble is something that affects an entire society, an issue is something that only affects individuals.

c. a trouble is a private matter experienced by an individual, whereas an issue is perceived as a problem in the wider society.

d. a trouble is a very serious problem facing an individual, whereas an issue is a much less severe problem that affects and individual.

c. a trouble is a private matter experienced by an individual, whereas an issue is perceived as a problem in the wider society.
Which of the following is an example of sociological imagination? (Sociological Imagination)
Question options:

a. In thinking about how he met his girlfriend, Kelvin realizes that what he thought was the happy coincidence of being at the same bar at the same time was actually not just random chance. Both he and his (now) girlfriend lived within walking distance of the bar, had the same 9-5 work schedule that left them free to visit a bar in the evening, and had graduated from the same college which gave them a similar group of friends and life experiences which made them feel like they had a lot in common.

b. Mary began noticing a pattern in when she was likely to be asked out when she went out on the weekends. When she had an even number of girlfriends with her, she was unlikely to be asked out. But when she had an odd number of girlfriends with her, she was asked out much more frequently. She therefore concluded that if women anywhere want to have better success on the dating market, all they have to do is always go out with an odd number of girlfriend

c. Debi can’t figure out why her boss never comes in on time. After a while began inquiring among co-workers and found out that her boss was also late to meetings once she was at work, and frequently talked about being late or missing appointments outside of work. Debi concludes that her boss is just someone who tends to be late a lot, and adjusts her expectations accordingly.

a. In thinking about how he met his girlfriend, Kelvin realizes that what he thought was the happy coincidence of being at the same bar at the same time was actually not just random chance. Both he and his (now) girlfriend lived within walking distance of the bar, had the same 9-5 work schedule that left them free to visit a bar in the evening, and had graduated from the same college which gave them a similar group of friends and life experiences which made them feel like they had a lot in common.
Jeremy wrote an essay criticizing the college admissions process, arguing that heavy competition and limited educational resources make admission difficult for the average student. Which perspective would Jeremy’s argument fall under?
Question options:

a. Structural Functionalism

b. Conflict Theory

c. Symbolic Interactionism

d. Behaviorism

b. Conflict Theory
Alona is examining the impact of the 2011 Penn State scandal on student morale and school spirit by distributing number-scaled surveys in her Introduction to Sociology class. Alona is employing a _____ research method.
Question options:

a. Qualitative

b. Pathos

c. Logos

d. Quantitative

d. Quantitative
____ believed that societies grew and changed as a result of the struggles of different social classes over the means of production.
Question options:

a. Durkheim

b. Max Weber

c. Karl Marx

d. Comte

c. Karl Marx
Which theorist claimed that people rise to their proper level in society based solely on personal merit?
Question options:

a. Karl Marx

b. Max Weber

c. Herbert Spencer

d. Emile Durkheim

d. Emile Durkheim
Eleanor is researching the effect social media has on worldwide political awareness and revolution. Felix is examining the effect World of Warcraft has on the romantic relationships of middle-aged men in his metro area. Eleanor’s analysis is _____, while Felix’s analysis is _____.
Question options:

a. Micro-level; macro-level

b. Macro-level; micro-level

c. They are both macro-level.

d. They are both micro-level.

b. Macro-level; micro-level
_____ view society as a structure with interrelated parts designed to meet the biological and social needs of individuals who make up that society.
Question options:

a. Symbolic Interactionists

b. Conflict Theorists

c. Structural Functionalists

d. Social Individualists

c. Structural Functionalists
In Invitation to Sociology, what does Berger argue is the defining characteristic of sociology as a discipline? (Invitation to Sociology)

Question options:

a. Use of statistics

b. Scientific integrity

c. Similarity to social work

d. Trying to make the world a better place.

b. Scientific integrity
Political science teacher Mr. Jones asks his students to study how social media can influence public opinion by “following” famous activists, academics, and politicians on Twitter. While reading and exchanging each other’s Tweets, some classmates became close friends. The first is an example of the project’s ____ function, the second is an example of the project’s _____ function.

Question options:

a. latent; manifest

b. manifest; manifest

c. manifest; latent

d. latent; latent

c. manifest; latent
Max Weber, Georg Simmel, and Karl Marx were all advocates of:
Question options:

a. Conflict theory

b. Structural functionalism

c. Capitalism

d. Symbolic interactionism

a. Conflict theory
After weeks of protest in Zuccotti Park, NYC’s “Occupy Wall Street” divided into two camps: one composed of higher income protestors, and one composed of lower-income protesters. A ______ would be most interested in the relationship and nature of day-to- day exchanges between the two groups.
Question options:

a. Conflict theorist

b. Structural functionalist

c. Symbolic interactionist

d. Feminist conflict theorist

c. Symbolic interactionist
According to Berger, what kind of person will make a good sociologist? (Invitation to Sociology)

Question options:

a. Someone who is very good at statistics and working with numbers.

b. Someone who is dedicated to making the world a better place.

c. Someone who also has a strong background in social work and psychology.

d. Someone who is curious about both unusual and mundane aspects of social life.

d. Someone who is curious about both unusual and mundane aspects of social life.
According to Durkheim, which of the following is NOT a social fact?
Question options:

a. A religious belief

b. A law

c. A custom

d. All of the above are social facts

d. All of the above are social facts
Verstehen is defined by the text as:
Question options:

a. To maintain a moral conscience.

b. To compare and contrast social facts.

c. To understand in a deep way.

d. To require proof of interpretation.

c. To understand in a deep way.
1. Alexis wants to research the 1960’s feminist movement. She reads articles from the time period, watches documentaries, reads scholarly journals on the topic, and interviews influential women from the movement. What kind of research method is Alexis using?
Question options:

a. Ethnography

b. Surveys

c. Experiments

d. Secondary data analysis

d. Secondary data analysis
2. Reliability is defined by the text as:
Question options:

a. How well the study measures what it was designed to measure.

b. How long a study is expected to remain relevant and influential.

c. How close the study’s results come to the experimenter’s hypothesis.

d. A measure of a study’s consistency that considers how likely results are to be replicated if a study is reproduced.

d. A measure of a study’s consistency that considers how likely results are to be replicated if a study is reproduced.
3. John wants to study whether a larger number of laptops available to students at his school lead to higher grades. Choose the independent and dependent variable.
Question options:

a. Independent variable: Grades; Dependent variable: Number of laptops

b. Independent variable: John; Dependent variable: Grades

c. Independent variable: Grades; Dependent variable: John

d. Independent variable: Number of laptops; Dependent variable: Grades

d. Independent variable: Number of laptops; Dependent variable: Grades
4. Quincia is studying how of the lack of comprehensive sex education is affecting a small, rural town in North Dakota. She spends two months in the town, observing and interviewing the townspeople. Quincia is conducting a(n) _____.
Question options:

a. Ethnography

b. Case study

c. Experiment

d. Secondary data analysis

a. Ethnography
5. A class of third graders is told that the assistant principal will be visiting their class to confirm their teacher’s reports of bad behavior. When the principal visits, the students behave perfectly. This is an example of ________.
Question options:

a. The Authority Effect

b. The Regressive Effect

c. The Hawthorne Effect

d. The Cognizant Effect

c. The Hawthorne Effect
6. Which of the following is NOT an example of a sociological hypothesis?
Question options:

a. The more study halls students are given during the school day, the worse they perform on their tests.

