Reliability (dependable and accurate performance)
Responsiveness (promptness and helpfulness)
Assurance (credibility, security, competence, and courtesy)
Empathy (easy access, good communications, and customer understanding)
GAP 2: Policy Gap
GAP 3: Delivery Gap
GAP 4: Communications Gap
GAP 5: Perceptions Gap
GAP 6: Service Gap
internal- difference btw what the companys advertising and sales personnel think are the products features, performance, and service quality level and what the company is actually able to deliver.
external- caused by advertising and sales personnel being assessed by the sales they generate.
Policy Gap- Establish the right service processes and specify standards
Delivery Gap- Ensure that performance meets standards that are based on customer needs and expectation
Communications Gap- Close the internal and external communications gap by ensuring that communications promises are realistic and correctly understood by customers
Perception Gap- Tangibilize and communicate the service quality delivered
Service Gap- Close gaps 1-5 to consistently meet customer expectations
“provide direction, guidance, and feedback to employees on ways to achieve customer satisfaction and can be quantified by measuring customer perceptions and beliefs.
Learning about how well a firm performed in comparison to its main competitors, in comparison to the previous year, and where the firm wants to he the following year.
2) Customer-Driven Learning and Improvements.
more specific or detailed info on processes and products is required to guide a firms service improvement effort.
3) Creating a Customer-Oriented Service Culture.
concerned with focusing the org on customer needs ans customer satifaction, and moving the entire org. toward a service wuality culture
2) Service Feedback Cards
4) Mystery Shopping
5) Unsolicited Customer Feedback
6) Focus Group Discussions and Service Reviews
level of measurement is high, overall service satisfaction forthe entire firms.
tell us how satisfied customers are, but not why they are happy or unhappy.
conducted after customers have completed a specific transaction.
can tell why customers are happy or unhappy with the process, and usually shows how customee satisfaction can be improved.
2) Evaluations of individual service employees, service delivery teams, branches, and/or processes, especially when incentive schemes are linked to such measures
overrepresented are delighted and very disasatisfied responedants.
this affects reliability and representativeness.
It gives in-depth insights for coaching, training, and performance evaluation.
Service Reviews are in-depth, one-on-one interviews that are usually conducted once a year with a firm’s most valuable customers
2) a quarterly SERVICE PERFORMANCE REVIEW provides process owners and branch or department managers with trends in process performance and service quality.
3) an annual SERVICE PERFORMANCE REPORT gives top mgmt a representative assessment of the status and long-term trends relating to customer satisfaction with the firms services.
manpower (Front-Stage and Backstage Personnel)
reveals that around 80% of the value of one variable is caused by only 20% of the causal variables.
Reducing waste of materials and labor
Training employees to work more productively
Providing employees with equipment and databases that enable them to work faster and/or to a higher level of quality
Broadening the variety of tasks that a service worker can perform
Installing expert systems that allow paraprofessionals to take on work previously performed by more experienced individuals earning higher salaries.
Encourage use of lower cost service delivery channels and self-service.
Ask customers to use third parties.
How Backstage Changes May Impact Customers
A Caution on Cost-Reduction Strategies