b. The more CDs Jamilla buys, the less money she has in her bank account

c. The longer an inmate spends in prison, the more difficult it is for him to adapt to the outside world.

d. The more positive reinforcement a parent gives a child, the better they do in school.

b. The more CDs Jamilla buys, the less money she has in her bank account
7. Which of the following is NOT a cause of mutant statistics? (Dammed Lies and Statistics)
Question options:

a. Honest mistakes by people who do not have sufficient understanding of numbers.

b. Intentional manipulation by the political left.

c. Intentional manipulation by the political right.

d. Detailed explanations of definitions, measurement, and sampling provided to the media by researchers.

e. The result of enthusiasm for a cause and a desire to improve the impact of the statistic.

d. Detailed explanations of definitions, measurement, and sampling provided to the media by researchers.
8. The term interpretive framework can be defined as:
Question options:

a. A basis for which sociologists determine whether their independent and dependent variables reflect the results.

b. A sociological research approach that seeks in-depth understanding of a topic or subject through observation or interaction; this approach is not based on hypothesis testing.

c. An established scholarly research method that involves asking a question, researching existing sources, forming a hypothesis, designing and conducting a study, and drawing conclusions.

d. Specific explanations of abstract concepts that a researcher plans to study

b. A sociological research approach that seeks in-depth understanding of a topic or subject through observation or interaction; this approach is not based on hypothesis testing.
9. Tyson is researching whether actors on prime-time television and hit movies negatively impact teenagers’ body images. He is going undercover at a local high school to observe and participate with the students to better understand the world they live in. Tyson is conducting which research method?
Question options:

a. Field research

b. Surveys

c. Experiments

d. Secondary data analysis

a. Field research
10. Which of the following is an example of nonreactive research?
Question options:

a. Gathering data from government studies

b. Educating classrooms on the necessities of safe sex

c. Interviewing heroin addicts and providing them with clean needles

d. Volunteering at a local food bank and interacting with homeless persons

a. Gathering data from government studies
11. Miguel is doing a research paper on New York City’s Stone Wall riots of 1969. He visits the scene of the riots, interviews people who were there, reads the police reports of the event, and watches video footage. Miguel is conducting a(n) ______.
Question options:

a. Overview

b. Case study

c. Experiment

d. Data analysis

b. Case study
12. Which of the following is NOT a purpose of the American Sociological Association’s code of ethics?
Question options:

a. To guarantee the safety of their participants

b. To maintain value neutrality

c. To ensure the financial gain of the researchers

d. To foster professionally responsible scholarship in sociology

c. To ensure the financial gain of the researchers
13. The term value neutrality is defined by the text as:
Question options:

a. A practice of remaining impartial, without bias or judgment during the course of a study and in publishing results.

b. The study of evolving ethics and morals in relation to sociological research.

c. A systematic approach to record and value information gleaned from secondary data as it relates to the study at hand.

d. A study’s participants being randomly selected to serve as a representation of a larger population.

a. A practice of remaining impartial, without bias or judgment during the course of a study and in publishing results.
14. Kyle is collecting newspaper clippings from his grandfather about the American public’s perception of World War II. This is an example of ______.
Question options:

a. Tertiary data

b. Interactive data

c. Primary data

d. Secondary data

d. Secondary data
15. Which of the following is an example of an unethical sociological research practice?
Question options:

a. Conducting a literature review prior to conducting an experiment

b. Drawing conclusions from a study which the hypothesis did not predict

c. Observing study participants without their consent

d. Using a control group and an experimental group during observation

c. Observing study participants without their consent
16. Thomas wants to better understand the trends in literacy rates in Baltimore city over the past 50 years using Baltimore city data. What type of research should Thomas conduct?
Question options:

a. A survey

b. Field research

c. An experiment

d. Secondary data analysis

d. Secondary data analysis
17. What is the importance of interpretive framework?
Question options:

a. It leads to in-depth knowledge of a participant’s social world.

b. It eliminates the need for a literature review.

c. It relies on statistics to determine causal relationships.

d. It prevents researchers from making unethical decisions.

a. It leads to in-depth knowledge of a participant’s social world.
18. Which of the following is NOT a step in the scientific method?
Question options:

a. Research existing sources

b. Report results

c. Receive corroboration from the field

d. Formulate a hypothesis

c. Receive corroboration from the field
19. Kevin conducted a study on whether the length of the line at a local Starbucks affected how well the customers enjoyed their coffee after receiving it. Malcolm conducted the study at his local Starbucks, and found the same results. Kevin’s study had a high level of _____.
Question options:

a. Literacy

b. Validity

c. Interpretation

d. Reliability

d. Reliability
20. In order to better understand the sorority pledging process at her university for her sociology thesis, Carmen pledges with a popular sorority. This is an example of _____.
Question options:

a. Literature review

b. Participant observation

c. Secondary data analysis

d. Dependent variables

b. Participant observation
1. What group defines themselves through a rejection of the mainstream:
Question options:

a. Beatniks

b. Hepcats

c. Hipsters

d. Hippies

c. Hipsters
2. Society and culture _____.
Question options:

a. Could not exist without each other

b. Are unrelated

c. Are the same thing

d. Could not exist together

a. Could not exist without each other
3. Elise travels across Thailand with her friends and, to her surprise, finds the country quite unlike the United States. “I hate the food,” she tells her family at home. “I hate the language, I hate the weird customs and awful music. America is clearly the best place to be.” This is an example of _______.

Question options:

a. Paradigms

b. Xenocentrism

c. Moral relativism

d. Ethnocentrism

d. Ethnocentrism
4. Xenocentrism is:
Question options:

a. The opposite of cultural relativism

b. The opposite of cultural universalism

c. The same as cultural imperitivism

d. The opposite of ethnocentrism

d. The opposite of ethnocentrism
5. A cultural universal is:
Question options:

a. An object or a belonging of a group.

b. A pattern or trait common to all societies.

c. The ideas, attitudes and beliefs of a particular society.

d. A written document outlining appropriate behavior.

b. A pattern or trait common to all societies.
6. Many Americans pay for haircuts, trips to the dentist, or transportation on the metro and bus systems. These actions support the notion of capitalism, an example of _____.
Question options:

a. Non-material culture

b. Material culture

c. A cultural universal

d. The counterculture

a. Non-material culture
7. Which of the following is an example of a cultural universal?
Question options:

a. Putting your cell phone on silent during a Broadway production

b. Holding hands with your best friend

c. Incest taboos

d. Marrying the partner whom your parents have chosen for you

c. Incest taboos
8. Kurt and Mitch visit an Amish village on a class trip. “Let’s see if we can round up some old radios and appliances and drop them off for them later this week. I think they’ll appreciate it. They just don’t understand what they’re missing.” Mitch rolls his eyes. Kurt’s perspective is an example of _______.

Question options:

a. Behavioral normativity

b. Cultural imperialism

c. Material culture

d. Ideal culture

b. Cultural imperialism
9. Which of the following is an example of cultural relativism?
Question options:

a. Ingrid becoming upset over the course language used in the Australian Outback.

b. Andy marrying a woman who does not practice his religion, though his parents disprove.

c. Helena putting aside her vegetarianism to eat meals with the local tribe she is studying.

d. Joseph protesting the Running of the Bulls while visiting Pamplona.

c. Helena putting aside her vegetarianism to eat meals with the local tribe she is studying.
10. Angelica visits Thailand with her family. When she wears short-shorts and tank tops while visiting a series of temples during her first week, she is met with hostility from the locals. She feels she no longer knows how to behave or interact with those outside her family. Angelica is experiencing _____.
Question options:

a. Cultural imperialism

b. Culture shock

c. Material culture

d. Xenocentricism

b. Culture shock
11. The term “value” can be defined as:

Question options:

a. The tenets or convictions that people hold to be true.

b. A culture’s standard for discerning what’ good and just in society.

c. Scripture found within the Bible.

d. Federal laws and regulations.

b. A culture’s standard for discerning what’ good and just in society.
12. Janet is visiting her childhood friend in the Hamptons. Janet wears ripped jeans and Chuck Taylors to an infamous “White” party. The majority of party-goers refuse to socialize with her. Janet is experiencing a form of ____.
Question options:

a. Formal sanction

b. Xenocentricism

c. Social control

d. Ethnocentricity

c. Social control
13. Which of the following is NOT an example of a formal norm within the United States?
Question options:

a. Driving on the right hand side of the road

b. Crossing streets on cross-walks

c. Paying taxes

d. Making eye contact while speaking

d. Making eye contact while speaking
14. What is one difference between a “more” and a “folkway”?
Question options:

a. Mores encourage social rebellion; folkways do not.

b. Mores are legally acceptable to violate; folkways are not.

c. Mores are constructed based on norms; folkways are not.

d. Mores may carry serious consequences if violated; folkways do not.

d. Mores may carry serious consequences if violated; folkways do not.
15. The term “language” can be defined as:
Question options:

a. Gestures, signs, objects, signals, and words that help people understand the world.

b. A symbolic system through which people communicate and through which culture is transmitted.

c. The exchange of gestures and signals for the purpose of reaching a consensus.

d. Communication grounded in ideals, norms, and values.

b. A symbolic system through which people communicate and through which culture is transmitted.
16. MTV’s widely-watched TV series The Jersey Shore is an example of _____, while the obscure works of playwright Sam Shepard are an example of ______.
Question options:

a. High culture; popular culture

b. Popular culture; high culture

c. High culture; low culture

d. Jersey culture; low culture

b. Popular culture; high culture
17. Which of the following is an example of a counterculture?
Question options:

a. The yuppie craze of the 1980’s

b. The Kardashian obsession of the 2010’s

c. The hippie movement of the 1960’s

d. The disco invasion of the 1970’s

c. The hippie movement of the 1960’s
18. In 1999, Sean Fanning, John Fanning, and Sean Parker invented Napster, a global, free-of-charge, peer-to-peer music sharing program. Prior to Napster, no such program existed. The three men created _____.
Question options:

a. An innovation

b. A discovery

c. A culture lag

d. A cultural universal

a. An innovation
19. In the early 2000’s, The L Word and Queer as Folk debuted on Showtime. Both shows depicted the lives of members of the LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender) community, thus giving viewers a glimpse into a ______.
Question options:

a. More

b. Formal Sanction

c. Subculture

d. Social relativism

c. Subculture
20. Which of the following is an example of an informal sanction?
Question options:

a. The football team throwing a slushy in Finn’s face because he tried to join the Glee club.

b. Lilly being sent to prison because she failed to pay her taxes.

c. Brett illegally downloading the new Black Keys album because he couldn’t afford to buy it.

d. Sarah buying Lady Gaga tickets from a scalper because the show sold out.

a. The football team throwing a slushy in Finn’s face because he tried to join the Glee club.
1. A server at a restaurant is in the kitchen complaining bitterly about a rude customer they have seated in their section. When the food is ready for the table, the server picks it up and brings it out to the table, politely asking the customers if they need anything else. In this scenario, which idea from dramaturgy does the kitchen represent? (The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life)
Question options:

a. a front

b. the promissory nature of interactions

c. sign vehicles

d. back stage

d. back stage
2. Karl Marx’s Communist Manifesto is based on the ____ perspective.
Question options:

a. Functionalism

b. Symbolic Interactionism

c. Institutionalism

d. Conflict Theory

d. Conflict Theory
3. ____ societies relied on permanent tools for survival, and expanded due to innovations such as crop rotation and fertilizer.
Question options:

a. Industrial

b. Feudal

c. Agricultural

d. Hunter-gatherer

c. Agricultural
4. When Goffman says that the impressions we give off during interactions have a moral character, he means that ______.
Question options:

a. people are generally being deceitful when they engage in impression management.

b. sign vehicles can always tell us who is faking and who is being real if we pay close enough attention.

c. only people who do not have to hide a social stigma can reach an appropriate definition of the situation.

d. the impressions we give to others imply claims and promises as to who we are and how we will behave.

d. the impressions we give to others imply claims and promises as to who we are and how we will behave.
5. The Agricultural Revolution is often referred to as “dawn of civilization” because:
Question options:

a. Cities and towns were established, and humans had more time for leisure activities.

b. Societies began to form where rainfall was plentiful; groups were able to cultivate plants instead of living nomadic lifestyles.

c. Tribes became nomadic, traveling to various locations in search of sustenance.

d. Animals were first domesticated as a resource for survival.

a. Cities and towns were established, and humans had more time for leisure activities.
6. The definition of the situation is______. (The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life)

Question options:

a. the meaning giving to an interaction by the most powerful participant

b. how people detect who is lying in face to face interactions.

c. the tacit agreement among participants in a face to face interaction as to what is going on.

the different meaning each participant gives to a face to face interaction.

c. the tacit agreement among participants in a face to face interaction as to what is going on.
7. Ivanka Trump is the daughter of business mogul Donald Trump. Her role as heiress to the Trump fortune is an example of ______.
Question options:

a. Achieved status

b. The Thomas Theorem

c. Ascribed status

d. The looking-glass self

c. Ascribed status
8. Functionalist Émile Durkheim viewed society as:
Question options:

a. An even playing field composed of the educated and uneducated

b. Split between two classes categorized by education, kinship, and religion

c. The product of class struggle, requiring social revolutions to correct rampant class inequality

d. An organism in which each portion plays a vital role in keeping the organism stable and healthy

d. An organism in which each portion plays a vital role in keeping the organism stable and healthy
9. According to the article Islands of Meaning, the categories we use to make sense of the world are __________.
Question options:

a. reflective of objective reality

b. reflective of distinctions that naturally exist

c. reflective of socially constructed distinctions

c. reflective of socially constructed distinctions
10. Which of the following is NOT an example of organic solidarity?
Question options:

a. A Ford Motors employee assembling taillights on an assembly line

b. A freelance artist creating a sculpture of Ronald Regan

c. A fast-food employee putting burgers into their buns

d. A toll-booth employee collecting toll change

b. A freelance artist creating a sculpture of Ronald Regan
11. Alienation is defined by the text as:
Question options:

a. The condition in which the individual is isolated and divorced from his or her society, work, or sense of self.

b. Social forces considered real which exist outside the individual.

c. The act of defying social norms in favor of group unity

d. The strength of ties that people have to their social groups, was a key factor in social life

a. The condition in which the individual is isolated and divorced from his or her society, work, or sense of self.
12. Most Americans views eating snails as an unappetizing prospect but in France they are considered a delicacy. According to Islands of Meaning, the best explanation for this is that
Question options:

a. Americans have unsophisticated tastes in food and can’t appreciate the delicate flavor of the snails.

b. Because snails are viewed as belonging the category of food in France, the taste of the snails is perceived differently than in America where they are classified as inedible.

c. Because consumption of wine is much more prevalent in France the taste of the snails is perceived as much more pleasant.

d. French law requires that all school children try snails at least once during their childhood.

b. Because snails are viewed as belonging the category of food in France, the taste of the snails is perceived differently than in America where they are classified as inedible.
13. A judge and her gavel. A cop and his gun. A lawyer and her power suit. A ____ would be most concerned with the parts these objects play in impression management.
Question options:

a. Functionalist

b. Symbolic interactionist

c. Feminist

d. Conflict theorist

b. Symbolic interactionist
14. Durkheim defined ______ as the communal beliefs, morals, and attitudes of a society.
Question options:

a. The iron cage

b. Collective conscience

c. Bourgeoisie

d. Anomie

b. Collective conscience
15. As industrialization began to boom, Durkheim believed people were more susceptible to anomie because:
Question options:

a. Collective norms are weakened.

b. Society no longer has the support of the collective consciousness.

c. Specialization of labor lead to alienation.

d. All of the above

d. All of the above
16. Karl Marx asserted that the means of societal change existed in the tension between:
Question options:

a. The enslaved bourgeois reclaiming power from the controlling proletariat.

b. The bourgeois struggling for the allocation of resources amongst themselves.

c. The working class proletariat taking the means of production from the wealthy bourgeois.

d. The proletariat fighting each other for a position within the bourgeois.

c. The working class proletariat taking the means of production from the wealthy bourgeois.
17. The concept anomie can be defined as:
Question options:

a. A situation in which society no longer has the support of a firm collective consciousness.

b. How strongly a person is connected to his or her social group.

c. A person’s beliefs and ideology are in conflict with her best interests.

d. When one or more of an individual’s roles clash.

a. A situation in which society no longer has the support of a firm collective consciousness.
18. Which of the following is an example of role strain?
Question options:

a. Derek attends law school and becomes a lawyer, though he dreams of one day becoming the next John Grisham.

b. Becca returns to work after giving birth to her daughter, finding it difficult to act as mother, wife, and executive.

c. Alex takes a sabbatical from his job as a professor of Molecular Biology to raise his two young children.

d. Krista lands a role on Days of Our Lives and begins receiving fan mail from fans across the country.

b. Becca returns to work after giving birth to her daughter, finding it difficult to act as mother, wife, and executive.
19. Charles Cooley’s concept of the looking-glass self hypothesizes that:
Question options:

a. Self-esteem is directly correlated with body image.

b. The media encourages society to base their appearances on visible public figures.

c. People base their images on how they think other people see them.

d. Personal identity isn’t influenced by outside social forces.

c. People base their images on how they think other people see them.
20. The term institutionalization can be defined as:
Question options:

a. The idea that society is constructed by us and those before us, and it is followed like a habit.

b. The act of implanting a convention or norm into society.

c. A status a person chooses, such as a level of education or income.

d. Responsibilities and benefits that a person experiences according to their rank and role in society.

b. The act of implanting a convention or norm into society.
1. During her first day of kindergarten, Marie does not understand how the lunch line in the cafeteria works. She hesitates and watches as the older kids pick up their trays and silverware and then get in line. She follows their lead and successfully buys herself lunch. Marie’s experience in the lunchroom is an example of _____.
Question options:

a. Socialization

b. The looking glass self

c. Resocialization

d. Anticipatory socialization

a.
2. Erik Erikson’s theory explains:
Question options:

a. Why Rhesus Monkeys preferred terry cloth maternal stand-ins versus the maternal stand-ins that provided food.

b. How human sexual desire is linked to the development of a personality.

c. When human moral development begins in an individual.

d. How the actions of society help shape personalities throughout the eight basic stages of life.

d.
3. Some sociologists have pointed out that gender roles are often determined by how a society socializes young boys and girls. Which of the following is an example of socializing a child into a gender role?
Question options:

a. Taking Jimmy to the aquarium.

b. Buying Sarah a toy kitchen to play with.

c. Letting Kim wear pants to school.

d. Allowing Joey to sleep with his “blankey.”

b.
4. According to Kohlberg’s theory of moral development, when do humans begin to think about the feelings of other people and begin to see the world through other people’s eyes?
Question options:

a. When they are born.

b. When they first go to school.

c. In their teenage years.

d. After they graduate from college.

c.
5. George Herbert Mead’s specific path of development for individuals is as follows:
Question options:

a. Preparatory stage, play stage, game stage, generalized other stage

b. Game stage, play stage, generalized other stage, preparatory stage

c. Preparatory stage, game stage, play stage, generalized other stage

d. Generalized other stage, preparatory stage, play stage, game stage

a.
6. What type of child-rearing approach is characterized by multiple activities organized by adults, reasoning with children, and encouragement to interact assertively with authority figures? (Unequal Childhoods)
Question options:

a. concerted cultivation

b. accomplishment of natural growth

a
7. Émile Durkheim’s much lauded study of suicide is important to the field of sociology in many ways. One of the most influential impacts was:
Question options:

a. It defined the differences between sociology and psychology

b. It allowed psychology and sociology to merge into one field.

c. It showed the psychological reasons for suicide to be a lie.

d. It earned Émile Durkheim the title “Father of Sociology” so that other sociologists would have a role model.

a
8. It is parent-teacher conference day at Littleton Elementary School. Jimmy’s teacher is anxious to meet his parents and discuss his habit of disrupting the class. When the teacher expresses her concern that Jimmy is not being socialized properly, his dad insists that he was the same way at Jimmy’s age and that disrupting the class is natural for the children in his family. Jimmy’s teacher and father are arguing about which fundamental sociological theory?
Question options:

a. Kohlberg’s theory of Moral Development

b. George Herbert Mead’s theory of self-development

c. Nature vs. Nurture

d. Freud’s theory of self-development

c
9. Parents often socialize their children to:
Question options:

a. Understand and follow different norms from what they themselves follow

b. Understand and follow the same norms that they themselves follow

c. Ignore society and create their own norms and follow them regardless of consequences

d. Ignore society and live alone without much interaction with other people

b
10. Education is important to society because:
Question options:

a. It teaches children facts about the world in which they live.

b. It teaches children how to interact with their peers and helps them to gain social graces.

c. It teaches children how to react to authority and how to behave in group and one-on-one situations.

d. All of the above

d
11. The transition from college life to work life can be quite difficult for many young adults in the United States. Which is a possible cause for this struggle?
Question options:

a. The status quo has been maintained for a substantial period of time, and now the economy and government are undergoing significant changes.

b. Many young people are in the same situation, so drawing expertise or knowledge from their experiences from peers is difficult.

c. Finding a job, renting an apartment, and being independent is a daunting task that seems insurmountable.

d. All of the above

d
12. Sherry is in her mid-eighties and is moving to a nursing home. She is used to getting up at 5 o’clock each morning and making breakfast for herself. Her new roommate likes to sleep until 7 o’clock and breakfast is not served at the nursing home until 8 o’clock. What is Sherry most likely to experience through this transition?
Question options:

a. A shift in her desire to enjoy life.

b. A shift in her reading habits.

c. Resocialization.

d. A complete and permanent loss of herself.

c
13. Peer groups are important to adolescents because:
Question options:

a. They help to develop a sense of identity separate from adolescents’ parents.

b. They provide the second major socialization experience outside the realm of their families.

c. They rank higher in importance to adolescents’ than parental influence.

d. They help exert dependence among adolescents.

a
14. In an effort to control a total institution, and to create a community of sameness, inmates are forced to strip down, be searched by police officers, and given identical uniforms before entering prison. This is an example of _______.
Question options:

a. An entry test that must be passed

b. A degradation ceremony

c. A graduation ceremony

d. An exit test that must be passed

b
15. Sumaira is scared that she will not find a job in the current economy. She decides to be a business major and attend one of the top business schools in the country. Upon graduation, she is hired by a major investment banking firm in New York. Sumaira has completed:
Question options:

a. A degradation ceremony.

b. Developing her sense of self.

c. Anticipatory socialization.

d. Developing her sense of morality.

c
16. Mark, whose parents are wealthy, has been socialized to believe that he can be whoever he wants to be. His best friend Matt, whose parents are blue-collar workers, has been socialized to believe that hard work and following instructions is all he needs to support himself. Which sociological paradigm does this story fit?
Question options:

a. Structural Functionalism

b. Conflict

c. Symbolic Interactionism

d. Feminist Theory

b
17. Joseph and Paula are excited to welcome their child into the world. They cannot wait to pass on all their knowledge, insight, and rich culture. Just as their parents gave them guidance and showed them how to live, Joseph and Paula will continue the chain by handing down their societal values and thus, sustain the society they love so much. Which sociological paradigm does this story fit?
Question options:

a. Structural Functionalism

b. Conflict

c. Symbolic Interactionism

d. Feminist Theory

a
18. Baby Marla is always well dressed. She has ribbons, bows, and frills all over her dresses and even in her hair. Her mother, who is worried that people might mistake Marla for a little boy, is determined to communicate to the world that she has a baby girl. Which sociological paradigm does this story fit?
Question options:

a. Structural Functionalism

b. Conflict

c. Symbolic Interactionism

d. Exchange Theory

c
19. Ahmed has been trying to change his schedule so that he can take one more AP class his senior year in high school. He keeps running between the guidance office and the administration office to sort out the problem. Ahmed’s interaction with the school’s bureaucracy is an example of:
Question options:

a. The influences of a total institution

b. The generalized other

c. The influences of one’s peer groups

d. The hidden curriculum of schools

d
20. Whose study described the differences in the way that boys and girls view morality?
Question options:

a. Carol Gilligan

b. Erik Erikson

c. Sigmund Freud

d. Lawrence Kholberg

a
1. Sandy is standing in line for Kanye West tickets. The line wraps around the block, spilling into the streets and crowding store windows. Sandy is part of a(n):
Question options:

a. Dyad

b. Triad

c. In-group

d. Aggregate

d
2. What is the difference between a primary group and a secondary group?
Question options:

a. A primary group is small, consisting of emotional face-to-face relationships; a secondary group is larger and impersonal.

b. A primary group is small and impersonal; a secondary group is large and consists of face-to-face relationships.

c. A primary group is large and impersonal; a secondary group is small, consisting of emotional, face-to-face relationships.

d. A primary group is large and impersonal; a secondary group is small and purely instrumental in function.

a
3. Which of the following is an example of an in-group/out-group dynamic:
Question options:

a. Organizations across a college campus come together at a yearly fundraiser to raise money for the local Breast Cancer Awareness chapter.

b. Members of sorority Delta Delta Delta advise their pledges not to socialize with members of pledges of rival sorority Sigma Delta Theta.

c. Chorus members of the campus’s production of Hairspray practice in Theatre building’s first floor, while the cast of God of Carnage practices on the second floor.

d. The Chemistry Club advertises their organization at the local science fair.

b
4. When Michael starts high school, he joins the basketball team. He begins to look to his teammate friends for cues on how to behave at dances, in the hallways, and even in the classroom. Michael’s basketball team is serving as Michael’s _____.
Question options:

a. Out-group

b. Reference group

c. Aggregate

d. Secondary group

b
5. A total institution can be defined as:
Question options:

a. A business which offers career advice for federal employees.

b. A group in which the masses have a large influence in decision making.

c. A clear chain of command found in a bureaucracy.

d. An organization in which participants live a controlled lifestyle and in which total resocialization occurs.

d
6. Grace works in at an advertising agency. Grace’s coworkers help her complete presentations, contact clients, and assist her with research. Her coworkers are serving a(n):
Question options:

a. Expressive function

b. Intrinsic function

c. Elementary function

d. Instrumental function

d
7. An instrumental leader:
Question options:

a. Promotes emotional strength and health, ensuring that people feel supported.

b. Refers to the main focus or goal of the leader.

c. Is goal-oriented and largely concerned with accomplishing set tasks.

d. Rejects gender roles in the name of the feminist movement.

c
8. Christine is president of her Improvisation Comedy Troupe. When making decisions about booking gigs, rehearsal spaces, and call-times, Christine leaves the troupe to decide for themselves. Christine is a(n) _____ leader.
Question options:

a. Authoritarian

b. Democratic

c. Laissez-faire

d. Republican

c
9. Solomon Asch concluded that one reason people conform to a group is because they believe:
Question options:

a. They are too weak to decide for themselves.

b. The group is better informed than they are.

c. Dissent is a form of weakness.

d. Large groups never make mistakes.

b
10. The United States Government is a form of:
Question options:

a. A bureaucracy

b. A coercive organization

c. A total institution

d. A normative organization

a
11. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a bureaucracy:
Question options:

a. Clear division of labor

b. Impersonality

c. Explicit rules

d. Personality-based promotion

d
12. The McDonalidization of Society refers to:
Question options:

a. The increasing presence of the fast-food business model in common social institutions.

b. The obesity epidemic that’s rapidly sweeping the United States.

c. The country’s increasing dependence on fast food as a daily meal.

d. The increasing popularity of McDonalds as a hang-out for youths.

a
13. Kellan wants to shop at Express for the new school year, but because all of his friends shop at Pacific Sun, Kellan does as well. Kellan’s behavior is an example of:
Question options:

a. Consumer-oriented discretion

b. Laissez-faire leadership

c. Conformity

d. Out-group dynamics

c
14. The concept “reference groups” can be defined as:
Question options:

a. Groups which consist of people for whom an individual feels great disdain.

b. Groups a person belongs to and feels are an integral part of his or her identity.

c. People who share similar characteristics but who are not connected in any way.

d. Groups to which an individual compares himself or herself.

d
15. A famous socialite is court-ordered to enter a rehabilitation center to eliminate her drug addiction. The socialite is about to become a member of a:
Question options:

a. Voluntary organization

b. Paparazzi organization

c. Utilitarian organization

d. Coercive organization

d
16. Justin enrolls in a local community college so he can one day become an engineer. Justin is about to become a member of a:
Question options:

a. Voluntary organization

b. Paparazzi organization

c. Utilitarian organization

d. Coercive organization

c
17. Which of the features of McDonaldization is being described in the following scenario? “The results of searches on online dating sites are based on predefined algorithms and formulas that the site uses. Some sites provide daily suggestions of potential partners and these are sent without the user being asked. Most sites also automatically strip out real email addresses from any communications between users which forces people to use the dating website to communicate.”
Question options:

a. Efficiency

b. Calculability

c. Predictability

d. Control

e. Irrationality of rationality

d
18. Which of the features of McDonaldization is being described in the following scenario? “While the most popular dating websites have hundreds of thousands of profiles and advertise themselves as a place to find your unique, one in a million perfect life partner, in reality the vast majority of profiles are more similar to each other than different. And while most sites promise to make the experience easy, fun, and convenient, for many people it is onerous, unproductive, and disappointing.”
Question options:

a. Efficiency

b. Calculability

c. Predictability

d. Control

e. Irrationality of rationality

e
19. In the 2010 film, The Social Network, Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg was portrayed as a leader who was goal-oriented, issuing orders and assigning tasks. Which of the following leadership styles did Zuckerberg likely use?
Question options:

a. Authoritarian

b. Democratic

c. Laissez-faire

d. Oligarchy

a
20. The term meritocracy is defined by the text as:
Question options:

a. A status-based regime in which advancement is unlikely.

b. The removal of personal feelings from a professional situation.

c. The authoritarian devalue of an employee.

d. A bureaucracy where membership and advancement is based on proven and documented skills.

d
1. Ally’s father was sent to prison when she was 12 for the trafficking of narcotics; her brother was arrested when she was 13 for possession of methamphetamines. By the age of 18, Ally has been arrested three times for possession of marijuana. Which theory best describes Ally’s experience?
Question options:

a. Differential association theory

b. Strain theory

c. Labeling theory

d. Opaque theory

a
2. The term deviance can be defined as:
Question options:

a. The act of notifying authorities when criminal acts are occurring.

b. A violation of established contextual, cultural, or social norms, whether folkways, mores, or codified law.

c. Social reward for the violation of norms.

d. The regulation and enforcement of norms.

b
3. What is the difference between a violent crime and a hate crime?
Question options:

a. A violent crime is based on a person’s race, religion, or other characteristics.

b. A violent crime is punishable in a court of law; a hate crime is not.

c. A hate crime is punishable in a court of law; a violent crime is not.

d. A hate crime is based on a person’s race, religion, or other characteristics.

d
4. Jake receives a promotion at his law firm after winning an important case. This is an example of a:
Question options:

a. Positive informal sanction

b. Negative informal sanction

c. Positive formal sanction

d. Negative formal sanction

c
5. Which theorist studied the power elite, and the influence they had over society?
Question options:

a. Karl Marx

b. Carl Sagan

c. Émile Durkheim

d. C. Wright Mills

d
6. The term crime can be defined as:
Question options:

a. A behavior that violates official law and is punishable through formal sanctions.

b. A harmful action directed at the authorities.

c. A sequence of events leading to incarceration.

d. An unintended consequence of necessary action.

a
7. Functionalist Émile Durkheim believed some deviance within society was:
Question options:

a. Necessary; it challenged people’s views.

b. Dangerous; it encouraged disruptive behavior.

c. Insignificant; deviance within society is largely ignored.

d. Instrumental; it encouraged the population to rebel.

a
8. Which of the following is not a branch of the U.S. Criminal Justice System?
Question options:

a. The police

b. The jury

c. The courts

d. The corrections system

b
9. The term secondary deviance can be defined as:
Question options:

a. When positive formal sanctions cause an individual to deviate from society’s expectations.

b. When a violation of norms does not result in any long-term effects on the individual’s self-image or interactions with others.

c. When negative informal sanctions encourage an individual to seek more positive behavioral choices.

d. When a person’s self-concept and behavior begin to change after his or her actions are labeled as deviant by members of society.

d
10. Which of the following is an example of a negative informal sanction?
Question options:

a. Mario being sent to jail after robbing a CVS.

b. Beatrix being booed off stage after telling an offensive joke during her comedy routine.

c. Eleanor being given a “Teacher of the Year” award for her work as a high school English teacher.

d. Meredith receiving compliments on her hair after visiting the salon.

b
11. Social control is:
Question options:

a. An arrangement of practices and behaviors on which society’s members base their daily lives.

b. A system that has the authority to make decisions based on law.

c. A label that describes the chief characteristic of an individual.

d. The regulation and enforcement of norms

d
12. Strain theory:
Question options:

a. Argues that morality is based on wealth.

b. Asserts that motivation and personal responsibility are the key factors in living a healthy lifestyle.

c. Addresses the relationship between having socially acceptable goals and having socially acceptable means to reach those goals.

d. States individuals learn deviant behavior from those close to them who provide models of and opportunities for deviance.

c
13. In first grade, Scott is unfairly singled out by his teacher for bad behavior, partly because his older brothers had behavioral problems themselves. Throughout grade school, Scott gains a reputation as a “problem” child. Scott eventually drops out of school, thinking he was born to fail anyway. Which school of thought best fits Scott’s experience?
Question options:

a. Strain theory

b. Control theory

c. Differential association

d. Labeling theory

d
14. Bernie Madoff, recently sentenced to 150 years in prison for creating a Ponzi scheme which caused clients to lose millions of dollars, engaged in which form of crime?
Question options:

a. Street crime

b. Corporate crime

c. Violent crime

d. Institutional crime

b
15. True or False: Deviance is always considered a crime?
Question options:

a. True

b False

b
16. Which technique of neutralization is being described in the following scenario? (Situational Ethics and College Student Cheating)

Question options:

Brad was unable to get the books for his English class before the first quiz because Amazon.com was late in delivering them, even though he ordered the books a week before classes started. He tried to get copies of the books from the library but they were already checked out, and none of his classmates would loan him a copy. Because he was unable to do the assigned readings before the quiz, he felt he had no choice but to look at a classmates answers to make sure that he passed the first quiz.

a. Denial of Responsibility

b. Appeal to Higher Loyalties

c. Condemnation of the Condemners

d. Denial of Injury

e. Denial of the Victim

a
17. Which technique of neutralization is being described in the following scenario? (Situational Ethics and College Student Cheating)

Question options:

Bob works in technical support at a computer store. As part of his job, he installs software on computers for clients. His boyfriend Adam is in graduate school and struggles to makes ends meet. When he gets a new computer over the holidays, he asks Bob to install a copy of Microsoft Office on the new computer to save some money. Bob agrees and brings a bootleg copy home and gives it Adam.

a. Denial of Responsibility

b. Appeal to Higher Loyalties

c. Condemnation of the Condemners

d. Denial of Injury

e. Denial of the Victim

b
18. Which technique of neutralization is being described in the following scenario? (Situational Ethics and College Student Cheating)

Question options:

Sharon’s manager at work frequently asks her to stay late to finish projects but is very inflexible about letting her take vacation time. Her manager is frequently rude to her and sets unreasonable deadlines for finishing projects. Because of this, Sharon doesn’t feel guilty at all about making personal photocopies at work and doing her home banking and email on her work computer.

a. Denial of Responsibility

b. Appeal to Higher Loyalties

c. Condemnation of the Condemners

d. Denial of Injury

e. Denial of the Victim

c
19. Which technique of neutralization is being described in the following scenario? (Situational Ethics and College Student Cheating)

Question options:

AJ sells pot as a small side business to his main job of bartending. When asked if he feels guilty about breaking the law, he responds “Not even a little, it’s not like helping people get a little high and relax does anyone any harm! Pot should totally be legalized, it’s silly to have it be illegal when alcohol is so much more dangerous and is perfectly legal.”

a. Denial of Responsibility

b. Appeal to Higher Loyalties

c. Condemnation of the Condemners

d. Denial of Injury

e. Denial of the Victim

d
20. Which technique of neutralization is being described in the following scenario? (Situational Ethics and College Student Cheating)

Question options:

Jim has been accused of sexually assaulting another student after a night of drinking at a local bar. At his hearing, he’s asked by the Conduct Board why he thought the sex had been consensual. He replied that he his accuser had slept together in the past, she had been flirting with him all night, and when she got too drunk to drive home she had asked him for a ride. So when she tried to send him home he had no reason to think he should take her seriously.

a. Denial of Responsibility

b. Appeal to Higher Loyalties

c. Condemnation of the Condemners

d. Denial of Injury

e. Denial of the Victim

e
1. Elisa graduated from college with a double major and was inducted into the Phi Beta Kappa society. She was then offered a job in New York where she worked 12 hours a day and produced excellent results. Within two years she had over 100 employees working under her. Elisa’s hard work was rewarded with a raise and a bonus. This form of promotion is based on the principles of:
Question options:

a. A meritocracy

b. A democracy

c. A caste system

d. A closed stratification system

a
2. Chris spent his days combing through garbage in New York City with his brothers and sisters. Sometimes he would find food, or something to sell for money. He never tried to overcome his lower-class status because he had seen his friends try and fail. So, he accepted his fate, and tried to live life as best he could in a closed society. Chris is an example of someone living under:
Question options:

a. A meritocracy

b. A dictatorship

c. A caste system

d. An oligarchy

c
3. It was time for Oli to marry. He had finished school and was starting a job. He chose a bride whose parents had the same amount of wealth and belonged to the same class as he did. Oli and his bride will have a(n) _________ marriage.
Question options:

a. Exogamus

b. Endogamous

c. Traditional

d. Unconventional

b
4. Cate is the daughter of a Senator and the former CEO of a Fortune 500 company. Harry grew up on a farm, tilling the land for a living. They are planning a June wedding. They will have a(n)___________ marriage.
Question options:

a. Exogamous

b. Traditional

c. Endogamus

d. Unconventional

a
5. Which factor is considered when evaluating someone’s standard of living?
Question options:

a. Income

b. Employment

c. Class

d. All of the above

d
6. In the article The Uses of Poverty, Herbert Gans argues that it is unlikely poverty will ever go away because_____.
Question options:

a. poverty is inherent to all societies.

b. there is no way to replace the functions that the poor serve.

c. the poor are unwilling to do the work required to get themselves out of poeverty.

d. replacing the functions of the poor would be at the expensive of the wealthy.

d
7. Charlotte was born to a lower class family in rural Pennsylvania. After taking a job in the mail room of a large corporate office, Charlotte is slowly promoted through the ranks and becomes CEO of the company by the age of 50. What type of stratification is shown in this story?
Question options:

a. Structural mobility

b. Intergenerational mobility

c. Intragenerational mobility

d. Downward mobility

c
8. What is particularly unique about the United States middle class?
Question options:

a. It is the smallest class in the United States.

b. It is broken into two subcategories: upper and lower middle class.

c. The people who are middle class often have little to no education.

d. The upper class are as likely to become members of the lower class as members of the lower class are likely to become members of the upper class.

b
9. Which historical event was greatly responsible for global stratification as we see it today?
Question options:

a. World War I

b. The Fall of the British Empire

c. The French Revolution

d. The Industrial Revolution

d
10. What is the most significant threat to the relatively high standard of living people are accustomed to in the United States?
Question options:

a. The decline of the middle class

b. The feminization of poverty

c. The growth of the upper class

d. The stagnation of wages for workers

a
11. GNI PPP, or gross national income divided by purchasing power parity, helps measure:
Question options:

a. The standard of living in a country.

b. The average level of education per person in a country.

c. The amount of inflation affecting a country’s currency.

d. The average global interest rates for loans.

a
12. In 2008 the United States, as well as the rest of the world, felt the effects of the recession. After the collapse of the housing market, people lost their jobs and they quit spending money. Many people could not afford their mortgages anymore and their homes went into foreclosure. For many people, it was a time of __________.
Question options:

a. Social stratification

b. Social inconsistency

c. Horizontal mobility

d. Downward mobility

d
13. Since the social classes in the United States do not have any clear boundaries, how is a sociologist supposed to determine whether their subjects are in the upper class or the upper-middle class?
Question options:

a. Upper class is often defined as having control over one’s life and the lives of people around you, while the upper-middle class is often defined as having control only over one’s own life.

b. The upper class is split into “old money” and “new money” people, while the upper-middle class simply struggles to maintain its wealth.

c. All upper class people enjoy opera and have been bred for their stations while the upper-middle class consists mostly of newly wealthy people who may not have had the same kind of upbringing.

d. In the upper class, everyone knows everyone, but in the upper-middle class, the people do not comingle.

a
14. What seems to be the key (although not the rule) to upward social mobility?
Question options:

a. How well off your parents are.

b. How much education you have.

c. How many jobs you work.

d. How much you spend on your personal appearance.

b
15. A person’s position in a country’s social stratification is determined by:
Question options:

a. Wealth, power, income, race, education

b. GNI PPP, GDP, GNI, the PRB, and standards of living

c. Clothes, accessories, hobbies, shoes, and number of credit cards

d. Prestige, family, legal records, occupation, and favorite food

a
16. The Davis-Moore Thesis states:
Question options:

a. That economic hardship and skyrocketing inflation is the cause for all social stratification in the United States.

b. That Karl Marx was correct and that stratification can only be solved by converting to a socialist government.

c. That the more society values a particular profession, the more the people in that profession will make.

d. That people constantly move up and down the social ladder, and this creates an unstable economy which will eventually collapse on itself.

c
17. Whose work do conflict theorists rely on to help form their arguments surrounding social stratification?
Question options:

a. Auguste Comte

b. Émile Durkheim

c. René Decartes

d. Karl Marx

d
18. Hope is desperate for the new designer purse that she saw while window shopping at her local mall. She knew every girl in school would covet her bag and wish to be like her. When she walked in, she whipped out her credit card, and purchased the $5,000 bag. This kind of purchasing is called:
Question options:

a. Conspicuous consumption

b. Popular consumerism

c. Designer consumerism

d. Credit card consumerism

a
19. Symbolic interactionists have come to the conclusion that:
Question options:

a. Most people do not care about social rank and standing.

b. Only lower class people drink beer.

c. Only upper class people can enjoy a good game of polo.

d. Most people only socialize with people in their same social class.

d
20. One main issue in studying global social inequality is:
Question options:

a. Most countries keep their economic situations secret.

b. Social inequality is relative and therefore, difficult to compare across cultures.

c. The presence of tourism can make a country look richer than it really is.

d. Most people live beyond their means which gives a false sense of wealth to a society.

b
1. Which of the following does NOT account for the differences in the educational system from country to country?
Question options:

a. Financial resources from the government and population

b. Geographic distribution of male and female students

c. Value placed on education

d. Amount of time devoted to education

b
2. The term formal education is defined by the text as:
Question options:

a. Learning about cultural values, norms, and expected behaviors through participation in a society.

b. The education one receives at a private school, parochial school, or private college.

c. An education that is accompanied by a tutor at all times.

d. The learning of academic facts and concepts.

d
3. Jackson lives in rural Chile, and is the son of a poor farmer. The nearest school is 50 miles away, and he has no means to get there. What does the educational system in Jackson’s country lack?
Question options:

a. Formal education

b. Informal education

c. Universal access

d. Latent functions

c
4. Which court case set the precedent for access to education within the United States for students with disabilities?
Question options:

a. Mills v. Board of Education of the District of Columbia

b. Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission

c. Plessy v. Ferguson

d. Brown v. the Board of Education

a
5. Which of the following is NOT a latent function of education?
Question options:

a. Political and social integration

b. Courtship

c. Working in groups

d. Transmission of culture

d
6. Which of the following is NOT a manifest function of education?
Question options:

a. Socialization

b. Social control

c. Social placement

d. Social networks

d
7. Malik grew up in an affluent household which embraced activities such as attending the opera, visiting museums, and traveling to foreign countries at least once a year. When Malik goes to college, he finds he has much to talk about with professors, and fellow students from similar backgrounds. Malik is enjoying the benefits of:
Question options:

a. Grade inflation

b. Cultural capital

c. Tracking

d. The education gap

b
8. The concept hidden curriculum can be defined as:
Question options:

a. A type of nonacademic knowledge that one learns through informal learning and cultural transmission.

b. The course objectives teachers incorporate into their syllabi after the semester has started.

c. The emphasis on certificates or degrees to show that a person has a certain skill, has attained a certain level of education, or has met certain job qualifications.

d. The unexpected subjects students take an interest in after being exposed to experts in the field.

a
9. Which of the following is NOT a method used within the United States to produce educational equality?
Question options:

a. Charter schools

b. Mandatory tutoring

c. Bussing

d. Head Start

b
10. Which of the following sociological perspectives argues that the educational system reinforces and perpetuates social inequalities arising from differences in class, gender, race and ethnicity?
Question options:

a. Symbolic interactionism

b. Conflict theory

c. Functionalism

d. None of the above.

b
11. Kara has behavioral problems as a young child. As she goes through school, she is labeled “troubled,” and told she will never amount to anything. Kara, though intelligent, decides to “live down” to this expectation. Which sociological perspective would be most interested in studying Kara’s experience?
Question options:

a. Symbolic interactionism

b. Conflict theory

c. Functionalism

d. Feminist theory

a
12. The term sorting can be defined as:
Question options:

a. A formalized system that places students on “tracks” (advanced, low achievers) that perpetuate inequalities.

b. The process by which students are allowed to choose their own classes based on interest.

c. Classifying students based on academic merit or potential.

d. The use of education to improve one’s social standing.

c
13. Which sociologist studied how cultural capital helps an individual navigate their culture?
Question options:

a. Max Weber

b. Karl Marx

c. Émile Durkheim

d. Pierre Bourdieu

d
14. Which court case decided that state laws that had established separate schools for black and white students were unequal and unconstitutional?
Question options:

a. Plessy v. Furguson

b. Brown v. the Board of Education

c. Mills v. Board of Education of the District of Columbia

d. Roe v. Wade

b
15. Which court case decision allowed racial segregation in schools and private businesses?
Question options:

a. Plessy v. Furguson

b. Brown v. the Board of Education

c. Mills v. Board of Education of the District of Columbia

d. Roe v. Wade

a
WRONG — 16. In the article Preparing for Power” the author argues that these high schools provide students with an experience that _________.”
Question options:

a. is very similar to college, and so prepares them especially well for it.

b. puts them at a significant social disadvantage in college because they have only spent time with other elites

c. emphasizes topics that are of little benefit to students later in life, such as fine arts and Latin.

d. is of very little practical use for anyone going into a career other than math or science.

not d, think it’s a
17. What is the Head Start Program?
Question options:

a. A teaching method which equips students to regurgitate facts in order to do well on standardized tests.

b. A federal program that provides academically focused preschool to students of low socioeconomic status.

c. A state mandate that determines the eligibility of students who expect to attend college.

d. A curriculum which requires states to test students in prescribed grades, with the results of those tests determining eligibility to receive federal funding.

b
18. To make students more competitive in the work force and for graduate school, college professors are beginning to lower the standard for student grades (i.e. what was once considered a B, is now considered an A). This is known as:
Question options:

a. GPA debt

b. Systematic grading

c. Academic bribing

d. Grade inflation

d
19. When Ahmed is in 5th grade, he does poorly in math and science. His teachers recommend him for lower-level classes throughout middle school in all subjects, and he’s not given the chance to excel elsewhere. This process is known as:
Question options:

a. Tracking

b. Grade inflation

c. Feminism

d. Manifest function

a
20. What factors contribute to inequality within the educational system in the United States?
Question options:

a. Racism

b. Socioeconomic status

c. All of the above

d. None of the above

c